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Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 141 - 142
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Guest Editors: Special Issue on Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting

    Page(s): 143 - 144
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • FLO Physical Layer: An Overview

    Page(s): 145 - 160
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    This paper provides an overview of the physical layer of the Forward Link Only (FLO) Air Interface. The FLO Air Interface is a key component of the MediaFLO system developed by QUALCOMM as an alternative mobile multicast technology for the efficient transmission of multiple multi-media streams to mobile devices using TV and multi-media channel bandwidths in VHF, UHF, or L-band. The main concepts and features of the FLO Air Interface including the modulation and coding techniques used, the frame structure, and the different sub-channels within the physical layer are described. The available data rates as well as other characteristics of FLO are also described. Finally, the performance of the FLO physical layer in representative channel environments is presented View full abstract»

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  • DVB-H and IP Datacast—Broadcast to Handheld Devices

    Page(s): 161 - 170
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    DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld) is the digital broadcast standard for transmitting broadcast content to handheld terminal devices, developed by the International DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) Project. DVB-H is based on the DVB-T standard for digital terrestrial television but tailored to the special requirements of the pocket-size class of receivers. The IP Datacast specification, which was also recently standardized, contributes the higher layer protocols to build a complete end-to-end system. This article presents an overview of the DVB-H and IP Datacast systems with respect to features and technology. An outlook on DVB-H network deployment is given View full abstract»

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  • System and Services of Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB)

    Page(s): 171 - 178
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    Commercial terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) service was launched on December 1st, 2005, in the Seoul metropolitan area of the Republic of Korea. As the world's first commercial terrestrial mobile multimedia broadcasting service, T-DMB garnered huge attention in the field of mobile broadcasting. This paper presents the history, system, and services of T-DMB View full abstract»

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  • Personal and Mobile Satellite DMB Services in Korea

    Page(s): 179 - 187
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    A new mobile multimedia broadcasting service using a geostationary satellite was launched on May 2005 in Korea. The Satellite Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (S-DMB) system provides high quality audio, video and data broadcasting services to handheld and mobile receivers. S-DMB is a personal digital media which can provide bidirectional and interactive services via the convergent platform of broadcasting and communication. At present, TU Media, the only S-DMB service provider in Korea, provides 15 TV channels, 19 audio channels, and 3 data channels. The number of subscribers is about 890,000 by Nov. 2006. Thousands of low power gap fillers (repeaters) have been installed in the shadowed or blocked reception areas in the metropolitan Seoul. This paper presents the system requirements, standards and specifications, architecture, and service status of S-DMB in Korea. Comparisons with other satellite broadcasting systems and the services are also presented. Link budget analysis on the direct path down-link (satellite to receivers) and relay path feeder link (gap fillers to receivers) are carried out in order to ensure the satisfactory QoS View full abstract»

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  • Delivery of Broadcast Services in 3G Networks

    Page(s): 188 - 199
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    TV is regarded as a key service for mobile devices. In the past, Mobile TV was often associated with broadcast transmission. However, unicast technology is sufficient in many cases, especially since mobile users prefer to access content on-demand, rather than following a fixed schedule. In this paper we will focus on 3G mobile networks, which have been primarily optimized for unicast services. Based on a traffic model we will discuss the capacity limits of 3G networks for unicast distribution of Mobile TV. From the results it can be concluded that the capacity is sufficient for many scenarios. In order to address scenarios in which broadcast is a more appropriate technology, 3GPP has defined a broadcast extension, called Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS). MBMS introduces shared radio broadcast bearers and has thus the capabilities of a real broadcasting technology. We will give a short overview about MBMS including a discussion on MBMS capacity. Since MBMS is primarily a new transport technology, additional application and service layer technologies are required, like electronic service guide and service protection. These mechanisms are standardized by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and are favorably combined with MBMS or 3G unicast distribution in order to create complete end-to-end solutions. In order to optimize a system for delivery of broadcast services over 3G networks, the advantages of broadcast and unicast should be combined. We argue that hybrid unicast-broadcast delivery offers the best system resource usage and also the best user experience, and is thus favorable not only for broadcast delivery in 3G networks, but actually also for non-cellular broadcast systems like DVB-H or DMB View full abstract»

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  • Service Platform for Converged Interactive Broadband Broadcast and Cellular Wireless

    Page(s): 200 - 211
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    A converged broadcast and telecommunication service platform is presented that is able to create, deliver, and manage interactive, multimedia content and services for consumption on three different terminal types. The motivations of service providers for designing converged interactive multimedia services, which are crafted for their individual requirements, are investigated. The overall design of the system is presented with particular emphasis placed on the operational features of each of the sub-systems, the flows of media and metadata through the sub-systems and the formats and protocols required for inter-communication between them. The key features of tools required for creating converged interactive multimedia content for a range of different end-user terminal types are examined. Finally possible enhancements to this system are discussed. This study is of particular interest to those organizations currently conducting trials and commercial launches of DVB-H services because it provides them with an insight of the various additional functions required in the service provisioning platforms to provide fully interactive services to a range of different mobile terminal types View full abstract»

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  • High Data-Rate Video Broadcasting Over 3G Wireless Systems

    Page(s): 212 - 223
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    In cellular environments, video broadcasting is a challenging problem in which the number of users receiving the service and the average successfully decoded video data-rate have to be intelligently optimized. When video is broadcasted using the 3G packet data standard, 1xEV-DO, the code space may be divided among the multiple layers if scalable video coding is employed. In this paper, we propose a novel, multi-objective optimized video broadcasting scheme for 1xEV-DO and investigate the feasibility of using multiple layers for transmission. The multi-objective optimization aims to find the best compromise between maximizing the average decodable video data-rate and minimizing the basic quality video outage probability. Simulations conducted for the ITU Pedestrian A and Vehicular B channels show that high data-rates with low outages are possible when 1xEV-DO is used for video broadcasting, however, it may not be desirable to use scalable video coding for this purpose View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Resolution Broadcast/Multicast Systems for MBMS

    Page(s): 224 - 234
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    Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) supports downlink streaming and download-and-play type services to large groups of users. From the radio perspective, MBMS includes point-to-point (PtP) and point-to-multipoint (PtM) modes. This paper investigates and presents different multi-resolution broadcast systems for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) cellular mobile networks, namely, multi-code, hierarchical QAM constellations and multi-antenna (MIMO) systems. Each one present performance gains over conventional single-resolution broadcast systems. A comparison is made between the three proposed multi-resolution systems. The use of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) to multicast video streaming as a multi-resolution system, associated or not to MIMO, can be employed by the MBMS PtP mode, but dependently on the deployment scenarios it can yield substantial reduction in resource demand and optimization of the allocated radio resources View full abstract»

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  • Reliable Multimedia Download Delivery in Cellular Broadcast Networks

    Page(s): 235 - 246
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    Raptor codes have been standardized as application layer forward error correction (FEC) codes for Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) and Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) due to their extraordinary advanced FEC protection and performance. Raptor codes are known to have characteristics very close to ideal and provide a wide range of operating flexibility and efficiency unmatched by other codes, and in particular they are an excellent implementation of fountain codes. Until now, investigations of the application of Raptor codes to UMTS and EPGRS have used an overall system model that does not accurately model the physical channel and user mobility, simplistically assuming independent random packet losses at the application layer. We investigate MBMS in UMTS in a much more realistic and complete simulation environment by considering advanced and complete channel models that simulate the physical channel and user mobility in a cellular network. We use this realisitic simulation environment to determine optimal system parameters under different mobility models, with different bearer parameters, and without and with selective combining. More specifically, we investigate joint settings of the Raptor code rate, the Turbo code rate, transmission power, etc., to find settings which provide reliable download delivery of files using minimal transmission energy. One of our main results is that optimal system-wide operating points use low transmission power and a modest amount of Turbo coding that results in relatively large radio packet loss rates that is compensated for by using a substantial amount of Raptor coding. These optimal operating points use far less transmission energy for download delivery of files than possible operating points without Raptor View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Cyclic Delay Diversity on DVB-H Systems over Spatially Correlated Channel

    Page(s): 247 - 255
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    The objective of this work is to research and analyse the performance of Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD) with two transmit antenna on DVB-H systems operating in spatially correlated channel. It is shown in this paper that CDD can achieve desirable transmit diversity gain over uncorrelated channel with or without receiver diversity. However, in reality, the respective signal paths between spatially separated antennas and the mobile receiver is likely to be correlated because of insufficient antenna separation at the transmitter and the lack of scattering effect of the channel. Under this spatially correlated channel, it is apparent that CDD cannot achieve the same diversity gain as obtained under the uncorrelated channel. In this paper, a new upper bound on the pairwise error probability (PEP) of the CDD with spatial correlation of two transmit antennas is derived. The upper bound is used to study the CDD theoretical error performance and diversity gain losses over a generalized spatially correlated Rayleigh channel. This theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation of DVB-H systems with two transmit antennas and the CDD scheme. Both the theoretical and simulated results give the valuable insight that the CDD ability to perform well with a certain amount of channel correlation View full abstract»

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  • Turbo Product Codes for Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting With Partial-Time Jamming

    Page(s): 256 - 262
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    Mobile multimedia broadcasting could suffer from multipath fading as well as partial-time jamming interference. In this paper, turbo product codes are proposed to suppress the effect of these interferences. We propose an efficient decoding algorithm using Chase decoder by taking into consideration the jamming state information. To make the variance of the jammed bits same as the other un-jammed bits, a scaling factor is used to adjust the amplitude of the received signal of the jammed bits. This processing benefits the followed Chase decoder. The upper and lower bounds of turbo product codes over such channels are derived and simulations have been performed to evaluate the derived bounds. Simulation results have shown that the proposed algorithm can mitigate the partial-time jamming greatly and the numerical bounds are tight for high signal-to-jamming ratio region View full abstract»

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  • The Performance Analysis of MPE-FEC Decoding Methods at the DVB-H Link Layer for Efficient IP Packet Retrieval

    Page(s): 263 - 275
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    DVB-H is a new broadcasting standard, which offers reliable high data rate reception of IP packets for mobile handheld battery-powered devices. A link layer with multiprotocol encapsulation (MPE), including Reed-Solomon forward error correction (FEC) combined with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), is defined in the standard to work on top of the DVB-T physical layer. For error correction in the receiver the DVB-H standard suggests to use erasure decoding based on the CRC information. Yet, the decoding method is not strictly determined in the standard. This paper investigates the performance of five different Reed-Solomon decoding schemes for the DVB-H link layer forward error correction called MPE-FEC. They differ on utilization strategy of existing erasure information. The performance of different decoding methods are evaluated analytically in an binary symmetric channel (BSC) and with simulations in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and a mobile fading channel. For the simulations in the fading channel a packet channel model based on actual measurements is designed. It is shown that more sophisticated decoding methods than the one suggested in the standard are required for efficient retrieval of IP packets View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Cross-Layer Error Control for Wireless Video Multicast

    Page(s): 276 - 285
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    In this paper we develop cross-layer schemes combining source rate selection, power management, and error control for wireless multicast of SNR scalable video. In particular, two error control schemes are analysed and compared. The first one, type 2 hybrid ARQ/FEC, is based on incremental redundancy chosen to recover losses and provide the required level of video quality. The second one, called noncausal error control, relies on error concealment from future video data whose quality is adaptively adjusted to bring the video quality up to the desired level for all users. Our results indicate that noncausal error control can be significantly more efficient than type 2 hybrid ARQ/FEC View full abstract»

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  • Fading Techniques for Error Concealment in Block-Based Video Decoding Systems

    Page(s): 286 - 296
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    Error concealment has a great importance within block-based video decoding systems especially for mobile transmission systems like DVB-T or DVB-H. In this paper, we propose a spatio-temporal and spatio-bi-temporal fading technique for recovering lost or erroneously received macroblock samples. For spatio-temporal fading based on a boundary error criterion obtained from temporal error concealment, either spatial, temporal, or fading of both methods is used for recovering lost image samples in one macroblock. A weighted absolute difference between well received macroblock boundary samples from the current frame and motion compensated macroblock boundary samples from the previous frame represents the boundary error. The weights for fading are interpolated from the boundary error. For spatio-bi-temporal fading, one lost macroblock can individually be recovered pel-wise spatially from the current or bi-temporally from the previous and the future frame by weighted averaging three different estimations for the lost macroblock. The simulation results have shown that for concealing erroneously received uncompressed and compressed video data the proposed methods outperform the reference methods both in subjective and objective video quality View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of an RTP Level Hybrid Error Correction Scheme for DVB Services Over Wireless Home Networks Under Strict Delay Constraints

    Page(s): 297 - 307
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    In order to meet very low packet loss rate (PLR) requirements under strict delay constraints for IP based DVB services over wireless home networks (WHN), an optimized real-time transport protocol (RTP) level hybrid error correction (HEC) scheme is proposed in this paper. The scheme is compared with the Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) scheme using Reed-Solomon code. By the HEC scheme, the needed redundancy information (RI) for repairing missing packets can be minimized, especially in DVB systems with a single user. The result of quantitative analysis shows that the needed RI of the proposed scheme can even achieve the Shannon limit with only three retransmission rounds. On the other hand, our studies show that the performance of the HEC scheme is better than that of the AFEC scheme if both the average link PLR and group size are small. However, if both the average link PLR and group size are large enough, the AFEC scheme performs better than the HEC scheme. At last, the simulation results for one typical scenario are also provided in the paper to validate the result of quantitative analysis for the HEC scheme. As a result, because of the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed HEC scheme, it is a very good choice for guaranteeing the Quality of Service for DVB systems in WHN with the small group size and small average link PLR. However, for scenarios with the large average link PLR and large group size, the AFEC scheme should be taken into account View full abstract»

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  • New Error-Resilient Scheme Based on FMO and Dynamic Redundant Slices Allocation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Page(s): 308 - 319
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    Video quality suffers significant degradation when transmitted over error-prone channel, due to packet loss, errors caused by fading in wireless channel and due to the video codec prediction mechanisms. The H.264/AVC standard suggests some new error-resilient features to enable reliable transmission of compressed video signal over lossy packet networks. Two of those new features are the Redundant Slices and the Flexible Macro-Block Ordering (FMO). In this paper we propose a new error-resilient scheme which merges the H.264/AVC FMO feature with a new technique for dynamic allocation of redundant slices depending on the wireless channel fading parameters. We suggest using a unique smart dynamic redundant slices allocation scheme which considers the dynamic wireless channel parameters rather than using the classical standard static allocation. The proposed redundant slice allocation algorithm is based on both Average Fade Duration (AFD), and Level Cross Rate (LCR) channel's characteristics. Moreover, we propose a new Explicit Spiral-Interleaved (ESI) flexible macroblocks ordering technique, which outperforms all other FMO types. The new ESI ordering results in effective error scattering which maximize the number of correctly received macroblocks located around corrupted macroblocks, leading to better error concealment. The proposed scheme greatly improves video transmission quality over lossy wireless transmission channels. Simulations results for wireless channel characterized by Rayleigh fading indicate that the proposed method improves the standard static allocation of redundant slices in terms of PSNR by about 2.5dB. Performance evaluations show that our approach is especially suited for applications such as video conferencing and mobile TV, where typically a specific main important Region of Interest should be more carefully protected View full abstract»

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  • Tune-in Time Reduction in Video Streaming Over DVB-H

    Page(s): 320 - 328
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    A novel method is proposed which minimizes the tune-in time of "channel zapping", i.e. changing from one audiovisual service to another, in IP datacasting (IPDC) over Digital Video Broadcasting for Handheld terminals (DVB-H). DVB-H uses a time-sliced transmission scheme enabling a receiver to turn radio reception off for those time-slices that are not of interest to the user and thus reducing the power consumption used for radio reception. One of the significant factors in tune-in time is the time from the start of media decoding to the start of correct output from decoding, which is minimized when a time-slice starts with a random access point picture such as an independent decoding refresh (IDR) picture in H.264/AVC standard. In IPDC over DVB-H, encapsulation to time-slices is performed independently from encoding in a network element called IP encapsulator. At the time of encoding, time-slice boundaries are typically not known exactly, and it is therefore impossible to govern the location of IDR pictures relative to time-slices. It is proposed that an additional stream consisting of IDR pictures only is transmitted to the IP encapsulator, which replaces pictures in a normal bit stream with IDR pictures according to time-slice boundaries in order to achieve the minimum tune-in delay. Replacing pictures causes a mismatch in the pixel values of the reference pictures between the encoder and decoder and the mismatch error is propagated in the reconstructed video. It has to be ensured that the propagated error is subjectively negligible. Furthermore, the "spliced" stream resulting from the operation of the IP encapsulator should comply with the Hypothetical Reference Decoder (HRD) specification of H.264/AVC. Error propagation caused by the proposed splicing method is analysed and a video rate control system is proposed to satisfy the HRD requirements for the spliced stream. Simulation results show that in addition to fulfilling H.264/AVC compliancy, good average quali- ty of decoded video is achieved with minimum tune-in delay and complexity View full abstract»

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  • Demand Sensitive Model for Tuning Price Over Satellite Digital Multimedia Broadcast System

    Page(s): 329 - 337
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (969 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper an integrated satellite-terrestrial network architecture offering SDMB (Satellite Digital Multimedia Broadcast) services to mobile users through the satellite or terrestrial UMTS segment, is studied to test a novel Demand Sensitive Model (DSM). The DSM is proposed for tuning price service over SDMB system to offer a price discount to large amount of users while maintaining profit for the service provider. The simulations have been carried out to show the goodness of the proposed model within the system architecture; moreover the model, based on simple parameters, is very flexible and can be easily integrated in a "Price Adapter" module making the offered service attractive for end users and in the same time profitable for the satellite operator View full abstract»

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  • Energy-Efficient MAC-Layer Error Recovery for Mobile Multimedia Applications in 3GPP2 BCMCS

    Page(s): 338 - 349
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    Combining broadcast and mobile phone technologies, 3GPP2 has introduced the Broadcast and Multicast Services (BCMCS) architecture to deliver multimedia content over cdma2000 1xEV-DO wireless networks. In designing a mobile device to support multimedia broadcast services, it is important to reduce delay and energy consumption, while maintaining a tolerable level of data loss. We analyse the energy consumed by a mobile device receiving broadcast services, focusing on error recovery using the Reed-Solomon (RS) MAC-layer coding scheme. Our model is based on the energy consumed by each computational component of the RS decoder, which we determined by running the decoding process on a realistic ARM7TDMI testbed with experimentally justified cache sizes, and characterizing the energy consumption accurately with the SNU Energy Explorer. By varying the radio channel conditions, RS coding scheme and other system parameters, we determined energy-efficient cache configurations and operating ranges for each RS encoding scheme, corresponding to given levels of service quality in a video application. We have also found that significant energy can be saved by selecting a size of error control block that is appropriate to the target video quality and the channel conditions at the mobile View full abstract»

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  • Broadcast-Based Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Video Streaming Among Mobiles

    Page(s): 350 - 361
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    In traditional mobile streaming networks such as 3G cellular networks, all users pull streams from a server. Such pull model leads to high streaming cost and problem in system scalability. In this paper, we propose and investigate a fully distributed, scalable, and cost-effective protocol to distribute multimedia content to mobiles in a peer-to-peer manner. Our protocol, termed Collaborative Streaming among Mobiles (COSMOS), makes use of broadcasting and data sharing to achieve high performance (in terms of delay, cost fairness, stream continuity, etc.). In COSMOS, only a few peers pull video descriptions from base stations. Using a free broadcast channel (such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth), they share the streams to nearby neighbors. As a result, COSMOS greatly reduces the streaming cost and cellular bandwidth requirement. Furthermore, as video streams are supplied by multiple peers, COSMOS is robust to peer failure. Since broadcasting is used to distribute video data, COSMOS is highly scalable to large number of users. In COSMOS, peers autonomously determine whether to broadcast packets or not in order to efficiently use of the channel bandwidth. By taking turns to pull descriptions, peers can effectively share, and hence substantially reduce, streaming cost. As broadcast scope is small and peers can often obtain a number of streams from its neighbors, COSMOS achieves low delay and excellent stream continuity View full abstract»

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  • Resource Efficient Quality-Oriented Wireless Broadcasting of Adaptive Multimedia Content

    Page(s): 362 - 368
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    The performance of multimedia stream delivery is influenced by encoding scheme, streaming solution and network conditions. This paper studies the performance of multimedia streaming when using the Quality-Oriented Adaptive Scheme (QOAS) over an IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN and compares it to that achieved when using other solutions that do not consider end-user quality in their delivery process such as TFRC, LDA+, and non-adaptive schemes. The performance is assessed in terms of average end-user perceived quality, number of concurrent streaming sessions, loss rate, delay, jitter and total throughput when streaming MPEG-4 encoded content. Simulation results show that the QOAS out-performs these other streaming solutions in all aspects of network delivery. QOAS can support a greater number of concurrent streaming sessions at a higher average quality. In addition, for the same number of clients QOAS achieved a higher average end-user quality, as well as better network delivery streaming performance parameters View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting covers the field of broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects of broadcasting.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yiyan Wu
Communications Research Ctr Canada