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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Editorial A Century of Progress

    Page(s): 729
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  • The Development of Biomedical Engineering: Historical Comments and Personal Observations

    Page(s): 730 - 736
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    The historical development of biomedical engineering and biophysics in the United States is summarized as experienced by the author, concentrating on the early decades until about 1970. Sections include: Early Developments and First Institutions; Early Initiatives and Committees of the IRE and AIEE Since 1947; Development of Biophysics in the USA; The IEEE Society for Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Drive for a Bioengineering Society; The Development of the Biomedical Engineering Society; Some Other Biomedical Engineering Societies; The NIH Initiative for the Development of Biomedical Engineering; First Academic Programs in Biomedical Engineering in the USA; International Interdisciplinary Organizations; and Some Conclusions and Recommendations. View full abstract»

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  • Impacts of the Technological Revolution on Health Care

    Page(s): 736 - 743
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    The last three decades have seen extraordinary advances in biomedical research and in patient care. The prevalence in disease pattern has changed from infectious to chronic diseases; and many of the conservative treatments of the past have given way to aggressive and often heroic procedures in the operating room, in a multitude of intensive care units, and in specialized treatment centers. At the same time, health care expenditures have risen from 13 billion or 4.5 percent of the gross national product (GNP) in 1950, to 322 billion or 10.5 percent of the GNP in 1982. Since the burden of these expenditures has increasingly shifted from individual patients and philanthropic sources to society as a whole, both government and the private sector have become actively involved in attempts to stop or at least slow down the rapid escalation of health care costs. In this paper, I am going to discuss the role which biomedical technology has played in this transition of the health care system. View full abstract»

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  • The Emerging Field of Clinical Engineering and Its Accomplishments

    Page(s): 743 - 748
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    Clinical engineering has emerged during the past 20 years as a specialty area to apply the knowledge produced by biomedical engineering research. The clinical engineer is a member of the health care team in a clinical environment and interfaces with physicians, nurses, and allied health care personnel. The role of clinical engineering also includes management, information systems, and health care delivery systems. A survey was performed, and the results of the questionnaire identified the primary contributions of clinical engineering to be as follows: provide technical advice, expertise, and educational services; provide electrical safety programs; provide consultation to resolve and investigate equipment malfunctions or failures; and provide for the centralized management and maintenance of medical instrumentation and equipment. The role of clnical engineering is expanding as the use of advanced technology increases in health care delivery. View full abstract»

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  • Automation in the Biomedical Laboratory

    Page(s): 748 - 752
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    Automation resources are used to ease the tasks of recording, classifying, and summarizing experimental information. Three instrumental architectures are examined. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Multiprocessor structures are shown to combine the advantages of the others. In software, state graph notation is seen as an example of a systematic solution to laboratory automation. A laboratory applications oriented operating system (LAOS) is defined. Automation resources are viewed as a vertical integration of multiprocessor hardware, associated system software tools, and LAOS as a superstructure. The operating system (OS) provides for synchronization and communication among processes executing on separate processors. A human interface converts simple operator commands and instructions into files composed of OS primitives which can be executed by the system. LAOS also monitors high level synchronization and experimental control of the subordinate processes. "Expert system" techniques are examined as a means of achieving a highly automated computer-based laboratory instrument. View full abstract»

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  • External Control of the Neuromuscular System

    Page(s): 752 - 763
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    The basic physiological processes active in voluntary and reflexive movement are reviewed and analyzed in light of recent data. The individual and interactive actions of such processes (i.e., rate, recruitment, synergy, feedbacks) are integrated and presented as a limb joint control system including upper, lower, perceptive, and reflexive hierarchical closed-loop regulators emphasizing the role of various feedback modalities. View full abstract»

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  • The Exercise-Responsive Cardiac Pacemaker

    Page(s): 763 - 770
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    The heart has two properties: rhythmicity and contractility. Rhythmic contractions are initiated by the heart's pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, which lies in the right atrium. If the sino-atrial node fails, or if its electrical excitations are not propagated to the ventricles (the main pumping chambers), they wil still contract rhythmically but at a rate that is sometimes too slow to provide enough cardiac output to sustain consciousness. It is for this reason that rhythmic electrical stimuli are delivered to the ventricles in order to increase cardiac output to a level adequate to permit the subject to perform routine daily tasks. The technique of applying rhythmic electrical stimuli to the ventricles is called cardiac pacemaking; it can be achieved in several interesting ways, as this paper will describe. View full abstract»

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  • From Holter Monitors to Automatic Defibrillators: Developments in Ambulatory Arrhythmia Monitoring

    Page(s): 770 - 778
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    In 1961, Holter reported a design of a tape recorder that acquired and stored electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from ambulatory patients. This made long-term monitoring of patients in their day-to-day environments possible. The next generation of devices employ microcomputer circuits for automatic interpretation of cardiac arrhythmias. Implantable pacemaker also show some arrhythmia interpretation capability. A special case is the automatic implantable defibrillator which recognizes the ventricular fibrillation signal. We present here the details of the original Holter recorder, the microcomputer-based arrhythmia monitor, and the automatic implantable defibrillator. In conjunction with the historic account of these developments, we present the current techniques of ambulatory ECG signal acquisition, processing, arrhythmia detection, and performance evaluation of automated arrhythmia detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Hyperthermia and Cancer Therapy: A Review of Biomedical Engineering Contributions and Challenges

    Page(s): 779 - 787
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    In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of the status of hyperthermia as a modality for cancer treatment from an engineer's point of view. By hyperthermia we mean elevating the tumor tissue to the temperature range of 42-50°C and holding it at this temperature for 30 min-1 h. We give a brief history of the field, some comments on the biological rationale, and a survey of present methods for producing hyperthermia using electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques. Finally, we give some comments on the success of present systems in achieving the specifications set by the clinicians and suggest some fundamental problems we feel need to be solved if hyperthermia is going to be able to make a contribution to the cure and control of this disease. View full abstract»

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  • Surgical Electrotechnology: Quo Vadis?

    Page(s): 787 - 792
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    The development of the modern electrosurgical generator and its accessories is outlined. The use of the electrosurgical scalpel is compared to other thermal knives: the plasma scalpel and the laser. The evolution of the dispersive electrode is summarized. Some of the innovations in endoscopic electrosurgery and the associated problems are discussed, along with a summary of some current research in hazard detection and waveform generating techniques and its impact on the next generation of electrosurgical generators. View full abstract»

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  • Noninvasive Transcutaneous Monitoring of Arterial Blood Gases

    Page(s): 792 - 800
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    Valuable clinical and physiological data concerning the function of the cardiopulmonary system can be obtained from continuous monitoring of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2), oxygen tension (PO2), and carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) in blood. While periodic blood sampling is still used clinically to determine arterial blood gases, it is becoming apparent that the recent introduction of continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood gases can offer many advantages. This paper discusses the historical development and significant accomplishments of various techniques available for transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. Four major areas are reviewed: electrochemistry, spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography. For each of these techniques, the theoretical basis, instrumentation, and clinical applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Development of Indicator-Dilution Techniques

    Page(s): 800 - 807
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    After 87 years, Stewart's fundamental conceptual contribution, the indicator-dilution method for measuring blood flow, is still the basis for a variety of common, practical, and minimally invasive clinical techniques. Given the spectrum of available indicators and their corresponding sensing techniques, we review the relevant transport theory and required assumptions. Various previous developments in the theory of flow and volume measurement are brought together in a formal restatement, based on the general case of dilution of volume indicators, rather than just the special case of mass indicators. The importance of each of the required assumptions is evaluated. Examples discussed include the use of conductivity modifiers and thermal indicators, with and without pulsatile flow. The formalism developed is intended to be helpful in assessing the opportunities and limitations associated with any proposed new indicator-dilution application. View full abstract»

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  • Electroglottography for Laryngeal Function Assessment and Speech Analysis

    Page(s): 807 - 817
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    The methodology of electroglottography is briefly outlined, Major emphasis is given to validating key features of the electroglottographic (EGG) waveform using ultrahigh-speed laryngeal films. We show how the instants of glottal closure and opening may be identified from the EGG waveform. This information may be used to improve speech analysis techniques such as the pitch synchronous, closed phase, covariance analysis method. Other applications include pitch detection, the determination of intervals of voicing, unvoicing, mixed voicing and silence, improving speech synthesis, and assisting the automation of inverse filtering. View full abstract»

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  • Implantable Telemetry in Biomedical Research

    Page(s): 817 - 823
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    Animal models of human physiology, pathology, and pharmacology are indispensable tools in biomedical research. Totally implantable radiotelemetry systems provide an invaluable appendage to animal models because these systems are a means for acquisition of otherwise unavailable experimental data. Implantable systems for measurement of velocity, volume flow, dimension, pressure, strain, bioelectric potential, temperature, and pH in selected applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Motion Artifacts and Interference in Biopotential Recording

    Page(s): 823 - 826
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    The application of engineering principles and techniques to biopotential recording has resulted in a continual improvement both in the type and the quality of recorded signals. Physical placement of electrodes has enabled improved discrimination of the biopotential of interest (such as the ECG) from unwanted biopotentials (such as the EMG). Understanding that the major motion artifact in ECG recording arises from the skin and not the electrode has resulted in techniques that reduce this artifact, such as skin abrasion and mechanical stabilization. However, skin abrasion makes the skin more subject to irritation, so mild gels are required. The development of the floating silver/silver chloride electrode has eliminated motion artifact and noise caused by the electrode. The development of the driven-right-leg circuit has greatly reduced interference due to power lines. Adaptive filters have reduced the difficult-to-eliminate interference due to spark-gap electrosurgical units. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Properties of Bioelectrodes

    Page(s): 827 - 832
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    This paper concentrates on the electrical properties of metal electrode¿electrolyte interfaces with emphasis on contributions by Schwan's laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania and more recently by the Bio-Electrode Research Laboratory at Drexel University. We cover the fundamental aspects of electrical characterization studies in a wide dynamic range for the amplitude and frequency content under both linear and nonlinear conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Electromagnetic Signals of the Human Brain: Milestones, Obstacles, and Goals

    Page(s): 833 - 850
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    Measuring the functioning of the human brain is one of the most formidable scientific/engineering endeavors ever undertaken. It is difficult to extract information about any particular processing function from brain electromagnetic signals (BEMS) since, at any instant, only a small fraction of the brain's hundreds of simultaneously active major systems might be performing processing related to the function being studied. With recent developments, a new era of research is dawning based on an interdisciplinary approach in which advanced signal processing methods are focused on increasingly more specific neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological research questions and clinical applications. This brief review highlights the major accomplishments of the last several decades in human BEMS analysis and discusses obstacles to progress. Five main topics are addressed: 1) the historical problem of developing a computerized expert clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) system; 2) advances in signal processing methods, including primary analysis, feature extraction, and statistical hypothesis testing and pattern classification; 3) integrated computing systems for BEMS analysis; 4) biophysical, basic science, practical and conceptual obstacles to progress; and 5) the long-term goal of developing a device for measuring the functional integrity of major neural systems, and the related topic of neurocybernetics. Cutting-edge issues discussed include measurement and modeling of nonstationary event-related signals, characterization of spatial processes, single-trial signal detection, location of the sources of scalp-recorded field distributions, and studies of the functional significance of BEMS. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Analysis of the EEG - General Concepts and Animal Studies

    Page(s): 850 - 856
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    Quantification of the EEG using digital computers is based on complex subjective processes of data reduction and feature extraction. In this paper, the signal characteristics of the EEG are identifred and major developments in the field of computerized electroencephalography (such as spectral analysis, compressed spectral arrays, etc.) are surveyed. Particular attention is given to signal analysis techniques used to characterize 1) background (stationary) EEG activity, and 2) interrelated multichannel EEG activity. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) has dominated approaches used to study background activity while cross-spectrum and coherence analysis have extended frequency or spectrum analysis into frequency-limited relationships between channels. In the realm of applications, the use of the digital computer-analyzed EEG to quantify 1) vigilance state dependent EEG changes, 2) the central effect of pharmacological agents, and 3) the normal ontogeny of the cortical and hippocampal EEG is described. View full abstract»

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  • A New Framework and Computer Program for Quantitative EMG Signal Analysis

    Page(s): 857 - 863
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    Techniques for analyzing electromyographic signals, which estimate and detect potentials caused by active motor units in human striated muscles, are described. A framework within which these techniques are incorporated into a computer program for the quantitative analysis of EMG signals is then proposed. The resulting program allows the diagnosis of neurogenic and myogenic diseases by analyzing the waveforms of the motor unit potentials (MUP's). It also permits the research of the healthy and disturbed neuromuscular control loop by analyzing the point processes given by the activation of the single motor units. View full abstract»

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  • Bioelectric Potentials - Their Source, Recording, and Significance

    Page(s): 863 - 868
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    The progress in the understanding, recording, and clinical utilization of bioelectric potentials is very briefly covered, from their discovery by Galvani in the 18th century to the present. Emphasis is placed on neurophysiological aspects and the author's involvement therein. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Formulations of Electrophysiological Sources of Potential Fields in Volume Conductors

    Page(s): 868 - 872
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    The noninvasive measurement of electrical potentials at the surface of the body (e.g., the electrocardiogram) has long been considered an important tool in clinical diagnosis. Electrophysiological modeling and simulation is valuable as an aid in the interpretation of such potential recordings. In all cases, the potential field can be considered to arise from bioelectric sources operating in a volume conductor. This paper concentrates on the appropriate quantitative formulation for these sources. Such sources arise from excitable cells undergoing action potentials (primary sources) or at passive boundaries between regions of different conductivity (secondary sources). These sources are described and discussed for arbitrary cell shapes, circular cylindrical cells, conductive media with piecewise constant conductivity, and for syncytial tissue whose macroscopic properties are anisotropic. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical and Acoustic Properties of Biological Materials and Biomedical Applications

    Page(s): 872 - 878
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    A survey of our research on the linear electrical and acoustic properties of biological materials including cells, tissues, and biopolymers is presented. Topics include: 1) dielectric properties of tissues and cells from dc to 20 GHz; 2) identification of the mechanism responsible for major dielectric relaxation effects observed (counter ion relaxation, Maxwell¿Wagner charging of membrane interfaces, relaxation of protein bound water, and relaxation of tissue water); 3) ultrasonic properties of biopolymers and tissues (identification of macromolecular absorption as the dominant contributor to acoustic absorption); and 4) interaction of EM fields with biosystems. This, in turn, includes applications in physical medicine, investigations of field-induced force effects on cells and their response, macroscopic and microscopic dosimetry, development of safety standards, and applications of available biophysical insight to evaluate field interaction with cells, membranes, and macromolecules. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering