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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 1974

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Group

    Page(s): c2
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  • Standardization and Interpretation of the Electromechanical Properties of Bone

    Page(s): 177 - 182
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    The development of a method that allows the quantitative determination of the anisotropic electromechanical properties of bone as a function of the actual specific crystalline quality of the sample under consideration is reported. In order to provide means of standardization and interpretation of the variation of such properties, all measured values of the latter, from a given sample, are transformed into those corresponding to a reference standard sample with a well-defined idealized crystalline structure. The application of this method to the stiffness tensor, piezoelectric tensor, and dielectric tensor components is specifically treated in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Analysis of the CW Doppler Ultrasonic Flowmeter

    Page(s): 183 - 192
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    The widespread application of ultrasonic techniques for the measurement of pulsatile blood flow has been hampered by the lack of a detailed theoretical understanding of the Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter. A general model for the Doppler flowmeter based upon stochastic considerations of the scattering of ultrasound by blood is introduced in this paper. The model characterizes the back- scattered ultrasound as a Gaussian random process and the expression for the autocovariance function is derived. For the CW Doppler flowmeter, the power spectral density function is computed, and its significance is emphasized: measurement of blood flow velocity corresponds to estimation of the average frequency of the Doppler power spectrum. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency- Wavenumber Spectrum Analysis of EEG Multielectrode Array Data

    Page(s): 192 - 206
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    Electroencephalographic (EEG) data consisting of visual evoked responses monitored via an array of electrodes from humans and penicillin-induced focal epileptic discharge data recorded from rat neocortex are analyzed. This procedure, previously applied to seismic array data, offers a method by which high-resolution vector velocity and, thus, direction and speed of propagating wavefronts can be estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Extraction for Left- Ventricular Volume Measurement

    Page(s): 207 - 213
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    Methods to automatically determine the boundary of left heart chambers from X-ray films (cineangiocardiograms) by computer are discussed. Several authors have considered entering a first approximation to the boundary manually by light-pen, and then letting the computer determine the exact boundary from successive frames automatically. A method to do the first step automatically as well is proposed in this paper, utilizing ventricle motion and contrast medium flow. Experiments indicate that brightness as a function of time varies much stronger inside the area of the left heart chamber than outside, due to heart, contraction and contrast medium fluctuation. Hence, using a suitable criterion for motion, it is possible to extract an approximate outline of the left ventricle by simple operations. This outline is then used as initial information for the subsequent frame-by-frame detection of the precise boundary of the heart chamber. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial Filtering to Improve Transverse Tomography

    Page(s): 214 - 219
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    A new transverse tomographic apparatus is described that enables the tomogram to be related to the ideal image by a linear blurring operation. It is shown that digital and optical linear spatial filtering techniques may be employed to remove the blurring that is present in the tomographic image obtained with the new device. Experimental verification of both restoration methods is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Catheter - Manometer System Linearity

    Page(s): 220 - 226
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    In an attempt to evaluate the pressure distortion due to clinical catheter-manometer systems, it becomes necessary to establish their linearity. While others have either discussed or have sought to establish the existence of linearity by investigation, no classification in present clinical systems has been made. Available discussions of the effect of a catheter-manometer system transfer function on pressure pulses start with the assumption that the transfer function is linear. Without linearity tests of the systems employed and with some investigators' results implying nonlinearity, this assumption remains unjustified. The work presented here establishes a linearity classification for systems now in use. A system is considered linear if its transfer function coefficients can be shown to be independent of pressure and time in the applicable zone of pressure and frequency. The coefficients of mass and damping, found with the aid of Womersley's equations, satisfy this criterion. The catheter spring constant, a complex number, and the remaining coefficient then determine system linearity. Different classes of catheters having differing cross-sectional structures lead to linearity in one case but do not necessarily imply linearity in a second case. With this in mind, linearity is then individually established for different catheters. Additionally, the compressibility of the catheter's fluid, previously ignored, is shown to influence the catheter's spring constant in some cases. The adverse effects of air bubbles on system fidelity is often not considered in the clinical application. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Model of Ventilatory Response to Changes in Po2 at the Carotid Body Chemoreceptors

    Page(s): 227 - 231
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    Much of the recent work evaluating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in the control of ventilation has involved the application of transient stimuli. The response of ventilation to a sustained step decrease in Po2 from 90 mm Hg to 32 mm Hg of blood perfusing the carotid bodies of dogs indicated an abrupt increase in ventilation to nearly the final steady-state levels. The similarity of this response to the classic linear second-order system response prompted the investigation of a mathematical model that could be used to simulate the ventilatory control loop. It has been determined that the response of the ventilatory system of the dog to step, ramp, pulse, and pulse train inputs of hypoxia can be simulated with good accuracy by a nonlinear closed-loop feedback system that contains linear second-order dynamics. The input to this system is proportional to the magnitude and the rate of change of Po2 at the carotid bodies. View full abstract»

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  • Prevention of Deep- Vein Thrombosis Due to Stasis

    Page(s): 232 - 237
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    Deep-vein thrombosis due to stasis in the lower extremities commonly occurs in surgery or during prolonged periods of bed rest. A system to prevent stasis was developed and consists of a three-compartment pressure cuff, a pneumatic source, and an electronic controller. The cuff is designed to be placed on the lower extremities over the calf. Each section of the cuff is sequentially and intermittently compressed. The sequential action for this compression is developed by an electronic controller that regulates pressure, periodicity, and duration of compression. Results show that a pressure wave can be developed that squeezes and propels the blood anteriorly through the venous system, and when the pressure is released the venous system refills. View full abstract»

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  • Implant Evaluation of a Nuclear Power Source - Betacel Battery

    Page(s): 238 - 241
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    In order to evaluate nuclear power sources for biomedical applications, a nuclear battery, Betacel, was used to power two telemetry transmitters designed with a very low power consumption. The transmitters were implanted in a dog to measure the voltage of the battery and the deep body temperature. Special care was given to the glass packaging to prevent possible damage from body fluids. The experiment ran continuously for a 6-month period before termination. At that time, the animal was sacrificed to examine the radiation damage of tissues in the vicinity of the transmitters as well as the effects on vital organs. No measurable abnormality was detected. The experiment suggests that the nuclear power source can be used to extend the working life of implanted medical instruments. View full abstract»

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  • Fraction Collector Using Ultrasonic Technique

    Page(s): 241 - 243
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    A fraction collector using an ultrasonic method to volumetrically sample small quantities of liquid is described in detail. The machine is designed around the parameters of studying the enterohepatic circulation of bile in the intact animal but may be used in the study of other body fluids. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-Controlled Synthesis of Tomograms by Means of a TV Storage Tube

    Page(s): 243 - 244
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    An improved electronic system for synthesizing tomograms is described. All functions are controlled by a minicomputer. The addition of TV images is performed by a video storate tube. Resolution values of the individual components as well as of the total system are given. View full abstract»

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  • Long-Term Free-Ranging Recording Using Data Integral to Pulse Frequency Signal Transformation

    Page(s): 245 - 246
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    A method has been devised for recording low-frequency dc physiologic signals for extended periods. The signal is transformed to a pulse train that can be recorded on a portable ECG tape recorder. The reproducing circuit permits the construction of an analog signal proportional to the average of the original signal. View full abstract»

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  • Eight-Channel Data Set for Clinical EEG Transmission Over Dial-Up Telephone Network

    Page(s): 246 - 249
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    Telephone telemetry is becoming increasingly more applicable to health care delivery. Technical characteristics and results of field testing of a new eight-channel constant-bandwidth (CBW) frequency-modulated data set are described in this communication. These tests have shown that eight channels of quality EEG can now be successfully transmitted simultaneously over one conventional telephone line. Economic considerations and other applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Inexpensive Electrophysiologic Calibration Unit

    Page(s): 249 - 251
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    An inexpensive compact calibration circuit providing linear ramps and dc levels suitable for calibration of microelectrode recordings is described. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Low-Frequency Noise for Use in Biological Experiments

    Page(s): 251 - 252
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    A simple technique is described for the generation of white noise having sufficient power below 10 Hz to be useful in biological experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 253 - 255
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  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 256
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  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Statement of Editorial Policy

    Page(s): 256-a
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  • Institutional listings

    Page(s): 256b
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering