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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1974

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Group

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): c2
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  • Automatic Analysis and Detection of EEG Spikes

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2053 KB)  

    A method for detecting spikes in the EEG is described. A digital computer is used to perform a detailed analysis of abnormal spikes to obtain quantitative values for spike characteristics and to determine the parameter values to be used in a special-purpose spike detector. This detector is described together with application results. View full abstract»

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  • Induction Thermocoagulation: Thermal Response and Lesion Size

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 8 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1537 KB)  

    A model has been formulated for the thermal and biological response of tissue to the thermocoagulation method of stereotactic surgery. The model has been solved numerically for the temperature distribution in the tissue around an implanted cylindrical thermoseed as a function of time during and after induction heating. The tissue thermal damage has been quantified and lesion size has been predicted as a function of thermoseed operating parameters. The results provide the clinician with an approximate indication of the thermal insult and suggest that the region of coagulative necrosis becomes less sharply defined with increasing thermoseed temperature and heating time. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent Optical Recognition and Counting of Reticulated Red Blood Cells

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 12 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3697 KB)  

    A coherent optical data-processing system for identifying and counting blood cells has been developed. Optical Weiner-Kolmogorov (minimum mean-square error) linear filtering is employed to estimate the density per unit area of a given cell type present in a sample blood smear. The Weiner filter is designed to recognize the characteristics of an ensemble of cells of a type rather than specific individual cells. In this way the system is made insensitive to minor variations in shape, size, or orientation of the cells. A Poisson shot-noise model for blood cells as a spatial random process is employed to calculate the far-field scattering from the cells. Results of experiments in which the percentage of reticulated (immature) red cells present in a smear has been determined are presented. The identification and counting accuracies compare favorably with those obtained by laboratory technicians with a microscope. The potential time saving of instantaneous estimation for the entire smear is significant. View full abstract»

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  • A Mathematical Model of the Vagus-Heart Period System in the Cat

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 21 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2187 KB)  

    The dynamic relation between changes in heart period and changes in the frequency of stimulation applied to the nerves involved in slowing the heart (vagus nerves) in chloralosed vagotomized cats pretreated with propranolol was investigated in ten cats using time-domain techniques. The strength of the stimuli was such that a sinus rhythm was always maintained. The typical response of heart period to step changes in the frequency of stimulation (range 4-50 Hz) was found to be an increase in heart period to a steady value preceded by an overshoot, and followed, after the stimulus was removed, by an undershoot (postvagal tachycardia). The observed response was accurately described by a dynamic model consisting of a third-order nonlinear system with time delay. The postvagal tachycardia was accounted for by including in the model a negative feedback loop; a portion of the overshoot was accounted for by the feedback loop and the remainder by including in the model a negative coefficient that varied as a negative exponential function of frequency. For small variations in the frequency of stimulation, it was shown in agreement with previous results, that the model could be approximated by a first-order system with time delay. In addition, it was found that provided a sinus rhythm was maintained, the steady-state value of heart period during vagal stimulation was neither a hyperbolic nor a logarithmic function of frequency of stimulation as suggested by previous investigators, but rather exhibited a maximum in the neighborhood of the middle of the frequency range studied. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-Linear Position Relationships in Rolling Joints

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 28 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB)  

    The relationship between the angle of joint position and a linear actuation position, together with appropriate torque relationships, is developed for rolling contact joints with offset insertion by first considering more simple situations. The position relationship can be made quasi-linear by a suitable choice of dimensions, a factor which may be of consequence in design studies of orthotic and prosthetic upper extremity devices and in the field of manipulators. View full abstract»

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  • Conductivity of Sheared Suspensions of Ellipsoidal Particles with Application to Blood Flow

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 33 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2405 KB)  

    The change in the electrical conductivity of blood observed in Couette and Poiseuille flow is discussed. Theoretical calculations considering the motion of red cells in Couette flow are presented. The red cells are considered as insulating ellipsoids in a conducting medium (plasma). The cell orientation distribution is used to calculate the change in conductivity with flow. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on the Optical Scattering Characteristics of Whole Blood

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 43 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB)  

    The effect of the cell membrane on the scattering and absorption of light by a red blood cell is investigated theoretically using spherical models. It is shown that although the backscattering cross section varies considerably with cell membrane refractive index, cell membrane has very little to do with other scattering and absorption characteristics in general. View full abstract»

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  • Resonance Absorption of Microwaves by the Human Skull

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 46 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
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    Resonance absorption of microwaves by the human skull is examined by making computerized calculations of theoretical models of the skull. The calculated relative absorption versus frequency is plotted and compared for homogeneous and inhomogeneous skull models. At a frequency of maximum power absorption, the spatial distribution of intracranial field intensity (based upon the theoretical model) is also calculated and plotted. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasound Dosage for Nontherapeutic Use on Human Beings - Extrapolations from a Literature Survey

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 48 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1384 KB)  

    A practical method for analyzing the biological effects of nontherapeutic ultrasound was applied to the data of 21 different principal investigators. The data were compiled so that individual investigators could develop tentative guidelines of their own regarding the hazards of diagnostic ultrasound in human beings. One set of guidelines developed suggested that exposures of minimal hazard lie below a log/log line connecting 100 ¿s of 100 W/cm2 ultrasound with 200 s of 100 mW/cm2 ultrasound. An ultrasonic intensity of 100 mW/cm2 or less was of little or no hazard for at least 10 000 s. These guidelines applied to both continuous- and pulsed-wave ultrasound doses that were described by average intensity multiplied by total exposure time. The proposed schedule was valid for 0.5-15 MHz and for all anatomic sites except the eyes. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Inhomogeneities on Surface Signals Coming from a Cerebral Current-Dipole Source

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 52 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB)  

    A three-sphere model is used to investigate the effects of inhomogeneities introduced by the scalp and the skull on the apparent location and magnitude of a current dipole representing local activity in the brain. The magnitude of the dipole is found to decrease by a proportion of 40 percent, whereas the location of the dipole appears 35 percent more centric. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Statistical Errors of the Median and Average Evoked Responses

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 54 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB)  

    It has previously been demonstrated that the median evoked response (MER) is appreciably less sensitive than the average evoked response (AER) to large artifactual disturbances [2]. It is shown here that for Gaussian noise, with artifactual noise absent, the confidence intervals of the median and average are comparable. View full abstract»

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  • A Device for the Calculation of dP/dt/P with Internal Calibration

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 56 - 60
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    An analog method for the calculation of dP/dt/P is described that in-corporates a means for internal calibration. Engineering tests of this device are reported as well as tests using pressures from the left ventricle of swine (20-25 Kgm). Interventions included inflation of a balloon in the inferior vena cava (peak pressure reduced by 50 percent), occlusion of the aorta (peak pressure increased by 100 percent), and pacing (from 150 to 210 beats/min). dP/dt/P (P denotes left-ventricular pressure) calculated from the analog device agreed within the noise level when compared with the calculation based on pressure alone using an A-D converter and digital computer. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Drain EEG Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 60 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    A low-current-drain low-noise amplifier suitable for long-life implanted transmitters is described. Frequency-response curves are given that show how to tailor the response. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) suitable for connection to an RF transmitter is also described. View full abstract»

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  • A Function Generator for Neurophysiological Applications

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 62 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (679 KB)  

    A function generator is described that basically generates a trapezoidal waveform whose leading and trailing ramps and positive and negative plateaus can be varied in duration, independently, between 0.5 ms and 50 s. By appropriate interconnections between the constituent units of the generator, a total of 12 different waveforms are generated, including triangular, sinusoidal, square, rectangular, and sawtooth waveforms. The output may be either free running or externally triggered to produce an adjustable integral number of cycles. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Gateable Transmitter for Acoustic Telemetering Tags

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 63 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1323 KB)  

    A single-transistor class B oscillator was designed as a gateable transmitter stage for ultrasonic tags. The transmitting efficiency was analyzed by grouping the various losses into two categories: collector circuit losses to determine the collector efficiency; and load circuit losses to determine the load efficiency. The collector efficiency, 58.5 percent for this design, is a function of the internal battery resistance, collector saturation resistance, operating power level, and battery voltage. The load efficiency, 37 percent for this design, includes losses from the transformer, base circuit, and projector. The conditions for maximum power transfer were delineated, and a simple procedure for obtaining an approximate measure of projector efficiency was prepared. View full abstract»

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  • An Electropneumatic Weight Applicator for Stimulating the Slowly Adapting Mechanoreceptors in the Cat's Footpads

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 66 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB)  

    A device is described for precise stimulation of the slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in the cat's footpads. At a preset delay following the arrival of an external triggering pulse, a selected weight in the range 50 gm-2 kgm is applied for a preset duration, then lifted pneumatically. A displacement transducer provides a voltage signal proportional to the displacement of the weight. View full abstract»

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  • Random Time-Interval Generator

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 68 - 70
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    A solid-state device utilizing TTL logic circuitry is described that produces a randomly timed series of pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Airflow Determination in a Horizontal Laminar Airflow Operating Room

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 70 - 73
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    The criteria used in the selection of a laminar airflow unit are presented. The unit acquired and installed is described. The air-velocity profiles are shown for the empty and occupied operating room, and the method for their determination is described. The study of the velocity profiles indicated the unit operated to the manufacturer's description and met the needs for a particular operating room. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Detection of Distortion in Arterial Pressure Signals

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 73 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (953 KB)  

    An application of the mathematical concept of curvature to the detection of distortion in arterial pressure signals is described. Curvature is defined and examples of digitally filtered pressure tracings show the relationship between curvature and the degree of damping. Even though curvature is also a function of the cardiovascular system producing the signal, the average sum of curvature can generally distinguish control signals from signals distorted by moderate amounts of blood or air in the catheter systems. Selected pressure signals with their associated sums of curvature show the properties and limitations of curvature for discriminating between the changes in the cardio-vascular system and distortion of pressure signals. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical Damping of the Manometric System Used in the Pressure Gradient Technique

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 76 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1775 KB)  

    A simple method for introducing mechanical damping in catheter-manometer systems so that a flat frequency response throughout 30 Hz can be realized easily is described. This allows reliable computation of instantaneous blood velocity by the pressure gradient technique, since the bandwidth available, dc to 22 Hz, allows accurate recording of the pressure gradient, even when long catheters are used. Similarly, the first time derivative of the intraventricular pressure pulse can be obtained without difficulty. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 78 - 79
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  • A look to your future IEEE Can Help You Stay Current Technically Through Groups and Societies

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 80
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Statement of Editorial Policy

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 80-a
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering