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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1978

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial Farewell from the Editor

    Page(s): 489
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  • Future Directions for Biomedical Engineering Research: Recommendations of an Evaluation Workshop for the NIGMS Physiology and Biomedical Engineering Program

    Page(s): 490 - 493
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    This report presents the recommendations of participants in a workshop held to evaluate the content of the Physiology and Biomedical Engineering Program of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). On the basis of a systematic review of the field, a number of promising areas were identified in which further work is needed. View full abstract»

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  • Photolithographic Fabrication and Physiological Performance of Microelectrode Arrays for Neural Stimulation

    Page(s): 494 - 500
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    The development of an auditory cochlear prosthesis which works by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve creates the need for a multielectrode stimulation array which is small in size, rugged, resistant to electrolysis, and stable and reproducible in its electrical and mechanical properties. This paper describes the fabrication of such microelectrode arrays using planar lithographic techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Recording from a Single Motor Unit During Strong Effort

    Page(s): 501 - 508
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    During strong voluntary effort it is rarely possible to identify the action potentials from single motor units. In large muscles the most selective recordings are obtained with bipolar wire electrodes. To elucidate this experimental finding we have calculated the extracellular field around a single muscle fiber from an intracellular muscle action potential. This model showed that the selectivity of a bipolar electrode is high provided: i) the diameter of the recording surfaces is less than half the diameter of the muscle fibers; ii) the center distance between the recording surfaces is of the same order or smaller than the diameter of the muscle fibers, and when iii) the center-line between the recording surfaces is oriented perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibers. View full abstract»

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  • Tests for Human Perception of 60 Hz Moderate Strength Magnetic Fields

    Page(s): 509 - 518
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    After preliminary experiments that pointed out the extreme cleverness with which perceptive individuals unintentionally used subtle auxiliary clues to develop impressive records of apparent magnetic field detection, we developed a heavy, tightly sealed subject chamber to provide extreme isolation against such false detection. A large number of individuals were tested in this isolation system with computer randomized sequences of 150 trials to determine whether they could detect when they were, and when they were not, in a moderate (7.5-15 gauss rms) alternating magnetic field, or could learn to detect such fields by biofeedback training. In a total of over 30,000 trials on more than 200 persons, no significantly perceptive individuals were found, and the group performance was compatible, at the 0.5 probability level, with the hypothesis that no real perception occurred. View full abstract»

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  • A Light-Scattering System for High-Speed Cell Analysis

    Page(s): 519 - 526
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    A flow-system instrument is described in which the light scattered by a biological cell is detected simultaneously at 32 angles in the forward direction as the cell passes through a focused laser beam at 10 m/s. Cluster analysis is applied to the scatter pattern data to enable discrimination among cell types. View full abstract»

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  • Electrocutaneous Nerve Stimulation-I: Model and Experiment

    Page(s): 526 - 531
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    The behavior of nerve fibers in the skin during electrocutaneous stimulation has been studied in this investigation for the purpose of understanding the influence of various current pulse parameters. One part of the investigation assessed the amount of stimulus charge, for various pulse parameters, required to depolarize the nodal membrane of myelinated nerve, using the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley model for Xenopus Laevis (toad). The second part of the investigation involved the experimental application of biphasic current pulses via a concentric electrode to the skin of a number of human subjects. The subjects were asked to match the intensity of sensation as stimulus parameters were varied. The experimental results were compared to the predictions of the model by the process of normalization for temperature differences and the loss of electrode current in adjacent passive tissues. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance Properties of Metal Electrodes for Chronic Recording from Mammalian Nerves

    Page(s): 532 - 537
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    Over the last few years methods have been developed for recording chronically from mammalian nerves with implanted electrodes contained in silastic cuffs. The impedance of the electrodes and the changes that take place over time were studied. Platinum-iridium electrodes remain stable over long periods of time, whereas the impedance of silver wire electrodes increases and eventually the silver fractures. The impedance at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) provides a measure of the capacitance of the metal electrodes, whereas the impedance at higher frequencies (1 kHz) mainly measures the resistance of the tissue filling the cuff. Increases in resistance due to growth of connective tissue around intact nerves have been studied as well as changes in resistance after cutting a nerve. Impedance measurements provide a useful way to follow the properties of electrodes and nerves in basic neuroscientific research and in future clinical applications of these chronic recording methods. View full abstract»

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  • Decompression Studies Using Ultrasonic Imaging of Bubbles

    Page(s): 537 - 544
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    Single bubbles ranging down in size to under 1 ¿m (less than capillary size) can be noticed, localized, and measured in ultrasonic images of intact subjects using 7.5 MHz ultrasound for which the wavelength is 200 ¿m. Subjects included humans, fish, and guinea pigs. A combined brightness modulation and deflection display was most effective. Bubble reality during decompression and association with symptoms has been demonstrated, as have asymptomatic bubbles, a tendency for bubble formation in fat, recompression bubble showers, and decompression without diving tables. In guinea pigs there were age and male-female differences in susceptibility. Adjacent tissue inert gas pressure, supersaturation, and time constant can be measured by adjusting ambient pressure until bubbles cease to grow. Present data generally favor a supersaturation rather than a phase equilibration model for bends onset. An increase in allowable supersaturation was observed when decompression was to altitude rather than to sea level. Goldfish were seen to survive bubbling that would kill the mammals studied, and some simultaneous observations by light and sound were made in transparent fish. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Model of Step Control in Bipedal Locomotion

    Page(s): 544 - 549
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    This paper deals with the basic problems of biped gait control. The mechanical structure of the biped body has been reduced to the simple mathematical inverted pendulum. Due to the assumption that the entire mass of a body is concentrated in one point, the control reduces to the proper choice of supporting points, obtained by setting the legs on the ground surface. The process of a gait is considered as a two-level hierarchical organization. The levels may be distinguished on the basis of a difference in time scales, and defined as gait tactics and strategy. The short period tactics are hierarchically subordinated with respect to the long-term strategy. Gait stability is a main task of the tactics, whereas the strategy implies velocity control. The investigations were performed by use of an analog computer with parallel logic. The results of the investigations have been presented in terms of the main parameters of the model gait, as well as in a form of time processes and phase-plane trajectories. View full abstract»

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  • Synchronization of Respiratory Rhythm with Electrical Stimulation of the Phrenic Nerve

    Page(s): 550 - 554
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    A single stimulation is applied at the desired time during a breathing cycle. The interval (TR) between the onset of the stimulation and that of the subsequent inspiration varies with the time (ts) when the stimulation is applied. The relationship between ts and TR is piecewise linear. Further experiment shows that this relationship holds for the case of a double stimulation as well. A theory of synchronization constructed on the basis of this relationship predicts the range of the stimulation period producing synchronization. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental results. Synchronization is of clinical importance, because ventilation cannot be fully performed if remaining spontaneous breathing is asynchronous with a respirator. View full abstract»

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  • A Differentiator for Low-Frequency Signals

    Page(s): 554 - 556
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    An electronic differentiator specifically for low-frequency signals is described. The difference between a signal and its staircase approximation is computed; the peaks of this function approximate the time derivative of the input signal. By regulating the width of the steps in the staircase function, very slow signals can be differentiated. View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation System for Blind Mobility Aid Simulation and Evaluation

    Page(s): 556 - 559
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    A computer-linked instrumentation system for studies of blind mobility is described. The system uses mechanical position sensing, and is capable of monitoring the position of a moving subject to within approximately 2.5 cm over a large area (80 m2). This enables the computation of quantitative performance indices based on body trajectory through the environment. Head-mounted mobility aids with auditory displays can be simulated using the system. For this purpose head orientation is monitored, and environmental obstacle positions are stored. Computer-generated signals appropriate to the type of sensory aid under study and to the obstacles present are presented via head-phones to the mobile blind or blindfolded subject. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Computer for First-and Second-Order Wiener Kernels

    Page(s): 559 - 562
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    This correspondence describes the design and application of an instrument which computes real-time estimates of first- and second-order Wiener kernels. The instrument performs the appropriate correlations between the measured response and a ternary conversion of the white-noise stimulus. An example application is described for a study of the human electroretinogram. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Controlled Bidirectional Phasing for Real Time Echosonography

    Page(s): 562 - 564
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    A bidirectional phasing scheme for a real time B-mode ultrasonic imager is described. The system uses a PDP-11 digital computer and analog delay lines to focus an ultrasonic transducer array. Preliminary transmit field patterns, obtained using the system suggest the resolution will be Rayleigh limited. View full abstract»

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  • Real Time Correlator for Detecting Single Units in Peripheral Nerve

    Page(s): 564 - 567
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    An inexpensive instrument is described for isolating single units from the population response of a nerve bundle. The isolation technique, based on the different conduction latencies between two recording sites exhibited by different neural fibers, permits single unit observations in real time without complex computer programming. Excellent separation can be obtained in preparations of six to eight neurons. View full abstract»

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  • Alternative Design of a Unity-Gain Follower with Buffer

    Page(s): 567 - 568
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    The design of a unity-gain buffer amplifier in which an extremely low input capacity is achieved by bootstrapping the entire input stage, including the power sources, which was published in 1973 and further discussed in 1976, needs redesigning in order to make it less critical with respect to the choice of components. The new design is stili very simple and based on commercially available operational amplifiers without any matching requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "The Clinical EEG-A Search for a Buried Message"

    Page(s): 568 - 570
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    It is noted that a meaningful method of extracting information from the EEG must take into account the current understanding of the origin of scalp-recorded brain electrical activity, as well as many application-specific details. In previous studies which considered these points, useful information has been derived from EEG recordings. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Conference Publications of Interest in Stock

    Page(s): 11-a
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  • Research, Design and Development Engineers: Reduce Your Literature-Searching Time by up to 80%

    Page(s): 11b
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  • An invitation to Membership

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering