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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 41
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 837 - 838
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  • IAS Invites You to Toronto October 6-11, 1985

    Page(s): 839
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  • Understanding Asymmetry

    Page(s): 842 - 848
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    When calculated fault levels lie very close to circuit breaker interrupting ratings, a thorough evaluation of the asymmetrical currents involved may become the deciding factor between breakers of varied capabilities and costs. The increasing emphasis on efficiency tends to exacerbate concerns in this area. An attempt is made to help the reader visualize the events of the first few cycles after fault inception as well as providing a rigorous quantitative analysis of the magnitude of currents involved. Equations for sizing both molded-case and power circuit breakers are developed. View full abstract»

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  • Power System Requirements for Thyristor Drives

    Page(s): 849 - 852
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    Thyristor drives with their nonsinusoidal currents and momentary commutation shorts are becoming more prevalent on ac power systems. The effects of ac power line inductance on line pollution and successful operation of the drive and common drives on the same feeder will be evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Report of Large Motor Reliability Survey of Industrial and Commercial Installations, Part I

    Page(s): 853 - 864
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    The Power Systems Reliability Subcommittee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society recently initiated a survey of the reliability of large motors in industrial and commercial installations in keeping with its commitment to support or update results of the survey published in 1973 and 1974. Moreover, the new survey has emphasized and expanded on one type of electrical equipment only. The previous survey results were heavily biased by one class of motors in the motor category and contained some results that appeared unreasonable and were considered questionable. The results of this new survey are presented here and intended to expand failure data to additional influencing categories and at the same time be oriented to the more common types in use today. A restriction to a lower limit in size also distinguishes the results to motors in relatively critical applications. A further explanation of the reasons for this survey and intended results is presented in a subcommittee report included for reference in the Appendix. View full abstract»

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  • Report of Large Motor Reliability Survey of Industrial and Commercial Installations, Part II

    Page(s): 865 - 872
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    In 1983 the initial results of an IEEE survey on large motors was published and presented at the 1983 I&CPS Conference. This was the first presentation of the results of a survey completed in 1982 of motors larger than 200 hp and no older than 15 years. The results presented here of the 1982 survey are to investigate the data further to address questions generated by the results of the earlier paper, to find additional correlations of the reliability criteria of some of the more interesting categories, and to bring out more results and categories available from the survey data. For information on the overall survey response and the general results of the surveyed categories, refer to the previous paper. View full abstract»

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  • Busway Short Circuit Testing Procedures

    Page(s): 873 - 875
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    Every electrical system component must have recognizable predictable characteristics in order to be usable in today's modern electrical distribution system. The use of busways for power distribution in commercial and industrial buildings has become very popular in recent years due, in part, to the fact that it offers the requisite proven predictable electrical and mechanical characteristics. This allows the distribution system designer to use busway with confidence that it will perform as he intends. Of the many electrical and mechanical characteristics which must be evaluated, the busway short circuit rating has become one of the most important. This increased importance is the result of larger electrical services and lower loss supply equipment creating significant increases in available short circuit current levels. In addition, the present cost of equipment failure is at an all-time high. It is certainly better to spend a little extra (whether time or money) in the design and construction stages to provide maximum system performance under all conditions including possible short circuits. View full abstract»

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  • RF Susceptibility of an EEG and Considerations for Attenuating RFI in Hospitals

    Page(s): 876 - 881
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    This paper discusses the testing accomplished to determine the radio frequency (RF) susceptibility of a typical electroencephalograph (EEG) and to determine the effectiveness of lead X-ray shielding as an RF shield. New data are presented on threshold field strengths and frequencies which just begin to cause interference on a typical EEG brain scan. Results are combined with data from other studies to show that a typical EEG machine would be immune to the RF environment expected in the vicinity of most hospitals. Therefore, expensive RF shielding in a hospital EEG suite is usually not required. Finally, an inexpensive shielding system utilizing X-ray shielding which was developed by the U.S. Veterans Administration is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Locomotive Cable Insulation Life Under Varying Temperature Loading

    Page(s): 882 - 888
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    A method is described for evaluating the life of cable insulation subjected to the varying temperature and time electrical service conditions of a locomotive. This type of evaluation becomes more important as the current ratings of higher fuel efficiency locomotives are increased, subjecting cable insulation materials to higher operating temperatures. Insulations evaluated by this proposed technique are first tested at several elevated constant temperatures to determine their thermal aging characteristics. Based on the material performance data, the insulation life consumed by the thermal stresses imposed by the locomotive duty cycle is calculated. This method can be readily applied to measure the effects of temperature cycles on cable life, objectively compare the performance of different insulations, and assess the design margin of locomotive cables. It may also be used to establish Association of American Railroads (AAR) specification requirements for thermal aging tests based on the conditions of actual field application. A method for evaluating cable life through testing and duty cycle analysis has been developed and verified by examination of cables in service. A new high performance insulation developed by the General Electric Wire and Cable Business Department is shown to offer reliable service life under the varied and demanding operating conditions of today's higher performance locomotives. View full abstract»

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  • User-Friendly Touch Controls for Home Appliances

    Page(s): 889 - 895
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    Appliances that use more than one cooking mode or have multiple cooking zones or cavities require more controls than their single-mode single-cavity counterparts. The addition of multiple control sets complicates panel appearance and hinders user understanding. A control system is described which can access an unlimited number of functions through a keyboard that uses three dynamically alterable key pads. For ease of use, instructions and prompting are electronically generated and incorporated into the programming sequence. View full abstract»

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  • PTC Heating Elements---Background Analysis and Design Attributes

    Page(s): 896 - 898
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    The positive temperature coefficient (PTC) generally defines a substance in which electrical resistance increases when temperature increases. In present usage, PTC refers to certain semiconductive thermistors which have significant positive temperature coefficients over a defined range of temperatures. PTC's have varied appliance applications, including temperature sensing, current controlling, and heating. Only the heat generating attributes of PTC's are considered. Design engineers are first provided with background information on the technical aspects of the PTC semiconductive pellet, which is the actual heat generating source. Also presented is information regarding the selection of the medium to transfer the heat. Then PTC heaters are analyzed with regard to their usefulness in certain appliance designs. A summary of the best PTC design attributes is also given. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Small Motor Noise Measuring Equipment

    Page(s): 899 - 905
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    Measuring equipment for automatically testing the noise of small fan induction motors used in domestic appliances has been developed. This equipment has taken the place of the current inspection method, which uses man's trained sense of hearing. In order to develop this equipment, the following investigations were performed. First, through acoustic and vibration analysis, we clarified that various noises have their own characteristics of sound frequency which were found to be very similar to the characteristics of vibration frequency detected by a vibration sensor, mounted on the motor frame surface. Secondly, through the consideration of the relations between the levels of noise and vibration and man's sense of hearing, we obtained a satisfactory mutual relationship between man's sense and vibration levels. By using these clarifications, we have succeeded in making automatic measuring equipment which judges the noise level and the kind of noise, using a microcomputer with programs based on the investigations. Thus two results have been produced. One is the saving of labor and time in the motor manufacturing process, the other is improved accuracy and convenient trouble-free testing in noisy surroundings. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Efficiency Audio Power Amplifier Using a Self-Oscillating Switching Regulator

    Page(s): 906 - 911
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    A new high-efficiency audio power amplifier has been developed. This amplifier consists of a conventional power amplifier and a self-oscillating switching power supply which is arranged to vary the power supply output voltage according to the input signal voltage. The new amplifier achieves a higher efficiency than the conventional amplifier, by making the collector voltage of the emitter-follower-transistor follow the waveform of the output signal. Applying this idea to class A amplifiers, a one-third power dissipation can be achieved compared with the conventional class A amplifier. A power MOSFET is used as a switcher. The switching frequency is from 150 kHz to 300 kHz. The new amplifier shows sufficient favorable characteristics. Switching noise is suppressed to a low noise level, which has no influence on the AM tuner or other audio equipment. By stabilizing the single-ended push-pull (SEPP) output transistors, the amplifier can reproduce high quality tone. The present idea is also applicable to dass B power amplifiers and may be suitable for PA or car audio power amplifiers. View full abstract»

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  • Positive Corona Pulse Characteristics from Two Interacting Needles in Air

    Page(s): 912 - 918
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    A set of oscillograms has been obtained to investigate the development of pulse mode in the positive discharge from a single and twin interacting thin needles. The transition from burst pulses to continuous glow in laboratory air is discussed. When the needles are brought close together, the onset voltage increases with a subsequent decrease of the corona current for the same applied voltage. Not only the onset voltage but also the offset voltage (i.e., voltage at which the burst pulses disappear) increases as the needle-to-needle spacing decreases. The pulse repetition rate increases with the applied voltage reaching maximum and then showed a decrease with further increase of voltage. When the needles are brought very close to each other, the rate of increase of pulse repetition rate with voltage increases by about 15 percent more than the corresponding rate for single needle. Not only the rate of increase of pulse repetition rate but also the repetition rate itself reaches almost double the value for a single needle. The randomness of the pulse repetition rate was found maximum at voltages close to the onset value and decreases with increase of the voltage. On the contrary, the pulses had almost the same amplitude at voltages very close to the onset value. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of the Mechanisms of Particle Buildup on Single Rods in Dielectrophoretic Separation

    Page(s): 919 - 925
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    A theoretical review of the particle buildup processes involved in dielectrophoretic capture of dielectric and conducting particles is presented. Trajectories are calculated, and the capture radius is plotted against the electric field and flow parameters. Photographic data of capture of barium titanate particulates are shown for the axial case, using a fine steel rod in laminar flow. A correlation for the radius of accumulation at saturation is obtained between the theoretical model and the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectrophoresis of Lossy Dielectrics

    Page(s): 926 - 929
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    Dielectrophoresis of a solid particle in a liquid medium is usually studied under the assumption that the dielectrics are ideal. Real dielectrics, however, exhibit nonzero conductivities, and the results are sometimes unpredictable. The particular case of a lossy dielectric sphere in a lossy dielectric liquid is considered. The dielectrophoretic motion following the application of a dc field is studied, and it is shown that the motion is strongly affected by conductivities. From the results it can be deduced, for instance, that the separation of solid particles in liquid media can be based on differences of conductivities rather than differences of permitivities of the two media. View full abstract»

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  • Multipole Corrections to Dielectrophoretic Force

    Page(s): 930 - 934
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    Calculation of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force on a neutral dielectric partide in a nonuniform electric field is simplified by using the effective dipole method. Once the instantaneous effective dipole moment peff(t) has been correctly identified using Gauss's law, then the expression (peff(t)¿)E0(t) is used to determine the force on the particle. Recent work has demonstrated that the effective dipole method produces a result consistent with integration of the Maxwell stress tensor. In the present paper, the issues concerning identification of peff(t) are aired, and an alternate derivation of the DEP force on a conducting dielectric sphere immersed in a conducting dielectric fluid is offered. Then the effective dipole theory is generalized to account for higher order (multipole) contributions. This new effective multipole theory is restricted to spherical particles in a cylindrically symmetric cusped electric field, but the analysis leads to straightforward computation of the quadrupolar correction factor for the DEP force. A quantitative example is provided. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Back Corona in a Laboratory Scale Electrostatic Precipitator

    Page(s): 935 - 938
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    The results are presented of a study on the influence of back corona on the performance of a laboratory scale wire-plate precipitator, with the plate to plate spacing as a parameter. Back corona is introduced into the precipitator by increasing the ash resistivity, attained by increasing the ash-laden gas temperature from 21 ° C (a no back discharge condition) to 104 ° C. Performance is evaluated in terms of the Deutsch migration velocity and using the particle concentration measurements made at the inlet and outlet of the precipitator with an optical counter. Results for the four different plate spacings with no back discharge show a time-independent migration velocity and current density, with higher migration velocities for the wider plate spacings. Results with back discharge show an initially rapid decrease in migration velocity with time, accompanied by a rapid increase in the current density, with greater decreases for the wider plate spacings. The behavior of the precipitator with and without back discharge is consistent with the space charge model interpretation of the wide-plate spacing precipitator. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of Electrostatically Augmented Gas Cleaning Devices for Particulate Removal

    Page(s): 939 - 949
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    Increased use of coal as an energy source and strict regulation of environmental emissions have resulted in increased interest in gas stream cleanup. Particulate control is also of great importance for turbine protection in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion/combined cycle (PFBC/CC concept for the generation of electricity. Many types of particulate removal devices are commercially available for relatively moderate temperature and near ambient pressure. Efforts to augment the performance of several of these devices electrostatically are reviewed, with special attention to potential for use at the high-temperature high-pressure conditions existing in the PFBC/CC scheme. In particular, electrostatic precipitators, electrostatically augmented cyclone separators, and fabric and granular bed filters have been considered. View full abstract»

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  • The Design and Evaluation of an Ion-Drag Dielectric Pump to Enhance Cooling in a Small Oil-Filled Transformer

    Page(s): 950 - 955
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    An ion-drag dielectric pump consisting of a closed loop of glass tubing has been used to investigate the pumping of transformer oil. The velocity of the oil has been measured with a multiplicity of design variables: electrode spacing and density of field enhancing points, cofield temperature gradients, waveshape, and pressure heads. The observed velocities under our experimental conditions are severalfold higher (-10x) than the flow rates computed for convective oil flow in a 25-kVA distribution transformer (=0.6 cm/s). View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Induction Motor Subjected to Nonsinusoidal Voltages Containing Subharmonics

    Page(s): 956 - 965
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    Modulation techniques can be used in thyristor circuits to obtain frequency changing that is useful for ac motor speed control. Some of the modulation techniques result in three-phase applied voltage waveforms that contain subharmonics of the supply (carrier) frequency as well as higher harmonics. An analytical technique is developed for predicting the performance of an induction motor when subjected to this form of nonsinusoidal voltages. The technique involves the use of reference frames that rotate at subsynchronous speeds consistent with the known subharmonies of the voltages. A theoretical investigation of many applied voltage modulated waveforms shows that only one particular form of phase modulation is feasible for induction motor speed control. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of PWM Techniques Using Uniform Sampling in Variable-Speed Electrical Drives with Large Speed Range

    Page(s): 966 - 974
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    In order to minimize motor losses and avoid torque pulsations in a variable-speed electric drives, it is necessary that, at low speeds, the output voltage of the inverter is characterized as far as possible by a sinusoidal shape with variable amplitude and frequency. To this aim, inverters controlled by pulsewidth modulation techniques are employed. In particular, when the subharmonic method is used in an asynchronous way utilizing the natural sampling, a dc component and subharmonics may be present, with dangerous consequences to the electric motor. To overcome these drawbacks, one can use a modulation method called ``uniform sampling,'' with symmetrical or asymmetrical modulation. Single-and three-phase analytical solutions to cover also overmodulation conditions are presented for uniform sampling, and comparisons are made between the natural and the symmetrical and asymmetrical uniform-sampling methods. The harmonic content obtainable under overmodulation conditions is investigated, useful information about the first-harmonic behavior is provided as a function of the modulating depth, and the influence of the displacement angle between the modulating and carrier waves on the first harmonic of the output voltage is evidenced particularly at low frequency values. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

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Carlton E. Speck