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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2007

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial: Special Issue on Control Applications in Automotive Engineering

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 403 - 405
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  • Gain Scheduled H_{\infty } Control for Air Path Systems of Diesel Engines Using LPV Techniques

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 406 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the modeling and control of the air path system of diesel engines. The underlying issues are critical for the control of the transient exhaust gas fraction pumped into the cylinders, which is known to be a dominant factor to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions. In this paper, we propose a new approach, based on a data-based grey-box linear parameter varying (LPV) model as well as on the gain scheduled Hinfin technique for the controller design. The modeling step is shown to lead naturally to a so-called quasi-LPV structure, which also delivers the scheduling variables to be accounted for. Using this information, gain scheduled Hinfin techniques allow to design a controller which enforces a much better tracking performance than the standard production electronic control unit, while not requiring any calibration work. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Closed-Loop Ignition Timing Control for SI Engines Using Ionization Current Feedback

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 416 - 427
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    Minimal advance for best torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion (IC) spark ignition (SI) engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for the best torque or, in other words, for the best fuel economy. But MBT timing is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction and spark timing is also constrained by partial burn and misfire in the retard direction. It is preferred to operate IC engines at MBT timing when it is not knock limited and at borderline knock limit when it is knock limited. During cold start conditions it is desired to operate IC engines at its maximum retard limit subject to combustion stability constraints to reduce catalyst light-off time. Traditionally, both MBT timing and retard spark limit are open-loop feedforward controls whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed and load points, and at different environmental conditions. The borderline knock limit is controlled by a dual-rate count-up/count-down closed-loop control utilizing information from engine knock sensor signals. A closed-loop control architecture for spark timing is proposed in this paper. Using in-cylinder ionization signals both borderline knock and retard spark limits are regulated using closed-loop stochastic limit controls. MBT timing is also controlled closed-loop using an MBT criterion derived from in-cylinder ionization signals. The proposed control strategy and architecture was experimentally validated on a 3.0-L V6 engine for steady state and slow transient conditions View full abstract»

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  • Output Feedback H_{\infty } Preview Control of an Electromechanical Valve Actuator

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 428 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, solenoid actuators drive the valves that control airflow into the cylinders, allowing elimination of the camshaft and flexible control of the valve timing. Individual control of the valves provides flexibility in valve timing over all engine operating conditions and fully enables the benefits of variable valve timing. This paper describes a closed-loop preview control of an electro-mechanical valve actuator that achieves quiet, robust, and reliable operation in the presence of significant delays in an electromagnetic system associated with eddy current losses. In this case, the desired trajectory of the armature position is known a priori. It is well known that preview control can greatly enhance disturbance rejection and tracking performance, when future information about the desired output is available. A detailed model is developed for the mechanical actuator system, the power electronics, and electromagnetic system. Illustrative experimental results are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Observer-Based Control of Load Transitions in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 438 - 448
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model-based nonlinear feedback controller designed to regulate the crank angle at 50% fuel burned (thetasCA50) for a gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition engine model during load transitions. The regulation of the combustion timing is based on manipulating the charge temperature through internal dilution, which is achieved by controlling the lift of a secondary opening of the exhaust valve, also known as the rebreathing lift. The nonlinear feedback controller developed is based on a positive semidefinite Lyapunov function using a simplified control model which contains only the cycle-to-cycle temperature dynamics. The nonlinear feedback controller depends on measurement of the combustion timing thetasCA50 and estimation of the temperature at intake valve closing. Closed-loop simulation of the full-order engine model shows that the nonlinear feedback controller, along with a nonlinear observer, is able to regulate the combustion timing thetasCA50 by stabilizing the temperature dynamics during load transitions. The closed-loop system with the observer-based feedback controller is shown to be robust to some classes of model uncertainty and measurement noise through simulation and an estimate of the region of attraction View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Control of a Diesel Engine Air Path

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 449 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief addresses the model-based control of the air path of diesel engines in terms of an optimal control problem with input constraints which can be solved using model predictive algorithms. A multilinear model identified from data and a switched controller design are used to cope with the nonlinearity of the engine. Experimental results on a production engine confirm that the proposed control method strongly improves the dynamics of the air path and enormously reduces the parameterization work if compared with the conventional approach. To obtain improvements in emissions as well, the new controller approach cannot simply be plugged in at the site of the conventional one, but new set points must be determined. After such a redesign, improvements of 50% in terms of nitrogen oxides and of 10% in terms of particulate matter have been recorded without a net consumption increase, the main price being the increased activity of the turbocharger vane and especially of the exhaust gas recirculation valve View full abstract»

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  • Optimized Control of a Pressure-Wave Supercharger: A Model-Based Feedforward Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 457 - 464
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (971 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engine downsizing and boosting is known to substantially improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Compared to traditional boosting devices, pressure-wave superchargers (PWS) have several advantages. In particular, the substantial delays in the torque dynamics caused by conventional turbochargers can be avoided by a careful tuning of the pressure-wave processes taking place inside the PWS. These processes can be tuned to match the changing thermodynamic boundary conditions of the engine system by changing the rotational speed, by opening or closing a bypass channel, and by adjusting the offset between the two rotor casings. The optimal choice of these control actions is not trivial such that a purely experimental approach is not possible. Accordingly, two models are developed that are able to predict the pressure wave dynamics. They are validated using data measured on an engine test bench. The second model which is based on a lumped-parameter approach, forms the basis for a feedforward controller. The synthesis of such a controller and its validation on the same engine test bench is described as well View full abstract»

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  • Performance Limitations of Air Flow Control in Power-Autonomous Fuel Cell Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 465 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We quantify here the performance limitations of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with a compressor-driven air supply under transient loading conditions. We first model and analyze the dynamics of the fuel cell system equipped with a compressor, which for power autonomy must be powered by the fuel cell itself. Experimental data are used to qualitatively verify the fuel cell system model. Several control architectures for regulating oxygen into the fuel cell stack are proposed to demonstrate the limitations both analytically and through simulations View full abstract»

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  • Control of Integrated Powertrain With Electronic Throttle and Automatic Transmission

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 474 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A process to design the control strategy for a vehicle with electronic throttle control (ETC) and automatic transmission is proposed in this paper. The driver's accelerator pedal position is interpreted as a power request, which is to be satisfied by coordinating the transmission gear shift and the throttle opening in an optimal fashion. The dynamic programming (DP) technique is used to obtain the optimal gear shift and throttle opening which maximizes fuel economy while satisfying the power demand. The optimal results at different power levels are then combined to form a gear map and a throttle map which governs the operation of the integrated powertrain. A control architecture concept is presented where the relationship between the accelerator pedal position and the power demand level can be adjusted according to the preference of the vehicle performance target. Simulation, vehicle test, and dynamometer test results show that the proposed integrated powertrain control scheme produces power consistently and improves fuel efficiency compared with conventional powertrain control schemes View full abstract»

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  • Backlash Estimation With Application to Automotive Powertrains

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 483 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In automotive powertrains, backlash imposes well-known limitations on the quality of control and, hence, on vehicle driveability. High-performance controllers for backlash compensation require high-quality measurements of the current state of the powertrain. Information about the size of the backlash is also needed. In this paper, nonlinear estimators for backlash size and state are developed, using the Kalman filtering theory. A linear estimator for fast and accurate estimation of the angular position of a wheel and the engine is also described. It utilizes standard engine speed sensors and the antilock brake system speed sensors and event-based sampling at each pulse from these sensors. The estimators are validated through experiments on a real vehicle and the results show that the estimates are of high quality, and hence, useful for improving backlash compensation functions in the powertrain control system View full abstract»

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  • Energy Management for the Electric Powernet in Vehicles With a Conventional Drivetrain

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 494 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (973 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly. Energy management (EM) turns out to be a viable solution for supplying all electric loads efficiently. The EM strategies developed in this paper focus on vehicles with a conventional drivetrain. By exploiting the storage capacity of the battery, the production, and distribution of electric power is rescheduled to more economic moments. In addition, this paper explores the advantages of electric loads with a flexible power demand. Based on optimization techniques, an optimal offline strategy as well as a causal online strategy are presented. Simulations illustrate the benefits of the EM strategies in terms of fuel economy. The online strategy has also been implemented in a series-production vehicle. Real-world experiments on a roller dynamometer test-bench validate the strategy, but also reveal additional fuel benefits due to unexpected side-effects from the engine control unit and the driver. Measured profits in fuel economy are as large as 2.6%, with only minimal changes to the vehicle hardware View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 506 - 518
    Cited by:  Papers (82)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1905 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. The parallel HEV control problem involves the determination of the time profiles of the power flows from the engine and the electric motor. This is also referred to as the power split between the conventional and the electric sources. The objective of HEV control is in fact to find out the sequence of optimal power splits at each instant of time that minimizes the fuel consumption over a given driving schedule. Big obstacles to the control design are the model complexity and the necessity of "a priori" knowledge of torque and velocity profiles. This paper presents three different energy management approaches for the control of a parallel hybrid electric sport-utility-vehicle that do not require a priori knowledge of the driving cycle. The considered approaches are: a rule-based control, an adaptive equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS), and the Hinfin control. Results, compared with the optimal solution given by the dynamic programming, show that the A-ECMS strategy is the best performing strategy View full abstract»

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  • Robust Model-Based Fault Detection for a Roll Stability Control System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 519 - 528
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault management is critical for a vehicle active safety system. Since a sensor fault may not always be detectable by a sensor self-test or an electronic monitoring system whose detection often relies on out-of-range signals, a redundancy check is warranted for the detection of an in-range signal fault. In this paper, an in-vehicle roll rate sensor failure detection scheme utilizing analytical redundancy is presented. The vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a steering wheel angle sensor, a yaw rate sensor, a lateral accelerometer, and wheel speed sensors in addition to the roll rate sensor. Due to the wide variation of vehicle dynamics under a vast operating range, such as various and dynamically changing road super-elevations and road grades, the detection of a roll rate signal fault using analytical redundancy is particularly challenging. These challenges, as well as the robustness and performance of the proposed scheme are discussed. The robust performance of the proposed scheme, over model uncertainties and road disturbances, is illustrated analytically and validated through experimental test data. The analytical illustrations include three elements: a robust estimation of the vehicle roll angle, a dynamic compensation of both electrical and kinematics-induced biases in the roll rate signal, and a directionally sensitive design of a robust observer which decouples the model uncertainties and disturbances from the fault. The experimental verifications of no false positive and/or no false negative were taken with a variety of maneuvers and road conditions on several vehicle test platforms View full abstract»

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  • Generating Diagnostic Residuals for Steer-by-Wire Vehicles

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 529 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Steer-by-wire remains unavailable on production vehicles today, despite the numerous benefits it will provide, due to the expense of high-reliability designs. Model-based fault detection techniques can eliminate the need for redundant sensors in steer-by-wire vehicles, lowering costs without compromising reliability. This paper presents the modeling and fault detection filter design techniques used to construct a set of diagnostic residuals suitable for detecting and isolating a wide variety of steering system faults, based only on measurements from sensors already present in a steer-by-wire system. These diagnostic residuals are sensitive enough to detect faults at a magnitude well below where they would impact the driver's ability to control the vehicle. Experimental results from a full-scale research steer-by-wire vehicle demonstrate this sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • Continuous Curvature Trajectory Design and Feedforward Control for Parking a Car

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 541 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a two-step trajectory planning algorithm from robotics literature is applied to generate suitable trajectories for an autonomous parking maneuver of a car. First, a collision-free curve between a given start and a desired goal configuration within the parking space is planned ignoring the kinematic restrictions on the movement of the car. Second, the collision-free curve is converted into a feasible collision-free trajectory, which can be exactly followed by the car. It is shown how this general planning scheme must be adapted to meet the requirements of the automotive industry View full abstract»

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  • Flatness-Based Vehicle Steering Control Strategy With SDRE Feedback Gains Tuned Via a Sensitivity Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 554 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a feedback steering control strategy for a vehicle in an automatic driving context. Two main contributions in terms of control are highlighted. On the one hand, the automatic reference trajectories generation from geometric path constraints (obstacles). Thanks to the flatness property of the considered model, the longitudinal velocity will be controlled around a quasi-constant value while lateral and yaw dynamics targets will allow to avoid obstacles. On the other hand, a sensitivity-based methodology will be presented to choose the best possible gains parameterization in a state Riccati dependent equation (SDRE) feedback controller. Both direct and adjoint sensitivity methods are used, together with a dynamic inversion of the system, in order to optimize the performances of the controller. Obstacle avoiding simulation results will be validated and compared with other nonlinear optimal feedback controllers, from a realistic industrial simulator environment for vehicle dynamics View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Active Steering Control for Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 566 - 580
    Cited by:  Papers (84)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) approach for controlling an active front steering system in an autonomous vehicle is presented. At each time step, a trajectory is assumed to be known over a finite horizon, and an MPC controller computes the front steering angle in order to follow the trajectory on slippery roads at the highest possible entry speed. We present two approaches with different computational complexities. In the first approach, we formulate the MPC problem by using a nonlinear vehicle model. The second approach is based on successive online linearization of the vehicle model. Discussions on computational complexity and performance of the two schemes are presented. The effectiveness of the proposed MPC formulation is demonstrated by simulation and experimental tests up to 21 m/s on icy roads View full abstract»

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  • On the Use of Torque-Biasing Systems for Electronic Stability Control: Limitations and Possibilities

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 581 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief paper focuses on the concept of utilizing torque-biasing systems on a four-wheel drive vehicle for improving vehicle stability and handling performance. In contrast to brake-based yaw stability control systems, torque biasing has the potential to provide yaw stability control without slowing down the longitudinal response of the vehicle. An inexpensive system configuration is considered in which the driveline is based on front-wheel drive with on-demand transfer of torque to the rear. The torque-biasing components of the system are an electronically controlled center coupler and a rear electronically controlled limited slip differential. First, modeling of the torque-biasing devices is briefly introduced. Then, a hierarchical control architecture is presented in which an upper controller determines desired yaw moment for achieving yaw rate and slip angle control. The lower controller attempts to achieve the desired yaw moment using torque biasing. Theoretical analysis shows that transfer of longitudinal tire forces can effectively be used to achieve any desired yaw moment for the vehicle. However, the use of torque biasing cannot always achieve the desired transfer of longitudinal tire forces. Simulations show that the proposed control system can always effectively provide understeering yaw moments but can provide oversteering torque moments only during on-throttle maneuvers. Experimental data show that significant stability improvements are obtained using the proposed system for low-friction slalom maneuvers and a T-junction launch maneuver. The results presented in this brief shed important light on the possibilities and limitations of using torque biasing for vehicle yaw stability control View full abstract»

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  • Lateral Control of Autonomous Electric Cars for Relocation of Public Urban Mobility Fleet

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 590 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief deals with lateral dynamic control of electric vehicles in an urban environment, motivated by individual public transportation issues, aimed to contribute to reduce metropolitan areas pollution. The framework in which the control strategy is developed is the so-called "look-down reference," in which the lateral displacement is obtained from a onboard sensor, interacting with a road infrastructure. In this framework, the designed control algorithm is made up of a combined feedback-feedforward structure. The feedback action is given by three nested closed loops with cascade compensators, where the outer one is nonlinear. The feedforward action is based on the knowledge of the road curvature, corrected by the measure of the car lateral displacement. Results from experimental tests performed on an actual circuit show the effectiveness of the considered control strategy View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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The IEEE Control Systems Society publishes high-quality papers on technological advances in the design, realization, and operation of control systems.

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