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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 50
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 2288-b
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Investigations for Commercial Use of 275 KV XLPE Cables and Development of Extrusion Type Molded Joint

    Page(s): 1937 - 1944
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    On the basis of the technical investigations, 275 kV XLPE aluminun sheathed XLPE cables with 27mm insulation thickness, and their terminations, were designed and developed. View full abstract»

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  • Study on Improvements to the Dielectric Breakdown Strength of Extruded Dielectric Cables

    Page(s): 1945 - 1950
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    This report relates to the study on insulation materials for obtaining extruded dielectric cables with high dielectric breakdown strength. Firstly, the dielectric breakdown strength (EB) of a variety of plastics was evaluated by the use of recessed sheet samples. As a result, the EB for high density polyethylene (HDPE) proved favorable. It was further ascertained that in the case of polyethylene the difference in crystallization due to molding conditions also exerts an influence on the EB. Consequently, in the following step a number of model cables insulated with HDPE were produced by changing the production conditions, such as heat treatment successive to extrusion, etc. Under optimum production conditions an upgrade of approx. 60% of the HDPE cable with EB value over the conventional XLPE cable should be obtained. As a result of measuring the morphorogical properties for insulators under each production condition the EB showed a trend to increase as the degree of crystallization increased, both with XLPE and HDPE, so long as they were within the scope of identical brands. In the relation to insulator lamella thickness the EB of XLPE improved as lamella thickness increased, whereas HDPE indicated an adverse trend. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple and Accurate Evaluation of Eddy-Current Loss in Magnetic Pipe of a Cable

    Page(s): 1951 - 1957
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    Two analytical methods for calculating eddy-current loss in a magnetic pipe of a pipe-type cable have been developed. The first is a simplified but accurate procedure which can be used as a very convenient tool in the cable design, the second is based on integral equation. In both methods, a uniform current distribution in cylindrical cable cores is assumed. The magnetization characteristic of the pipe material is assumed linear and hysteresis loss is neglected. Calculations have been made for some practical cable systems and for different configurations of the conductors in the pipe. The results are Presented in a series of graphs for various conductivities and permeabilities of the pipes. Experimental data reported by other workers are quoted to confirm the theoreticai calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Extended Values for Geometric Factor of External Thermal Resistance of Cables in Duct Banks

    Page(s): 1958 - 1962
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    In the Neher-McGrath analysis for calculating the external thermal resistance between cables in duct banks and ambient earth, approximate formulas for the geometric factor of the duct bank are employed which are valid only for a limited range of the height/width ratio of the cable bank. This limitation poses difficulties for power cable engineers when calculating external thermal resistances of some cable systems. This paper describes an efficient finite- element-based technique for calculating geometric factors for extended ranges of the height/width ratio and presents results for a wide range of values in a direct tabular and graphical format suitable for conventional Neher-McGrath calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Cable for High Pulse Power Applications

    Page(s): 1963 - 1967
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    Recent development and application of a novel electromagnetic technique, to reposition the coolant tube spacers (garter springs) in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors, has created the need for a pulse power cable that has very low ac resistance at a frequency range of 700 to 1500 Hz. The technique involved discharging a 200 kJ capacitor bank into an electromagnetic coil, inserted inside the fuel channel, via a transmission line at least 11 m long. The electrical resistance of the transmission line, made of commercially available cables, was found to cause excessive damping of the discharge current waveform which was required to have an exponentially decaying sinusoidal shape. This paper describes the design, development and performance of a new compact cable that has been successfully used to carry repetitive current impulses generated by capacitor banks operating in the oscillatory mode at high current levels. Various dimensional and operational constraints, assembly of the cable terminations by an electromagnetic method and mechanical behaviour of the cable are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Insulation Shrinkback in Polyethylene Power Cable

    Page(s): 1968 - 1972
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    Insulation shrinkback of extruded power cables may be perceived as a potential cause of breakdown in pre- molded splices and terminations. The magnitude of shrinkback forces and the restraint offered by accessories are examined. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Temperature Distributions Within Cable Trench Backfill and the Surrounding Soil

    Page(s): 1973 - 1978
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    A computer program was developed to study the steady-state temperature distribution within the cable trench backfill and the surrounding soil. The calculations within the bounded region were carried out using the finite element procedure with the integral equation (Green's identity) as a constraint. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Field Failure Data on HMWPE- and XLPE-Insulated High-Voltage Distribution Cable

    Page(s): 1979 - 1985
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    The paper summarizes the results from Phase I of EPRI Research Project 1782-1 (EPRI Report EL-3501). Fifteen utilities supplied data on failures and operating parameters for more than 34,000 miles of HMWPE- insulated cables and 47,000 miles of XLPE-insulated cables. Data reduction and statistical analyses identified important predictors of high failure rates. For HMWPE, these are age, operating stress, and year of installation. Age and insulation wall thickness are the most important predictors of high failure rates for XLPE cable. View full abstract»

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  • Control and Protection Design of the Revelstoke Hydroelectric Project

    Page(s): 1986 - 1997
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    The Revelstoke hydroelectric project on the B.C. Hydro system is a six unit 2910 MV*A remotely controlled powerplant utilizing 500 kV and 230 kV compressed gas insulated switchgear and fiber-optic data acquisition and control techniques. The initial four generating units were placed in service during 1984. The paper describes the basic design of the control and protection aspects of the project with emphasis on approaches taken to provide a high level of operating performance and reliability. Testing techniques and early operating experience are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Tva's Photovoltaic Activities

    Page(s): 1998 - 2005
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    This paper describes the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) current photovoltaic (PV) activities. These include four roof-mounted 4 kWp residential arrays (which are also Southeast Residential Experiment Station field sites) and two 5-6 kWp commercial sites, all grid connected with no battery storage. Also included are approximately 30 kWp of non-grid-connected remote sites with storage (remote lighting, weather stations, etc.). Monitoring results from the two "online" residential systems are presented. Finally, TVA's future PV plans are discussed, both with respect to interfacing with a multitude of residential and commercial cogenerators and with regard to possible TVA PV central station plans. View full abstract»

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  • Balance of System Costs for a 5 MW Photovoltaic Generating System

    Page(s): 2006 - 2011
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    A cost study was conducted of a 12.2 million kWh/year (5 MW) photo- voltaic power plant of various configurations using actual data and experience from ARCO Solar's large-scale PV' projects in California. System costs were divided into PV costs and all BOS cost elements, which were grouped into area-related costs (inversely dependent on PV efficiency), power-related costs, and fixed costs. PV and area-related BOS costs make up 75% to 85% of total cost in all cases studied. Study results indicate the high sensitivity of BOS costs to PV efficiency, system configuration design, and BOS equipment design, and identify efficiency and configuration as the most effective avenues for BOS and system cost reduction. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Design of the Revelstoke Hydroelectric Project

    Page(s): 2012 - 2019
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    The Revelstoke hydroelectric project on the B.C. Hydro system is a six unit 2910 MV*A powerplant, with four units placed in service in 1984. The paper describes the basic design of the electrical features of the project including the main and station service single lines and the equipment parameters adopted. Special emphasis is placed on the power equipment aspects and the extensive use of 500 kV and 230 kV Compressed Gas Insulated (CGI) bus and switchgear. Some testing and early operating information is reported. View full abstract»

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  • Utility Interconnection Experience with an Operating Central Station MW-Sized Photovoltaic Plant

    Page(s): 2020 - 2024
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    Utility experience to date with photovoltaic systems has been with small dispersed systems designed primarily as demonstration projects. The 1 MW photovoltaic plant at Lugo Substation in Hesperia, California, has been designed and is operated as a central station power plant. The performance of the system has been monitored since first coming on line in November 1982. The potential impact of this and similar systems upon the operation of the utility is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Network Planning: A Method for Synthesis of Minimum-Cost Secure Networks

    Page(s): 2025 - 2034
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    A new method is proposed for solving the problem of minimum-cost expansion of power transmission networks. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program that explicitly considers both the investment costs of new lines and the operating costs associated with the system. The d.c. load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions, and also provides information regarding the optimum generation at each generation point. The security is attained by an iterative procedure using a concept similar to that of the Cutting Plane methods of integer programming. The "Security Cuts' successively exclude the insecure solutions from the solution space of the problem until the solution obtained by the cost minimizing algorithm is a secure one. The important feature of this procedure is that the added constraints never exclude any secure solutions, thus security is attained without losing optimality. It is shown that the model is applicable to both static and multi-stage planning cases, and an application of the method to a real-world example with 22 right-of-ways is given. View full abstract»

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  • Convex Dynamic Programming and its Applications to Hydroelectric Energy

    Page(s): 2035 - 2039
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    In this paper, the concept of convex dynamic programming is presented. Sufficient condition of the convexity is found for a dynamic programming model of reservoir dispatching. Based on the convexity property, an algorithm is proposed and implemented for the Zhexi Hydropower Station in Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. As a result, annual power output in Zhexi Hydropower Station is increased by 5.6%. The result on convex dynamic programming is extended to two other dynamic programming models of hydro- electric power station operation. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Long-Term Hydrothermal Optimization for a Multireservoir System

    Page(s): 2040 - 2050
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    The problem of planning the long-term (multiyear) operation of a multireservoir hydrothermal electric power generation system is solved by a sto- chastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithm using successive approximations. The hydro system model consists of a set of disjoint hydro chains each modeled by an equivalent reservoir and hydroplant. The inflow to the equivalent reservoir in each hydro chain is modeled as an independent log-normal random variable with a time correlation of lag one. The remaining river inflows in the system are modeled as a function of the equivalent reservoir inflows. Thermal unit and load curtailment cost curves are modeled as piecewise linear and convex. The successive approximations algorithm involves the solution of a 2-state stochastic dynamic programming problem for each hydro chain which has as its objective the minimization of the expected discounted production cost, plus the terminal hydro cost, subject to satisfying a number of constraints on the hydro and thermal system and the monthly demand which is represented by a load duration curve. A production-grade computer program has been developed and tested with data for a real system. Numerical results are reported for two study cases with up to eight reservoirs. View full abstract»

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  • A Hierarchical Approach to Reactive Volt Ampere (Var) Optimization in System Planning

    Page(s): 2051 - 2057
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    A two-level hierarchical approach for optimum allocation of reactive volt ampere (VAR) sources in large scale power system planning is presented in this paper. The approach takes advantage of the natural distinction between var dispatch in system operation (Level 1) and var allocation in system planning (Level 2). The two levels are related together using the Generalized Benders Decomposition. The methodology has been implemented in the form of a prototype computer program which can be applied to large scale power systems with up to 1500 buses. The results of testing the package with practical power systems of different sizes and characteristics indicate that the technique is a valuable tool for reactive source allocation. View full abstract»

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  • Load Management Applications for Industrial Loads

    Page(s): 2058 - 2063
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    In general, load management programs are designed and implemented for residential loads and customers. Industrial loads are not very often thought of as possible for load management applications. Since the power of the industry demand and equipment is more complex than in the residential sector, this fact may be understandable, but as the part of the industry of total load often is dominating it is surprising that so little effort has been concentrated on this subject. This paper points out load management alternatives that could be applied to industrial loads. The results of an inventory that has been made in all industrial branches in Sweden is presented. The total potential for industrial load management, ILM, is given and examples are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic Production Costing With Dependent Generating Sources

    Page(s): 2064 - 2071
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    Dependent generators are power sources whose output depends on natural factors which are statistically interdependent with the load, such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic cells. Because of these statistical interactions, usual methods of probabilistic production costing cannot be used. This paper presents a new method for production costing which treats power sources with statistically correlated outputs. The method uses the Gram-Charlier series and a modification of the cumulants summation formula which accounts for statistical correlation. The paper also discusses additional applications of this method and some computational results. View full abstract»

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  • Problems Associated with Unit Commitment in Uncertainty

    Page(s): 2072 - 2078
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    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operations Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on current problems faced by electric utility operators. View full abstract»

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  • Integrating Load Management into Utility Planning

    Page(s): 2079 - 2085
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    Electric load management is the concept of altering the pattern of the customer's electricity use "behind-the-meter." The scope of load management is the planning, development and implementatioh of programs whose objective is to actively shape the daily and seasonal electric load profiles of customers to result in better overall system utilization, lower overall costs and maintained financial stability. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Operation of Multireservoir Systems Using an Aggregation-Decomposition Approach

    Page(s): 2086 - 2092
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    A new application of the Aggregation-Decomposition approach (AD) to the optimal scheduling of large hydrothermal generation systems with multiple reservoirs is presented. The problem (with N reservoirs) is decomposed into N subproblems with two state variables. Each subproblem finds the optimal operating policy for one of the reservoir as a function of the energy content of that reservoir and the aggregate energy content of the remaining reservoirs. The subproblems are solved by stochastic dynamic programming taking into account the detailed models of the hydro chains as well as the stochasticity and correlation of the hydro inflows. The method has been successfully implemented on a 10 reservoir hydrothermal power system. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling of Capacitive Loads for the Study of Transients in Synchronous Machines

    Page(s): 2093 - 2098
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    There is often a temptation to model the reactive power loads on a synchronous machine as an equivalent lumped capacitor or reactor for the purposes of transient simulations. Significant errors can result from such an approach, especially in the simulation of fast rotor transients in machines connected to HVdc systems. This paper attemps to show where such simplified representations are allowed, and where they are not. The results indicate that a long and unloaded transmission line may be represented by an equivalent capacitor, but that other loads such as HVdc filters may not. Certain other modelling aspects such as breaker opening are also discussed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope