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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 3730-d
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optimization Of Metallic Shields For Extruded Dielectric Cables Under Fault Conditions

    Page(s): 3409 - 3418
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    Full scale laboratory tests were conducted to determine the maximum temperatures which round wire and flat strap metallic shields can withstand without damage under fault conditions. A computer model was developed to calculate the shield temperature rise with high accuracy for given cable designs, short-circuit currents and sequences. A simplified short-circuit test procedure was developed to facilitate evaluation of new cable designs. This procedure utilizes the computer program and a newly introduced concept of short-circuit equivalence factor which provides a tool for equating laboratory and field conditions. The results of this project, sponsored by EPRI, enable the cable engineer to optimize metallic shield designs with a substantial reduction of initial and operating costs. View full abstract»

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  • The Extension Of Heat-Shrinkable Components For Use In 1/C Transition And Paper Cable Joints

    Page(s): 3419 - 3424
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    Heat-shrinkable components have been used for over ten years to splice polymeric and non-draining paper- insulated cables. This paper addresses extending the use of heat-shrinkable components and technology for joining migrating oil paper cable to polymeric cable, paper cable joints, and the technical obstacles that must be resolved. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage And Electric Field Distributions And Discharge Inception Voltage In Insulated Conductors

    Page(s): 3425 - 3433
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    The charge simulation method has been applied to calculate the voltage and the electric field distributions at the surfaces of the conductor and the dielectric of an insulated conductor. The non-shielded insulated conductor is placed at varying distances from a conducting plane. It is found that the conductor-diel- ectric ground system can be represented accutratelv by a small number of fictitious charges. An experimental study has been carried out to verify the calculations and good agreement is obtained. The discharge inception voltaae of an insulated conductor is determined for practical sizes of voids in the volume of the dielectric and for discharges initiated on the dielectric surface. View full abstract»

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  • Methods Of Calculations Of Field Stresses In A Three-Core Power Cable

    Page(s): 3434 - 3441
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    A numerical method using the charge simulation technique with only a small number of line charges is developed to calculate the electric field everywhere in a three-core high voltage, high power belted cable. Only six line charges are used of which three lines represent the three conductors and three image line charges to take account of the grounded sheath. The locations of the maximum electric stress in the cable are determined. Experimental measurements is also carried out using an electrolytic tank to verify the calculations. Good agreement is obtained. The results are presented in a normalized format so that they can readily be applied. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage Rating Of A Three-Core Power Cable From Considerations Of Discharges In Voids

    Page(s): 3442 - 3447
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    The voltage rating of a three-core belted cable is determined such that it should be above the discharge inception voltage within the cable. The phase voltage is determined as a function of the location of the void within the cable, the diameter of the void, the gas pressure entrained in the void and for spherically and cylindrically shaped voids. It is found that the voltage required to initiate a discharge is a function of the location of the void and it is lowest for voids located in the vicinity of the interface between the conductor and the dielectric. The discharge inception voltage depends on both the dimension and the geometrical shape of the void. The voltage is higher for a spherical than a cylindrical void and decreases with increasing diameter of the void in the range generally found in practical cables. View full abstract»

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  • Failure Analysis Of Polymeric-Insulated Power Cable

    Page(s): 3448 - 3453
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    This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted in Ontario to elucidate the contributing factors in primary-distribution, power-cable failures. Water treeing, although important, was involved in fewer failures than expected. Although a sensitivity analysis, was precluded by insufficient data on installed plant, four cable parameters were identified as contributing to water treeing. Internal defects (inclusions) were more prevalent than expected. No examples of electrical treeing were found. View full abstract»

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  • Emergency Overioad Characteristics Of Extruded Dielectric Cables Operating At 1300 And Above

    Page(s): 3454 - 3463
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    This paper addresses overload characteristics of thermoset dielectric power cable systems. Present industry specificationsl, 2 recommend a maximum emergency conductor temperature of 130°C. The suitability of this temperature and the time it is to be maintained has been questioned. The present work indicates that crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene (referred to as EPR in this paper) insulated cables are suitable for emergency operation during extended periods at 130°C and may be suitable up to 145°C, provided semiconducting shield and jacket materials are used that do not decompose at these temperatures. The work was performed on new cables, without prior field aging. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis Of Joint & Termination Failures On Extruded Dielectric Cables

    Page(s): 3464 - 3469
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    Instructions are presented in the proper methods of analyzing joint and termination failures on extruded dielectric cable. Causes of failure are discussed with relation to the failure paths they produce. View full abstract»

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  • Classification and Identification of Power System Emergencies

    Page(s): 3470 - 3479
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    Detection and identification of a power system emergency is necessary to fully use the capability of controls to mitigate the emergency. This paper describes a design methodology for a power system local detector based upon control requirements, as well as a power system emergency classification scheme and an extension of earlier operating state models. The new scheme for classifying and detecting emergencies has been useful for developing emergency operating state controls. View full abstract»

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  • Effective Load Carrying Capability of Interties

    Page(s): 3480 - 3487
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    In this paper, we examine the effects of interconnecting two power systems with correlated loads by an intertie of probabilistic transfer capacity. A closed form solution for calculating the loss- of-load probability (LOLP) for two intertied systems is proposed. The method could be extended to three or more intertied systems. The use of the method is illustrated by numerical examples, with results presented in terms of LOLP, effective load carrying capability (ELCC) and equivalent additional capacity for the tied systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Module Oriented EMTP Interface

    Page(s): 3488 - 3495
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    A new user interface has been developed for the EMTP (the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program developed at the Bonneville Power Administration). This interface uses the concept of "modules" to allow the interactive graphic assembly of complex simulations in an organized, user-friendly manner. These modules are defined formally, with each consisting of a "visible part" and an "internal part." The visible part describes the function the module performs and the terminal points that enable it to be connected to other modules. The internal part describes how the module is constructed. Two types of module internal parts are distinguished: atomic and composite. Atomic modules are mapped directly into EMTP card images. Composite modules consist of interconnectioons of other modules. View full abstract»

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  • Real Time Simulation System Of Large-Scale Power System Dynamics For A Dispatcher Training Simulator

    Page(s): 3496 - 3501
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    Individual generator dynamic calculation method is tused in simulating severe power system disturbances, such as system separation due to faults or resynchronization. To speed up the sparse matrix calculations, a new vector processor was developed which made it possible to perform real time dynamic calculations for a large-scale power system. Test results proved that dynamics of a system with 186 buses and 44 generators could be calculated within one-third of the actual phenomenon time. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Large-Scale Hydro System Scheduling with Forced Spill Conditions

    Page(s): 3502 - 3520
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    We present a general framework for the formulation and solution of large-scale hydro system scheduling problems (h.s.s.p.). We use a nonlinear programming formulation that permits the representation of virtually all types of constraints imposed on a hydroelectric system: the physical, operational, legislative or contractual constraints. The problem formulation explicitly represents the nonlinear relationship between spillage and the reservoir storage level. Such constraints are called forced spill conditions and are modeled by nonlinear equalities. In the proposed method, the nonlinear constraints representing the forced spill conditions are treated by the exact penalty technique. The resulting problem has a nonlinear objective function and only linear constraints. The solution scheme makes detailed use of the structural characteristics of the h.s.s.p. The underlying network structure of the h.s.s.p. is exploited to determine a good starting point via the application of an efficient network flow algorithm. The sparsity of the linear constraints is exploited by the nonlinear optimization algorithm. The proposed method is computationally efficient for determining optimal schedules for large river systems. Results on several cases including one with 3300 decision variables, 2200 linear equalities, 2700 linear inequalities and 200 nonlinear equality constraints, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Practical Probabilistic Method to evaluate Tolerable Step and Touch Voltages

    Page(s): 3521 - 3530
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    A simplified probabilistic method to calculate the risk of the human body withstand voltage to be exceeded by step and/or touch voltages appearing during abnormal system fault conditions is presented in this paper. The determination of density probability functions and cumulative distributions are done by using characteristic parameters of well known typical probability functions. This process allows the treatment of human body resistance, foot-to-ground contact resistance and fault clearing time as three independent random variables defining the human body withstand to the passage of shock currents.. A comparison between the results obtained through field measurements and those calculated by the proposed method is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • An Application of Uncertainty Calculations to Distribution Transformer Loss Testing

    Page(s): 3531 - 3537
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    The classical method of uncertainty calculation is presented as a means to evaluate the requirements for accurate measurement in performance testing of electrical equipment. Specific formulas are derived for transformer load loss and no-load loss measurements. The resulting expressions are then used to illustrate how the uncertainty calculation can provide insight into testing problems. A similar technique could be applied to any equipment performance test. View full abstract»

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  • A Study on the Improved Performance of Half-LENS-Half-MHO Relays

    Page(s): 3538 - 3544
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    MHO type directional impedance relay has been widely used in HV and EHV systems for many years, but its misoperation under certain fault conditions has been a major problem. One such instance is that relays on unfaulted phases will misoperate during a close-in S-L-G fault with fault resistance. The other is the misoperation of MHO relay during a reverse fault with fault resistance. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Earthquakes and Other Loads on the Layout of Gas-Insulated Substations

    Page(s): 3545 - 3550
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    The mechanics of a Gas-Insulated Substation are a complicated problem, which can have a considerable influence on the layout of the equipment as well as on the supporting structure and foundation. Rather few papers dealing with this problem have been published. It is our experience that those concerned with selecting GIS-layouts not always are aware of all the precautions and considerations that have to be taken for mechanical reasons. Of the various forces that have to be taken into account the thermal and seismic loads usually have the greatest influence on the layout. Most of the loads that affect the substation will also have influence on the building and foundation. In this paper thermal loads, seismic loads and reaction forces from circuit-breakers are described in more detail, as well as methods to design with respect to these loads. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Grading Rings for Air-Core Power Reactors

    Page(s): 3551 - 3559
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    A design technique for improving the impulse voltage distribution along the axial length of a large aircore power reactor is presented. A set of conducting rings is used to linearize the voltage distribution across the reactor windings. The number, the dimensions and the relative locations of the grading rings are determined such that the uniformity of the voltage distribution along the axial length of the reactor is optimized. The electrical stress at the surface of the grading rings is also calculated and found to be below the stress level of the corona inception. The theoretical design and calculation procedure is based on the charge simulation technique. An experimental study is also carried out to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis using large power reactors. Good agreement is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Study of Delayed-Zero-Current Interruption Phenomena Using Transient Analysis Model for an ARC IN SF6 Flow

    Page(s): 3560 - 3568
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    Arcs in gas circuit breakers have been regarded as resistances when a zero-miss current interruption phenomenon has been simulated by a computer. However, the model involved is unable to simulate the thermal inertia effect of the arc. This fact is proved to result in a deteriorated simulation accuracy in the vicinity of the current zero point through conducting a short-circuit test. To simulate thermal inertia of the arc, an arc model based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy is developed. By applying this model to circuit analysis, zero-miss current interruption phenomena are shown to be simulated more precisely up to the current zero point than the conventional method. View full abstract»

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  • Switching Tests on Grounding Switches for Gas Insulated Substations

    Page(s): 3569 - 3572
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    The paper deals with an investigation on the capacitive and inductive switching capability of grounding switches, as required for parallel HVAC transmission lines with one circuit carrying the current while the other is grounded at both ends. When the grounding switches are opened, they have to interrupt both the induced inductive current, and the current coupled capacitively. In addition, they have to withstand the transient recovery voltage (TRV). View full abstract»

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  • SF6 Gas Insulated Load Interrupting Switches With Fusing

    Page(s): 3573 - 3577
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    This paper discusses the design and testing of an SF6, gas insulated load interrupting switch which has multiposition capability. The multiposition capability is achieved through the use of rotary switching contacts which allow a wide variety of switching arrangements within one enclosure. View full abstract»

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  • Stability Analysis and Stabilizing Procedure for A Frequency Dependent Tansmission Line Model

    Page(s): 3578 - 3586
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    A frequency dependent transmission line model, developed in 1975 and referred to in the BPA Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP) as 'Semlyen Setup', has persistently exhibited an anomaly frustrating to its users. When the line model is isolated from the rest of the power system model by switch action it responds with an apparently linearly increasing voltage rather than a constant one corresponding to the locked charges. Experimentation has shown that the anomaly is associated with the frequency dependent characteristic admittance of the model. The paper gives the theoretical analysis of the stability of simulation, indicates the cause of the anomaly and recommends a solution. This has been tested and implemented in the EMTP. View full abstract»

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  • Overvoltage Considerations for Interconnecting Dispersed Generators with Wye-Grounded Distribution Feeders

    Page(s): 3587 - 3594
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    A dispersed generator on a distribution system can continue to energize the feeder during fault disturbances. In particular, when a permanent single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault exists, generators connected through delta-delta transformers tend to force the unfaulted phase voltage to 1.73 pu. Because of this, some utilities require that the customer generator be connected through an effectively grounded source. Other utilities are not concerned with the overvoltages and do not use effectively grounded sources on a distribution feeder because they may defeat the coordination schemes that use fast tripping to protect fuses on temporary SLG faults. In some cases, providing a solidly grounded source can be prohibitively expensive for some dispersed-generation systems. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope