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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 68
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 1920-b
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Experimental Determination of Coal Mill Models

    Page(s): 1473 - 1477
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    This paper describes the experimental measurement of coal-mill transfer functions at a 380 Mw steam turbine generator of TransAlta Utilities in Canada. Measurement equipment was used that estimated the parameters of the transfer functions from digitized transients obtained during on-site tests. These preliminary tests were part of a sequence of tests that were undertaken to evaluate the use of feedforward control to maintain the output temperature of the coal-air mixture at a fixed level. The measurement technique used to obtain the coal-mill transfer functions utilizes Least Squares Parameter Estimation (LSPE) concepts. The microprocessor-based system with the LSPE algorithm enabled the parameters to be obtained while the coal-mill was operating online. The transfer functions obtained during these field tests allowed feedforward controllers to be designed that gave improved performance of the coal-mill. The next section describes the coal-mill operation. View full abstract»

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  • Derating Cables in Trays Traversing Firestops or Wrapped in Fireproofing

    Page(s): 1478 - 1481
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    Using ICEA Standard P-54-440 as the basis, this paper derives simple equations to calculate the maximum permissible load losses for cables in trays passing through firestops or covered with fireproofing material. From these loss values are deduced ampacity multiplying factors which when applied to the ICEA standard ampacities, provide the permissible ampere loading for the cables. A basic factor in the derivation is the use of previously published experimental data relating to the heating of cables in firestops to calculate the thermal conductance of the firestops. View full abstract»

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  • The Development of a High Reliability Auxiliary Power System for a Coal-Fired Cycling Generating Station

    Page(s): 1482 - 1485
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    An auxiliary system for a fossil generating station is evolved based on operating and reliability criteria including the capabilities of switchgear and standard auxiliary transformer impedances. These criteria are used to design a flexible and reliable auxiliary power system for a cyclic duty power generating station. The effect of mechanical equipment selection on the auxiliary power system design is discussed. An economic comparison of single voltage versus dual-voltage is made. A one-line diagram of the resulting proposed system is included. View full abstract»

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  • Probability Distribution Functions for Generation Reliability Indices - Analytical Approach

    Page(s): 1486 - 1493
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    The primary objective of this research is to analytically develop probability density functions (p.d.f.) for the widely used power generation reliability indices, Loss of Load and Unserved Energy. The equations to calculate the parameters of the distributions of these indices upon a prescribed load plan are derived. In order to develop the theoretical structure for the problem stated, classical and decision theoretic (Bayesian) statistical inference are used as major tools along with the univariate and multivariate asymptotic theory. Consequently, an approximate numerical multiple integration scheme is employed to compute the parameters of the asymptotic normal densities of the reliability indices for the sample power networks. The authors believe that this statistical approach offers a more realistic alternative to the conventional reliability evaluation in generation systems; that is, to the calculation of an averaged valtie for the Loss of Load and Unserved Energy where outage data is traditionally assumed to be deterministic with certainty. View full abstract»

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  • Structuring Free Verbal Descriptions in Equipment Failure Reports

    Page(s): 1494 - 1500
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    Information is encoded for convenience in computer sort/search routines used to manage a large number of records. The codes in use for equipment failure reports are limited due to practical considerations, and this limitation forces the reporter to leave out information to satisfy the coding requirements. The free form verbal descriptions, as found in the Generating Availability Data System (GADS) and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS), allow for reporting of this non-codable information. A systematic approach to constructing the verbal description based on rules of grammar, especially syntax, results in a structured narrative suitable for computer data management schemes. In addition, the reporter has a full range of descriptive terminology and does not have to select subjectively from a predetermined, limited vocabulary to describe the event. This paper introduces a concept that places in perspective the integration of structured, formal reporting and free form verbal description. A second benefit of this structured narrative is the systematic development of failure mode/failure cause relationships in the event. View full abstract»

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  • Guidelines for Enhancing Power Plant Response to Partial Load Rejections

    Page(s): 1501 - 1504
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    The purpose of these guidelines is to provide assistance to electric utilities in enhancing the capability of fossil fueled power plants, especially new power plants, to successfully withstand partial load rejections. For a power plant, a partial load rejection is a large sudden decrease in load during which the main generator breaker remains closed and the generator remains connected to the remaining reduced load. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Simulator for the Checkout of Advanced Boiler and Turbine Controls

    Page(s): 1505 - 1509
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    The use of a real-time digital simulator In the checkout of comprehensive digital automatic controls for a power plant is described. The paper describes the simulator, and it's Interface with the automatic controls. A few examples of the use of the sTmulator are given. View full abstract»

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  • Wood Bruning for Energy Production Utility and Industry Cogeneration

    Page(s): 1510 - 1514
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    This paper describes the identification of a bank of possible cogeneration sites and the subsequent selection of the best two sites to construct a wood-fired power plant -denoted as Phase I. Phase II, the final part of the development, consists of a conceptual engineering study, including economic analyses, of those two sites. In parallel with the engineering and site development efforts, a wood availability analysis was conducted to determine the extent of the wood-fuel resource available for use on an integrated, mechanized wood harvesting basis. View full abstract»

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  • Source Reliability in a Combined Wind-Solar-Hydro System

    Page(s): 1515 - 1520
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    This paper describes the simulation of a combined wind-solar- hydro system for electric power generation, with energy storage facilities. A simple multivariable weather model, including the wind speed, the solar radiation and the rainfall, was developed. This model is * used with the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the reliability of the mixed generating system. Different percentages of wind and solar generation capacities were tried as well as the tilt of the solar arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Availability Analysis Techniques to Improve Power Plant Productivity

    Page(s): 1521 - 1529
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    This paper presents a methodology which is useful in optimizing the productivity of a power plant through availability engineering techniques. The methodology covers the availability goal, reliability and maintainability analyses, and cost availability trade-off. A numerical example on the application of this technique to power plant productivity improvement is included. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of the Status of Advanced Control Room Design in a Nuclear Power Plant - Present practices and Future Trend

    Page(s): 1530 - 1542
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    The basic concept and fundamental principles of an Advanced Control Room (ACR) Design were discussed in detail in a 1975 joint IAEA/IEEE Specialists Meeting. The TMI-2 experiences produced a substantial amount of new ideas. In this paper, a seven-point criteria are established and the present practices of control room design in a nuclear power plant (NPP) is analyzed on the basis of these criteria. This paper, also, discusses future trends in ACR des ign. It includes, further, a detailed comparison of the control rooms of three nuclear power plants under design, construction and start-up. View full abstract»

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  • The Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM) for Evaluating Power Plant Improvement Projects

    Page(s): 1543 - 1551
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    The Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM) presented in this paper describes a method for calculating the increase in the power plant equivalent availability factor resulting from a proposed improvement project. AIM uses the recently developed IEEE definitions, along with other reliability parameters for establishing unit availability and performance. Additionally, AIM calculations are based primarily on data being collected for the Generating Availability Data System (GADS) of the National Electric Reliability Council. Many utilities are presently collecting equipment outage data on the GADS Performance and Event Report Forms. This data, if properly developed, is sufficient for performing AIM calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Damping and its Effect on Accumulate Fatigue Life Expenditure of Turbine-Generator Shafts Following Worst-Case Supply System Disturbances

    Page(s): 1552 - 1565
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    The paper examines the effect electrical phenomena has on damping torsional vibrations of turbine-generator shafts resulting from severe disturbances on the system supply. The effect system impedance and power factor has on time constants for decay of predominant shaft torsional vibrations and on fatigue life expenditure of the shaft following worstcase events is investigated. The impact pole slipping resulting from delayed fault clearance has on peak shaft torque and on accumulative fatigue life expenditure of the shaft is also examined. View full abstract»

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  • Problems Associated With Generator Load Following In System Operation

    Page(s): 1566 - 1569
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    The need for continuous load following by generation in interconnected power systems and the NERC criteria for it are discussed. A system operations perspective is given. Background information is also included. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Instrumentation for Measuring the Losses of Large Power Transformers

    Page(s): 1570 - 1573
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    The results of a comparison of several different types of equipment and techniques for measuring the short circuit (copper) and open circuit (iron) losses of a large power transformer are presented. The measurements were made on a 233-MVA, 735-kV, single phase, 60-Hz power transformer with a short circuit power factor of 1.3%, at currents up to rated, and open circuit voltages to 115 percent of the rating. The short circuit tests were performed using two current comparator type high-voltage capacitance bridges, a thermal wattmeter, an electro-dynamic wattmeter system with conventional instrument transformers and a new semi-automated digital wattmeter system. For the open- circuit tests only the three wattmeters were employed. The average discrepancy between the five measuring systems used in the short circuit tests was less than 1% and between the three systems in the open circuit tests less than 0.5 %. View full abstract»

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  • A Method of Evaluating a Circuit Breaker for a Capacitor Bank and Suppression of Restriking Overvoltage

    Page(s): 1574 - 1581
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    The difference was defined between two methods of evaluating a circuit breaker for switching a capacitor bank, i.e. 3-phase actual load testing and single- phase equivalent testing. New items which should be added to the equivalent testing were also determined. Next, the relations were discussed among the impulse withstand voltage specified by IEC, switching surge withstand voltage and overvoltage in the event of restriking. If there is a possibility of restriking occurring in the circuit breaker, it is necessary to reinforce the insulation level or add surge suppression for a certain circuit breaker voltage class. Finally, the capacitance-resistance (CR) suppressor was examined as a means to suppress overvoltage from restriking and optimum CR constants were obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Energy Control Center Experiment

    Page(s): 1582 - 1589
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    The ultimate goal of integrating the generic functions presently described as supervisory control and data acquisition, load management, and distribution feeder automation into a single system has led to the proposed concept of a distribution energy control center (DECC). An experiment is being conducted on the Athens Utilities Board's (AUB) distribution network in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. When successfully implemented, the installed hardware/software could become a test bed for future end use and distribution automation experiments. The DECC system will feature distribution automation and control concepts, develop closed loop control of feeder and substation functions, and extend and examine various load management concepts. DECC will be linked to TVA's bulk power control system. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Structure Design Utilizing Probability-Based Load and Resistance Factor Design

    Page(s): 1590 - 1597
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    A methodology is presented which provides a means for quantifying the reliability of a transmission line structure. This methodology may be used to determine the level of reliability of an existing structure or as a tool to design new structures for a desired level of reliability. Through a calibration exercise, the reliability of structures, designed and erected according to an existing loading criteria, was measured. Based on this calibration exercise, probability-based load and resistance factors are recommended for the design of future lines. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of Steep-Front Lightning Surge Voltages on Distribution Lines

    Page(s): 1598 - 1606
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    As one of the major causes of distribution -line lightning faults, the presence of steep- front lightning surge voltages having a wave front of about 0.1 us had been presumed. Therefore, lightning measuring instruments including surge counters and a transient recorder were developed and these units were installed on distribution lines. As a result, the crest value, frequency and waveform of such steep-front lightning surge voltages were actually and successfully measured. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Choice of Fixed and Switched Shunt Capacitors on Radial Distributors by the Method of Local Variations

    Page(s): 1607 - 1615
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    This paper presents a method of optimally choosing fixed and switched shunt capacitors on radial distribution feeders, considering load growth, growth in load factor and increase in cost of energy. Mathematical models to represent cost saving due to energy loss reduction taking the growth factors into account, cost saving due to release in systam capacities, capacitor cost and voltage rise during off-peek hours, as a function of capacitive current flows in the feeder sections have been formulated. Cost functions have been defined for optimizing the choice of both fixed and switched capacitors. A direct search technique known as the Method of Local Viariations has been employed for solving the resulting discrete variational problem. The problem has also been solved using Dynamic Programming Approach for comparison. The proposed method has been illustrated through some actual cases of radial feeders existing in an Indian distribution network. The results highlighting the influence of the growth factors have also been discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Simulation of DC Links and AC Machines

    Page(s): 1616 - 1623
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    This paper discusses the digital simulation of HVDC transmission and ac machines by an electromagnetic transients computer program. Ease in interfacing user written control system models with the network solution is presented along with discussion of means to simplify dc valve group representation in simulation. A working digital simulator has been developed enabling flexible in-house studies to be undertaken. Test results of its performance are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Simulation of Multiterminal HVDC Systems Using A Novel Converter Model

    Page(s): 1624 - 1632
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    A technique for detailed dynamic simulation of multiterminal HVDC systems with associated controls is presented here. This utilizes a novel converter representation based on the analysis using graph theoretic framework. This enables the development of an efficient model of the converter during both normal and abnormal modes. View full abstract»

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  • Stresses on Generators Feeding HVDC Link Inverter Bus

    Page(s): 1633 - 1636
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    Generators connected at the inverter end of an HVDC link are subject to special problems of power reversal on load shedding and oscillatory torques resulting from resonance with the filters. Results of simulation studies of a real system where this can happen are presented. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope