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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2007

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Volterra Behavioral Model for Wideband RF Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 449 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a behavioral modeling approach for the description of nonlinearities in wideband wireless communication circuits with memory. The model is formally derived exploiting the dependence on frequency of the amplifier nonlinear transfer functions and reduce the number of parameters in a general Volterra-based behavioral model. To validate the proposed approach, a commercial amplifier at 915 MHz, exhibiting nonlinear memory effects, has been widely characterized using different stimuli, including two tones, quadrature phase-shift keying wideband code division multiple access, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals with rectangular and root-raised cosine conforming pulses. The theoretical results have been compared with experimental data demonstrating that the model performance is comparable to the well-established memory polynomial model. Calculated and measured baseband waveforms, signal constellation, spectral regrowth and adjacent channel power ratio are tightly coincident in all cases, emphasizing the relevance of the proposed model View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of Transmit/Receive Switch in Triple-Well CMOS for MIMO Wireless Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 458 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and analysis of an RF transmit/receive switch in CMOS for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. First, both full-range and abridged quad-pole quad-throw (4P4T) switch architectures for MIMO systems with four antenna elements are comparatively studied. The full-range 4P4T switch is selected for circuit implementation because of its more switching states and lower insertion loss. The series connection and body-floating techniques are then employed in the circuit design to achieve an acceptable performance. Fabricated in 0.12-mum triple-well CMOS with an effective die area 0.35times0.19 mm2, the 4P4T switch exhibits less than 2.7-dB insertion loss and higher than 20-dB isolation over the frequency range from 2 to 10 GHz. It also attains measured power-handling capability more than 25 dBm at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz View full abstract»

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  • A High-Performance CMOS Voltage-Controlled Oscillator for Ultra-Low-Voltage Operations

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 467 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel circuit topology of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) suitable for ultra-low-voltage operations is presented. By utilizing the capacitive feedback and the forward-body-bias (FBB) technique, the proposed VCO can operate at reduced supply voltage and power consumption while maintaining remarkable circuit performance in terms of phase noise, tuning range, and output swing. Using a standard 0.18-mum CMOS process, a 5.6-GHz VCO is designed and fabricated for demonstration. Consuming a dc power of 3 mW from a 0.6-V supply voltage, the VCO exhibits a frequency tuning range of 8.1% and a phase noise of -118 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency. With an FBB for the cross-coupled transistors, the fabricated circuit can operate at a supply voltage as low as 0.4 V. The measured tuning range and phase noise are 6.4% and -114 dBc/Hz, respectively View full abstract»

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  • A 15/30-GHz Dual-Band Multiphase Voltage-Controlled Oscillator in 0.18- μm CMOS

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 474 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multiphase oscillator suitable for 15/30-GHz dual-band applications is presented. In the circuit implementation, the 15-GHz half-quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is realized by a rotary traveling-wave oscillator, while frequency doublers are adopted to generate the quadrature output signals at the 30-GHz frequency band. The proposed circuit is fabricated in a standard 0.18-mum CMOS process with a chip area of 1.1times1.0 mm2. Operated at a 2-V supply voltage, the VCO core consumes a dc power of 52 mW. With a frequency tuning range of 250 MHz, the 15-GHz half-quadrature VCO exhibits an output power of -8 dBm and a phase noise of -112 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency. The measured power level and phase noise of the 30-GHz quadrature outputs are -16 dBm and -104 dBc/Hz, respectively View full abstract»

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  • Design of Class E Amplifier With Nonlinear and Linear Shunt Capacitances for Any Duty Cycle

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 484 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main advantages of class E amplifiers for RF and microwave applications relies on the inclusion of a shunt capacitance in the tuned output network. At high frequencies, this capacitance is mainly provided by the output parasitic capacitance of the device with perhaps a linear external one for fine adjustments. The device's output capacitance is nonlinear and this influences the design parameters, frequency limit of operation, and performance of the class E amplifier. This paper presents a design method for the class E amplifier with shunt capacitance combining a nonlinear and linear one for any duty cycle, any capacitance's nonlinear dependence parameters, and any loaded quality factor of the tuned network. Nonlinear design with possibly different duty cycles is of relevance to maximize power or, alternatively, frequency utilization of a given device. Experimental, simulated, and compared results are presented to prove this design procedure View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of a Dynamic Predistorter for WCDMA Handset Power Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 493 - 503
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a dynamic predistorter (PD), which linearizes the dynamic AM-AM and AM-PM of a wideband code division multiple access handset power amplifier (PA). The dynamic PD allows an adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACPR) improvement of 15.7 dB, which is superior to conventional PDs that linearize static AM-AM and AM-PM. The dynamic PD was designed using an HBT generating nonlinearity, a short circuit at the baseband (les4 MHz), and a load circuit for the HBT at the RF fundamental band (ap1.95 GHz). Volterra-series analysis was performed to understand the mechanism of the dynamic PD. The analysis revealed that the short circuit at the baseband enabled the dynamic PD generating third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) with opposite phase to the fundamental tone (i.e., antiphase IMD3). The antiphase IMD3 allows dynamic gain compression, which linearizes the dynamic gain expansion of a PA with low quiescent current. The analysis also revealed that the IMD3 amplitude of the dynamic PD can be adjusted by load impedance at the RF fundamental band, which enables the gradient of dynamic AM-AM and AM-PM to be optimized to linearize the PA. The fabricated two-stage InGaP/GaAs HBT PA module with the dynamic PD exhibited an ACPR of -40 dBc and a power-added efficiency of 50% at an average output power of 26.8 dBm with a quiescent current of 20 mA View full abstract»

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  • The Direct Detection Effect in the Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixer Sensitivity Calibration

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 504 - 510
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate an error in the noise temperature measurements of the hot-electron bolometer mixers caused by the so-called "direct detection effect". The effect originates in the changing of the mixer parameters when the mixer is loaded on calibration black body sources at different temperatures (300 and 77 K). A correction factor was obtained from the mixer output power versus the bias current dependence, measured by: 1) the local oscillator (LO) power tuning: 2) mixer heating: and 3) application of an external RF source. Furthermore, the direct detection effect was assessed by elimination of the heterodyne response using a LO frequency, which is far off the mixer RF band. We show that the direct detection effect can be mitigated by using an isolator between the mixer and the IF amplifier View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Effects of Random Rough Interface on Power Absorption Between Dielectric and Conductive Medium in 3-D Problem

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 511 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study the effects of a random rough surface on the power absorption between a dielectric and conductive medium in a 3-D configuration where the surface height varies in both horizontal directions. The analytic small perturbation method of second order and numerical T-matrix method are used. The absorption depends on the root mean square height, correlation length, and correlation function of the random rough surface. A closed-form expression of power absorption enhancement factor is obtained from small perturbation method of second order. Results show that the T-matrix method agrees with the small perturbation method for rough surfaces with a small slope. We further compare the 3-D results to the previous 2-D results and show significant difference. The power absorption enhancement factor exhibits saturation for the Gaussian correlation function, but not for the exponential correlation function View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of 3-D Surface Roughness Effects With Application to μ-Coaxial Lines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 518 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Effects of 3-D surface roughness on the propagation constant of transverse electromagnetic transmission lines are calculated using finite-element method software by solving for the fields inside conductors. The modeling is validated by comparison with available literature results for the special case of 2-D surface roughness and by simulations using the finite-integration technique. Results for cubical, semiellipsoidal, and pyramidal indentations, as well as rectangular, semicircular, and triangular grooves in conductor surfaces are presented. A developed surface roughness model is applied to rectangular mu-coaxial lines. It is shown that roughness contributes up to 9.2% to their overall loss for frequencies below 40 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent SPICE Circuits With Guaranteed Passivity From Nonpassive Models

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 526 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new fast technique of passivity enforcement of a nonpassive rational model is introduced. The technique disturbs poles of the model to restore passivity in such way that the frequency response of a device being modeled is preserved. The passivity enforcement procedure is defined as an optimization routine with the gradients of the cost function evaluated using the theory of matrix perturbation. The rational model can be based either on passive (electromagnetic simulations, measurements) or nonpassive (surrogate models) data. In the second case, the proposed technique can lead to a parameterized SPICE networks. Some advanced examples are given to show the application of proposed approach in interconnect, packaging, and signal integrity analysis View full abstract»

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  • Singular Tetrahedral Finite Elements for Vector Electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 533 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electromagnetic fields at reentrant edges made of conductor are generally singular and the polynomial basis functions used in traditional finite elements do not model the fields well in these regions. Two new tetrahedral elements are introduced with basis functions that incorporate the known asymptotic variation of the fields with distance from the edge. The basis is split into gradient and rotational parts. Additional vertex functions can be added to improve the conditioning of the global matrix system that arises in the time-harmonic case. Results are presented for the scattering parameters of a number of waveguide discontinuities. The new elements reduce the error considerably compared to the Whitney element, and generally outperform the second-order edge element, even though that has more degrees of freedom View full abstract»

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  • Space-Mapping Optimization With Adaptive Surrogate Model

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 541 - 547
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proper choice of mapping used in space-mapping optimization algorithms is typically problem dependent. The number of parameters of the space-mapping surrogate model must be adjusted so that the model is flexible enough to reflect the features of the fine model, but at the same time is not over flexible. Its extrapolation capability should allow the prediction of the fine model response in the neighborhood of the current iteration point. A wrong choice of space-mapping type may lead to poor performance of the space-mapping optimization algorithm. In this paper, we consider a space-mapping optimization algorithm with an adaptive surrogate model. This allows us to adjust the type of space-mapping surrogate model used in a given iteration based on the approximation/extrapolation capability of the model. The technique does not require any additional fine model evaluations View full abstract»

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  • Ceramic Layer-By-Layer Stereolithography for the Manufacturing of 3-D Millimeter-Wave Filters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 548 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ceramic stereolithography has been developed and used to manufacture RF devices using periodic structures. To our knowledge, it is the first time that zirconia and high-performance Ba3ZnTa2O9 ceramics are used with that process to manufacture high unloaded quality factor resonant structures and bandpass filters working in the Ka-band. A theoretical study on the performances of periodic arrangements of high-permittivity structures has been carried out and has led to the manufacture of a high unloaded quality factor cavity and narrow three-pole filter (1% bandwidth) measured at a working frequency of 33 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Heat Conduction in Microwave Devices With Orthotropic and Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 555 - 560
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with steady-state heat conduction in integrated circuits due to surface heating. Temperature-dependent and orthotropic thermal conductivities are assumed, and an exact formula is obtained for the temperature field in the integrated circuit due to arbitrary surface flux loading. These general results are then specialized to specific forms of surface flux representative of multifingered FETs of arbitrary gate length, gatewidth, and pitch. Numerical results are presented for a representative transistor on a gallium-arsenide substrate and comparisons are made, where possible, to existing approximate solutions, as well as to finite-element results. The examples are chosen to highlight the effects of orthotropy and temperature dependence of thermal conductivity on the junction temperature of devices on integrated circuits View full abstract»

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  • Low-Loss Patterned Ground Shield Interconnect Transmission Lines in Advanced IC Processes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 561 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide an extensive experimental and theoretical study of the benefits of patterned ground shield interconnect transmission lines over more conventional layouts in advanced integrated-circuit processes. As part of this experimental work, we present the first comparative study taken on truly differential transmission line test structures. Our experimental results obtained on transmission lines with patterned ground shields are compared against a predictive compact equivalent-circuit model. This model employs exact closed-form expressions for the inductances, and describes key performance figures such as characteristic impedance and attenuation loss with excellent accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Compact Left-Handed Transmission Line as a Linear Phase–Voltage Modulator and Efficient Harmonic Generator

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 571 - 578
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3027 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We construct a synthetic left-handed transmission line with cascaded varactors and shunt inductors. By modulating dc bias, the capacitance of the varactors can be changed and modulation of the output phase state is possible. For frequencies from 4.7 to 6.4 GHz, a very linear phase variation versus voltages of over 200deg phase variation with low insertion-loss variation (plusmn0.5dB) is demonstrated. This circuit can also act as an efficient harmonic generator when a large signal is applied. Since the left-handed transmission line shows high-pass filter response, harmonics generated are not seriously attenuated. However, because this synthetic transmission line is a very dispersive medium, strong dispersions and instabilities may arise. The circuit size is determined by the diode size and lumped-element inductor, allowing it to be compact View full abstract»

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  • An LTCC-Based Wireless Transceiver for Radio-Over-Fiber Applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 579 - 587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the realization of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)-based wireless transceiver with optical interface for radio-over-fiber applications involving several standards. The RF front-end including an antenna is fabricated in LTCC technology, while the optical transceiver with a single-mode optical interface is built on a silicon motherboard. The front-end operates in the 5-6-GHz band, while the modulated optical carrier is transmitted at 1.55-mum wavelength. The front-end module is an attractive solution for wireless local area network applications such as IEEE 802.11a or HIPERLAN2 requiring a direct link to an optical backbone View full abstract»

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  • Development of a 2.45-GHz Local Exposure System for In Vivo Study on Ocular Effects

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 588 - 596
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We developed a new exposure system to irradiate microwaves locally on a rabbit eye using a small coaxial-to-waveguide adapter filled with low-loss dielectric material as an antenna. A numerical rabbit model was also developed using X-ray computer tomography images, and the specific absorption rates (SARs) in the rabbit, especially in the eye, were analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain method. The temperature elevation in the exposed eye was also evaluated by solving a bioheat equation. Our exposure system can generate incident power density of 15 mW/cm2 at the surface of a rabbit eye with input power of 1 W. When the incident power density on the rabbit eye is 300 mW/cm2 , average SAR over the exposed eye and the whole body were approximately 108 and 1.8 W/kg, respectively. The exposure system can realize localized exposure to the eye with the ratio of exposed-eye averaged SAR to the whole-body averaged SAR was 60. The developed exposure system can achieve high-intensity exposure such as the threshold of cataracts, i.e., the eye-averaged SAR over 100 W/kg or the lens temperature over 41 degC with the incident power density of 300mW/cm2 without significant whole-body thermal stresses View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "TOA Estimation for IR-UWB Systems With Different Transceiver Types"

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 597 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    For original article by I. Guvenc, Z. Sahinoglu and P.V. Orlik, see ibid., vol.54, no.6, p.1876-86, June 2006 View full abstract»

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  • Authors' reply

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 598
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    For comments by S. Nadarajah see ibid., vol.55, no.3, p.597-8, March 2007. The authors thank S. Nadarajah for his comments on their original article (see ibid., vol.54, no.6, p.1876-86, June 2006) View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques information for authors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 599
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    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 600
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  • IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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