# IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing

## Issue 5  Part 1 • May 2007

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2

## Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
• ### [Front cover]

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): C1
| |PDF (63 KB)
• ### IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing publication information

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): C2
| |PDF (40 KB)

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1097 - 1098
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• ### Random Noise Radar/Sodar With Ultrawideband Waveforms

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1099 - 1114
Cited by:  Papers (19)
| |PDF (1642 KB) | HTML

Random noise waveforms with ultrawide bandwidth improve the range resolution and reduces the probability of intercept in radar/sodar. As a result of the nonperiodic waveform, the range ambiguity is removed as well. By transmitting a sine signal that is phase or frequency modulated by random noise, autocorrelation functions with improved side lobe suppression in range can be formed. There are great... View full abstract»

• ### Analysis of the Effects of Faraday Rotation on Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR Observations at $\hbox{P}$-Band

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1115 - 1122
Cited by:  Papers (27)
| |PDF (463 KB) | HTML

Spaceborne microwave observation of subcanopy and subsurface requires the polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology at lower microwave frequencies, such as P-band. However, SAR observation at P-band is remarkably influenced by the Faraday rotation (FR) effect through the ionosphere. An example in this paper illustrates why the measured polarimetric data with FR at P-band cannot be dir... View full abstract»

• ### SAR Imaging Degradation by Ionospheric Irregularities Based on TFTPCF Analysis

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1123 - 1130
Cited by:  Papers (8)
| |PDF (260 KB) | HTML

The effects of ionospheric irregularities on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal propagation with double path and multilook angle are studied in a model in which a two-frequency and two-position coherence function (TFTPCF) has been adopted for analysis. The TFTPCF is derived from the phase-screen principle. The ambiguity function based on TFTPCF has been used to analyze the effects of... View full abstract»

• ### Comparisons Between SAR Backscattering Coefficient and Results of a Thermodynamic Snow/Ice Model for the Baltic Sea Land-Fast Sea Ice

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1131 - 1141
Cited by:  Papers (9)
| |PDF (937 KB) | HTML

We have compared the time series of C-band HH-polarization backscattering coefficients (sigmadeg) of the Baltic Sea land-fast level ice with results from a 1-D high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model (HIGHTSI). The sigmadeg time series were obtained from ENVISAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The study period was from the middle of the winter to the early melt season, February 3-April... View full abstract»

• ### Submillimeter Accuracy of InSAR Time Series: Experimental Validation

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1142 - 1153
Cited by:  Papers (126)  |  Patents (2)
| |PDF (596 KB) | HTML

This paper presents the results of a blind experiment that is performed using two pairs of dihedral reflectors. The aim of the experiment was to demonstrate that interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements can indeed allow a displacement time series estimation with submillimeter accuracy (both in horizontal and vertical directions), provided that the data are properly processed a... View full abstract»

• ### Data Fusion for Reconstruction of a DTM, Under a Woodland Canopy, From Airborne L-band InSAR

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1154 - 1163
Cited by:  Papers (5)
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This paper investigates the utility of different parameters from polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the identification of ground pixels in a woodland area to enable accurate digital terrain model (DTM) generation from the InSAR height of the selected ground hit pixels. The parameters assessed include radar backscatter, interferometric coherence, surface scatteri... View full abstract»

• ### Spatial and Temporal Behavior of Microwave Backscatter Directional Modulation Over the Saharan Ergs

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1164 - 1173
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| |PDF (932 KB) | HTML

Radar backscatter (sigmadeg) from ergs is modulated with view direction [incidence (thetas) and azimuth (phi) angles], where the modulation characteristics reflect the surface geometry. sigmadeg also varies spatially and reflects the spatial inhomogeneity of the sand surface. We use sigmadeg measurements at different thetas and phi angles from the NASA, European Remote Sensing satellite, and SeaWi... View full abstract»

• ### A Hybrid Analytic-Numerical Algorithm of Scattering From an Object Above a Rough Surface

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1174 - 1180
Cited by:  Papers (47)
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A hybrid algorithm, combining analytic Kirchhoff approximation (KA) and numerical method of moments (MoMs), is developed to solve the coupling electric-field integral equations (EFIEs) of scattering from a perfect electric conducting (PEC) object above a randomly rough PEC surface under TE-polarized plane-wave incidence. The MoM with the conjugate gradient approach is used to first solve the EFIE ... View full abstract»

• ### Statistical Properties of Low-Grazing Range-Resolved Sea Surface Backscatter Generated Through Two-Dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1181 - 1197
Cited by:  Papers (29)
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Statistical properties of the X-band sea clutter are studied using 2-D direct numerical simulations. Surfaces are modeled as realizations of a Gaussian random process with the Pierson-Moskowitz or Elfouhaily spectrum. The Creamer transform is further applied to account for the lowest-order surface nonlinearities. Backscattered field at a given frequency is found using the first-principles boundary... View full abstract»

• ### Band-Limited Exponential Correlation Function for Rough-Surface Scattering

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1198 - 1206
Cited by:  Papers (12)
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A band-limited exponential correlation function is presented for use in studies of rough-surface scattering. This model of surface statistics is developed by multiplying the power spectral density of a standard exponential correlation function surface with a Gaussian rolloff at high frequencies in order to limit the high-frequency spectral content of the surface. A parameter is introduced to descr... View full abstract»

• ### Field-Supported Verification and Improvement of a Passive Microwave Surface Emission Model for Rough, Bare, and Wet Soil Surfaces by Incorporating Shadowing Effects

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1207 - 1216
Cited by:  Papers (22)
| |PDF (462 KB) | HTML

To investigate the potential of passive microwave techniques for observing the atmosphere over land, it is important to understand the nature of emissions from the land surface. The heterogeneity of large-scale land surface emissions has been cited as a major impediment in conducting observations of the atmosphere over land. Many models, both theoretical and empirical, have been developed to expla... View full abstract»

• ### Increasing the Existence of Very Shallow-Water LIDAR Measurements Using the Red-Channel Waveforms

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1217 - 1223
Cited by:  Papers (26)
| |PDF (377 KB) | HTML

Mapping shallow-water bathymetry with acoustic techniques is complicated and expensive. The environmental parameters in shallow-water (<2 m) areas become more variable and greatly impact the depth extraction from the survey measurements. Current airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) bathymetry surveying in shallow-water depths uses green-channel waveforms to measure the water depth. Unfo... View full abstract»

• ### Angular Dependence of ${\cal K}$ -Distributed Sonar Data

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1224 - 1235
Cited by:  Papers (17)
| |PDF (2043 KB) | HTML

Backscattered signal statistics are widely used for target detection and seafloor characterization. The K-distribution shows interesting properties for describing experimental backscattered intensity statistics. In addition to the fact that its probability distribution function accurately fits actual sonar data, it advantageously provides a physical interpretation linked to the backscattering phen... View full abstract»

• ### Use of C-Band Ground Penetrating Radar to Determine Backscatter Sources Within Glaciers

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1236 - 1246
Cited by:  Papers (22)
| |PDF (1289 KB) | HTML

The question of penetration of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals at C-band frequency into polar glaciers is addressed by comparing ground penetrating radar (GPR) and SAR backscatter signatures. Profiles of the Kongsvegen glacier, Svalbard, were obtained with a C-band GPR. The received signal is converted to the equivalent radar cross section using the standard radar equation, thus mapping the... View full abstract»

• ### Optimal Maneuvering of Seismic Sensors for Localization of Subsurface Targets

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1247 - 1257
Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
| |PDF (871 KB) | HTML

We consider the problem of detecting and locating subsurface objects by using a maneuvering array that receives scattered seismic surface waves. We demonstrate an adaptive system that moves an array of receivers according to an optimal positioning algorithm that is based on the theory of optimal experiments. The goal is to minimize the number of distinct measurements (array movements) needed to lo... View full abstract»

• ### Three-Dimensional Bayesian Inversion With Application to Subsurface Sensing

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1258 - 1270
Cited by:  Papers (9)
| |PDF (925 KB) | HTML

A Bayesian formalism is considered for inverting for the parameters of a heterogeneity profile based on measured scattering data. It is shown that the typical use of regularization (e.g., Thikonov) corresponds to a maximum a posteriori point approximation to the full-posterior density function on the heterogeneity parameters, given the observed data. In the Bayesian framework considered here, the ... View full abstract»

• ### Electromagnetic Propagation of GPR Signals in Martian Subsurface Scenarios Including Material Losses and Scattering

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1271 - 1281
Cited by:  Papers (18)
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A study on the electromagnetic propagation in various models of the Martian subsurface is performed with a relevance to ground penetrating radar (GPR) operating onboard rover missions. Measurements of the electromagnetic properties of Mars soil simulants are obtained; on this basis, the attenuation features of the GPR signals are estimated, including both electric and magnetic losses. The effect o... View full abstract»

• ### Integral Electric Current Method in 3-D Electromagnetic Modeling for Large Conductivity Contrast

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1282 - 1290
Cited by:  Papers (12)
| |PDF (696 KB) | HTML

We introduce a new approach to 3-D electromagnetic (EM) modeling for models with large conductivity contrast. It is based on the equations for integral current within the cells of the discretization grid, instead of the electric field or electric current themselves, which are used in the conventional integral-equation method. We obtain these integral currents by integrating the current density ove... View full abstract»

• ### Higher Order Inhomogeneous Impedance Boundary Conditions for Perfectly Conducting Objects

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):1291 - 1297
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| |PDF (264 KB) | HTML

A new, simple, and fast method for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems for perfectly conducting objects of arbitrary shape is presented. The method is based on an equivalent representation of the conducting object in terms of a circular one having a higher order impedance boundary condition on its surface. As a first result, a new universal relation between the higher order surface... View full abstract»

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 1298
| |PDF (341 KB)
• ### IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society announces the creation of TGARS letters section

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 1299
| |PDF (446 KB)
• ### Special issue on meteorology, climate, ionosphere, geodesy, and reflections from the ocean surfaces: studies by radio occultation methods

Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 1300
| |PDF (139 KB)

## Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (TGRS) s a monthly publication that focuses on the theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information. This journal publishes technical papers disclosing new and significant research.  The technical content of papers must be both new and significant. Experimental data must be complete and include sufficient description of experimental apparatus, methods, and relevant experimental conditions.

Full Aims & Scope

## Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Simon H. Yueh
Jet Propulsion Laboratory