By Topic

Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1976

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • New Officers in the Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): 1 - 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (2482 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • New Fellows in the Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): 3 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (2019 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Great Society

    Page(s): 5 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Classical Electrostatic Description of the Work Function and Ionization Energy of Insulators

    Page(s): 7 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2184 KB)  

    A simple classical model utilizing image forces has been developed which shows that the energy required to extract an electron from an insulating particle depends inversely on: 1) the size of the particle, 2) the dielectric constant, and 3) the maximum natural excursion distance of the electron from the surface of the insulating particle. As anticipated, data confirm that the ionization energy of an insulating polymer molecule is inversely related to the number of monomer units in the polymer molecule. Considering the solid insulator as the limiting case of a macroscropic particle, the predicted work function of the solid is the minimum value of the steadily decreasing ionization energy with size. This is in agreement with the limited data which show that the work function of an insulating polymer is approximately 1/2 of the ionization energy of the monomer in the gas phase. The model also predicts that the work function decreases with increasing dielectric constant in agreement with some limited available data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comparison of Preregulators as Power Savers

    Page(s): 12 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2122 KB)  

    Many modern computer, digital communication, and industrial control equipments are furnished dc power by series-pass regulated supplies. At the voltage and current required, these supplies frequently dissipate twice as much power as they pass on to be used. With increasing interest in conserving energy, it has become desirable to minimize the losses of the supplies. This can be done at modest cost by installing a simple preregulator which is itself relatively efficient. This paper presents the experimental results of comparing three methods of preregulation. The three methods chosen can be retrofit in many existing systems. The three are 1) ferroresonant transformer, 2) replacing existing rectifiers with SCR's, and 3) triac throttling of the input. Each of the three methods has some relative advantages, and each has its detractions. On balance, it appears from measurements reported here that triac throttling is the best method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Standards for Commutating Capacitors

    Page(s): 17 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3845 KB)  

    Problems of standardization exist for capacitors used in power semiconductor equipment. Electronic Industries Association (EIA) has taken a step forward in this area by publishing an industry standard for commutating capacitors. Details of definitions, case types, terminals, ratings, measurements, life tests, performance characteristics, and general applications of these capacitors are covered in the proposed standard. This paper describes part of the EIA program and also includes limited information on the design of commutating capacitors and their use in power semiconductor circuits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Greater Environmental Protection for Electrical Equipment Through New Technology

    Page(s): 28 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5551 KB)  

    Corrosive environments have long presented problems in application, installation, and maintenance of electrical equipment. The causes of corrosion and the means taken to date to combat corrosive environments are briefly reviewed. The application of new technology in the glass-reinforced polyester plastics field is described as a solution to the problem of long-term protection of electrical equipment installed in aggressive environments. This new technology involves the use of chemical thickening of special polyester resins suitably formulated to provide high levels of structural strength and corrosion resistance both indoors and outdoors. Data are presented on the environmental resistance of the chemically thickened glass-reinforced polyester systems, and these are interpreted in terms of the diffusion of the environment into and out of the plastic. Examples are given of the application of chemically thickened glass-reinforced plastics in heavy duty industrial plugs and receptacles, industrial type light reflectors, and enclosures for electrical equipment. The degree of protection afforded by the chemically thickened glass-reinforced plastic is important in electrical installations in the petroleum, petrochemical, food, drug, fertilizer, and other process industries. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Lighting Esthetics with Energy Saving Ideas

    Page(s): 35 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4700 KB)  

    Lighting engineers' best contribution to the energy conservation movement will be to optimize the application of new and highly efficient lighting sources in an esthetic way. In order to achieve this goal, creativity is the key. This could bring lighting esthetics and energy conservation into coexistence. This paper outlines some creative lighting systems which use highly efficient light sources to achieve energy conservation as well as esthetic appearances. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and Application of a Solid-State AC Motor Starter

    Page(s): 39 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3832 KB)  

    This paper will explore the design, application, and field operating experience of the first complete line of 25-1000 hp solid-state ac motor starters. The contents are as follows: 1) the basic requirements of ac motor starting; 2) power circuitry¿a brief review of solid-state; 3) a complete solid-state ac motor starter with provision for reduced voltage starting; 4) application problems, advantages and disadvantages of solid-state; 5) the ``hybrid'' motor starter; 6) new dimensions for squirrel-cage motors using solid-state control; 7) limited range speed control using variable voltage, fixed frequency; 8) the universal replacement. Is it practical? View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Use of Fast-Time Process Analogs in Two-Position Control

    Page(s): 43 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB)  

    It has been shown [1] that use of a ``fast feedback'' loop incorporating a plant model and a two-position controller results in better control of first-order thermal plants with inherent time delay. In this paper such a control scheme is analyzed with a view of adapting it for process control. Both steady-and unsteady-state analyses are carried out for the case where disturbance variations occur during regulatory control. Based on the results obtained, criteria are evolved for the selection of suitable model parameters which result in zero offset in plant output, minimum period of steady-state cycling, and acceptable transient behavior. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New Methods of Induction Motor Torque Regulation

    Page(s): 47 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2991 KB)  

    Two methods of induction motor torque regulation are described utilizing speed and current feedback into the frequency and amplitude channels of a pulsewidth modulated inverter. Transfer characteristics illustrating the steady-state behavior of the two configurations are presented. Transient characteristics are discussed in detail by examining the linearized system transfer functions. An analytical approach to design of a closed loop controller for a practical application is outlined. Experimental results are presented showing correlation with predicted results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Technique of Single-Particle Charge Measurement

    Page(s): 56 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2960 KB)  

    Research and development in diverse fields of scientific and engineering interest often require a knowledge of the electric charge on a single macroscopic particle. The methods which have been developed for the determination of particle charge include electric and magnetic field deflection techniques, current measurements, and direct sensing by induced charge effects. Several methods are discussed, and experimental results are given for two of these methods. Charge magnitudes to about 10-17 C are of interest in these studies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Screen Controlled Corona Device (Scorotron) for Charging in a Xerographic Copier

    Page(s): 63 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3415 KB)  

    Special features have been developed to improve scorotron efficiency, manufacturability, reliability, and serviceability for the office copier environment. Unidirectional rotation of the photoreceptor allows the higher efficiency of a combination corotron/ scorotron to be used. A simplified screen configuration, an extruded shield, and high quality molded plastic end blocks simplify manufacture. A wraparound shield, a manual cleaner for corona and screen wires, and a foolproof slide mount, improve reliability and serviceability. Thus a scorotron is able to provide the improved consistency of photoreceptor sensitization necessary for high quality solid area reproduction copies. Charging nonuniformities caused by photoreceptor fatigue, thickness variation, temperature sensitivity, and miscellaneous charge acceptance variables, are significantly reduced. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Breakdown Phenomena in Point-to-Point Gaps

    Page(s): 67 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (14991 KB)  

    Measurements with multiple techniques delineating the complete sequence of events from the primary streamer to the formation of the spark channel for relatively small point-to-point gaps are reported. The pulsed potential with 0.4 µs rise time and 1800 µs decay time was applied to the point-to-point gap, of which length was changed from 6 to 14 cm. The light pulses were observed by 5 photomultipliers as well as current and potential wave. It is shown that the spark channel can be materialized through the following three processes: 1) initial process, in which the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary streamers develop from both point electrodes into gap, and the ionizing wave bridges the gap; 2) intermediate process, in which the dark period proceeds with ion and electron movement if the applied potential is around the mean breakdown potential, or in the other case, the ``leader'' develops from the anode with the help of ionizing waves; and 3) final process, in which the channel is highly ionized at first by the ionizing wave, then gas heating, to lead the formation of a spark channel. On the bases of the measurements of streamer speed and current, the ion and electron density were calculated. It is estimated that starting with the primary streamer with an electron density of 1012 cm-3, the electron density in the streamer channel is augmented by the ionizing wave up to 1012cm -3 when the gap is bridged by the ionizing wave. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Back Corona and Relaxation Time

    Page(s): 84 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1195 KB)  

    Where the resistivity of a precipitated layer of dust exceeds a value in the neighborhood of 108 ¿m, the phenomenon of back corona generally occurs. The fact that this is not always the case, however, shows that the phenomenon is not perfectly understood. In 1965, the author introduced to the theory the additional factor of the dielectric constant. This had the effect of making relaxation time the fundamental parameter of back corona, rather than resistivity alone. As a result, it is shown that back corona probably depends on conditions in the gas as well as in the dust. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some Effects of Fluid Jet Dynamics on Ink Jet Printing

    Page(s): 86 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2490 KB)  

    Synchronous ink jet printing systems use a small fluid ink stream, as produced by a pressurized ink through a small orifice, to produce ink images on a recording surface. The initial stream breaks up into a uniform sequence of similar droplets as a result of velocity variations injected by the orifice assembly. As the droplets form, individual droplets receive charges by induction. The charges imparted to droplets determine their flight path through an orthogonal deflection field to the recording surface or, alternatively, to an ink dump. The mechanism of drop formation, drop charging, drop deflection, and aerodynamic interactions between drops, and how these influence an ink jet printer's performance, are discussed. In addition, since the fluid dynamics limit the range of applications for ink jet printing, some limiting factors are described. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct Coupling of Solar Cell Arrays to Electric Power Networks

    Page(s): 90 - 97
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3848 KB)  

    Results of the investigation of the performance of solar cells when directly coupled to a conventional three-phase power network are presented. This approach dissociates the electricity production problem from the electric energy storage problem. Extensive studies of the required power inverter are performed. Preliminary simulation results indicate that ac power outputs of better than 90 percent of the optimum cell power output can be easily achieved by means of a suitably controlled inverter, thereby justify View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Friendly Skies: Made Friendlier with Precise Uninterruptible Power

    Page(s): 97 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2994 KB)  

    On-line real-time computer and data processing systems such as United Air Lines' Denver Computer Center have many and varying needs. Not only must the electrical power supply be continuous and disturbance-free, but the environmental support systems must not fail. This paper describes a facility, unattended for long periods, which provides for the needs of the people and the expensive equipment associated with that system, even if all outside utilities (except for communications) are lost. The facility, while dually functioning as a dynamic uninterruptible power supply as well as a total energy plant, has been described by some as ``The Friendly Skies' Best Friend.'' View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Large Mills for Dry Raw Material and Clinker Grinding

    Page(s): 104 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (20212 KB)  

    The development of grinding mills, especially in the last few years, shows a continuing trend to larger units. Particular attention must be given to the drying process during dry grinding. Several grinding methods are available, depending upon the material to be ground, and the optimum method must be carefully selected in each case. Special consideration must be made with large ball mills to assure the utilization of all waste heat from the kiln for the drying process. In many cases a roller mill represents a good alternative. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck