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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

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  • Inhibition of Respiration in Cats by ELF Electric Fields

    Page(s): 473 - 476
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    Cats (Felis domestica) were exposed acutely to electric fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 50 Hz using contact electrodes. A marked reduction in respiration rate was observed. The maximum sensitivity was of the order of 1 V/m at frequencies of 0.5-2 Hz. Using multiple electrode sites, it was found that the primary locus of action was near the first vertebra. No effects on cardiac frequency were observed at any frequency with fields up to those which caused visible neuromuscular stimulation. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Thermal Model for Human Tissue

    Page(s): 477 - 485
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    A simple model structure of spatial and temporal temperature distribution in human tissue, exposed to electromagnetic heating and surface cooling, is developed. This model, denoted the control model, is useful for thermal dosimetry in hyperthermia cancer therapy. The theoretical control model parameter values for various types of homogeneous tissue are determined from a priori knowledge about tissue composition and parameters. The control model parameters for real tissue are estimated from patient treatment data through the use of a system identification technique. The results indicate that the control model structure is adequate. With the available a priori knowledge the theoretically determined control model parameter values do not accurately reproduce the experimentally estimated values. Accordingly, an identification based on experimental data is recommended, if an accurate model is required. View full abstract»

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  • Human Body Impedance and Threshold Currents for Perception and Pain for Contact Hazard Analysis in the VLF-MF Band

    Page(s): 486 - 494
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    The body impedance and threshold currents needed to produce sensations of perception and pain have been measured for 367 human subjects for the frequency range 10 kHz to 3 MHz. A sufficient number of subjects (197 male and 170 female subjects of ages between 18 and 70 years) were utilized in the study to make valid statistical predictions for the general adult population. Various types of contact with metallic electrodes were used to simulate the situation where a human being would be in contact with a large metallic object (car, van, school bus, etc.) in an electromagnetic field in the VLF to MF band. Based on these measurements, it is speculated that the body impedance of a human being is inversely proportional to the body dimensions and the threshold current for perception is directly proportional to the square of the body dimensions. Predictions are made, based on scaling, for the corresponding threshold values for ten-year-old children. The average measured impedance and threshold current values are used to calculate threshold electric fields required to produce sensations of perception and pain in humans in contact with these vehicles. It is concluded from these calculations that many situations can exist in which the present ANSI (American National Standards Institute) recommended standard of 632 V/m for the frequency band 0.3-3 MHz is too high. View full abstract»

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  • Individual Differences in Sensitivity to Transient Electrocutaneous Stimulation

    Page(s): 495 - 504
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    124 subjects were tested in a procedure designed to measure sensitivity to transient currents applied cutaneously, and to assess individual characteristics accounting for sensitivity differences. College students (one male and one female group), female office workers, and male maintenance workers (electricians, carpenters, plumbers, and sheet metal workers) were tested. Perception and annoyance thresholds were determined for capacitive discharge stimuli to the fingertip and forearm. Nonsensory data were taken for each individual in an attempt to account for individual sensitivity differences (occupation, sex, age, height, weight, skin temperature, finger and forearm diameter, skin hardness, customary physical activity level, and prior degree of experience with electric shock). Of these, body size was the only significant correlate of electrical sensitivity. Apparent correlations with sex and occupation were found to be artifacts of the body size relationship. A regression equation relating sensitivity to body weight is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Fetal ECG Recording

    Page(s): 505 - 509
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    We present a real-time abdominal recording method for the FECG based on a minimization procedure for the MECG interference, by weighted addition of four abdominal leads containing FECG with a large amount of MECG. The minimization of the MECG does not influence the FECG recording adversely. FECG complexes coinciding with MECG complexes are also recorded. Use is made of programmable amplifiers that multiply analog abdominal leads by digital coefficients. These coefficients are calculated at the beginning of the recording by a microcomputer system. Experimental results are shown that clarify the advantages of the measurement principle. The real-time recorded FECG is wide-banded, so that all generally known ECG signal processing techniques, such as complex averaging, can be performed. View full abstract»

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  • Somatically Evoked Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of the Neck

    Page(s): 510 - 516
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    This paper describes measurements of somatically evoked magnetic fields in the vicinity of the neck using a SQUID with a second-derivative gradiometer. The evoked fields were observed not only at the head, but also at the back of the shoulder and at the back of the neck when the peripheral nerve of the wrist was stimulated. The field at the neck appeared within about 150 ms after the stimulus with an amplitude of about 1 pT. The waveform of the responses at various points over the neck showed a reversal of the polarity across the midline of the neck. The isofield pattern indicated a current dipole in the vicinity of the spinous process C6 as the signal source. It was suggested that the evoked fields originated from the postsynaptic neuronal activity in the spinal cord. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Elimination of Electrode-Pop Artifacts in

    Page(s): 517 - 521
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    A circuit is described for automatic on-line real-time elimination of electrode-pop artifact from EEG recordings, which can occur occasionally from a sudden change in the dc contact potential at an electrode. The circuit, which functions irrespective of polarity and amplitude (over a wide range) of the artifact, is intended primarily for eliminating this artifact from EEG's for computer analysis, from which spurious results can otherwise emerge. Examples of operation of the circuit are included. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric Properties of VX-2 Carcinoma Versus Normal Liver Tissue

    Page(s): 522 - 524
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    The bulk electrical properties of an implanted VX-2 carcinoma in rabbit liver tissue were measured from 1 kHz to 13 MHz, together with those of normal rabbit liver tissue. At the lower end of the frequency range, the conductivity of the tumor tissue was 6-7.5 times higher and its permittivity was 2-5 times lower than that of the normal tissue. The increased conductivity of the tumor tissue is believed to arise from the presence of widespread necrosis in the tumor nodules. Such differences, if generally present between tumor and surrounding normal tissues, could be used to advantage in clinical applications of electromagnetic fields. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Four Methods for Estimating Breath-by-Breath Exchange of O2 and CO2

    Page(s): 524 - 526
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    Four methods which have been used to estimate breath-by-breath gas exchange during spontaneous breathing were compared in vivo and in vitro. The first method estimates net gas exchange by taking the difference between the inspired volume and expired volume of the gas. The second and third methods correct the first estimate by accounting for the intracycle difference between the total inspired volume and total expired volume. The fourth method not only corrects the first estimate for inspired and expired volume differences but also corrects for storage of the gas in the lung from one breath to the next. We found no significant difference among the estimates for O2 and CO2 gas exchange. However, the first and fourth estimates had more variability than the second and third. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Coaxial Exposure Cell for Biological Substances

    Page(s): 526 - 529
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    A coaxial cell suitable for exposure of biological substances to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from dc to 100 MHz is described. The cell provides uniform electric field throughout the exposed sample, requires a relatively small volume of the sample (typically below 1 ml), and allows for convenient control of the sample temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Flow in Intravenous Catheters

    Page(s): 529 - 531
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    The pressure-flow (P-F) relationship in intravenous catheters is shown to be represented by the predictive model P = RLF + RTF2. The pressure loss due to F, calculated from experimental data, was found to equal the expected Poiseuille laminar flow loss. Pressure loss due to F2 was found to be the sum of turbulent P losses due to entrance length flow disturbance, kinetic energy at the outflow, and minor shape change losses. Analysis of the flow capabilities of intravenous catheters can be used to evaluate suitability for specific intravenous infusion needs. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Stochastic Multicompartmental Models in Tracer Kinetics Experiments

    Page(s): 531 - 536
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    Two efficient algorithms are described for the estimation of dynamic parameters in a tracer kinetic experiment, when a stochastic multicompartmental model is utilized. The first approach is based on the sensitivity method, where the error between the model output and the system output is minimized. Sensitivity functions are calculated and model outputs are simulated by the algorithm at each iteration in order to estimate the optimal values of the model parameters. The concept of a whitening filter is used in the second method to convert the colored output error into a white sequence: the algorithm minimizes the estimated variance of the filtered sequence. Tests performed using simulated as well as real data confirm the effectiveness of both the techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Temperature Probe Sheathing Materials During Ultrasonic Heating

    Page(s): 536 - 538
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    The influence of sheathing materials upon temperature probes used during the monitoring of ultrasonic heating was measured. The measurements show that the sheathing can be heated in a manner not representative of the temperature rise occurring in the surrounding material, altering the probe readings. View full abstract»

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  • New Associate Editors Sought for IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering

    Page(s): 539
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  • Call for Papers Special Issue on Adaptive Control and Drug Delivery Systems

    Page(s): 540
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  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Statement of Editorial Policy

    Page(s): 540-a
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  • Institutional listings

    Page(s): 540b
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering