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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A "New" Crosslinking Process for Extruded Dielectric Cable

    Page(s): 509 - 518
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    Commercial processes used to make extruded crosslinked dielectric cable and factors affecting cable quality are briefly reviewed. In most processes, the cable is heated (cured) and cooled from the outside and productivity is controlled by heat conduction through the dielectric. In laboratory experiments described here, the dielectric is simultaneously cured from the inside by inductively heating the cable conductor and from the outside using steam. This technique, termed INPRO, increases productivity and improves cable quality (residual peroxide, visual halo, microvoids, cure state, and heat distortion resistance). Computer calculations indicate that similar benefits might be obtained commercially. View full abstract»

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  • Help for the Relay Engineer in Dealing with Transient Currents

    Page(s): 519 - 525
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    The large number of technical papers about performance of current transformers subjected to initially offset fault currents has hardly been of adequate help to relay engineers in solving their practical problems. View full abstract»

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  • Production Costing for Long-Range Geneartion Expansion Planning Studies

    Page(s): 526 - 536
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    Generation expansion modeling relies upon a complex network of engineering and economic models. The core of the engineering analysis has been the loss-of-load probability techniques and the probabilistic simulation production-costing techniques. The core of the economic modeling influence has been associAted with load forecasts and market penetrations of customer alternatives. The linkage of these models within an expansion-planning framework has been, at best, strained. This paper discusses the traditional. production-costing techniques and examines a new modeling method which simplifies current procedures and extends the purview of probabilistic simulation to scoping studies. The strength of the method comes from the information developed for scoping studies. This procedure provides estimates which are completely consistent with reliability and expected generation calculations from detailed studies. Examples are developed for a synthetic utility system. View full abstract»

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  • Breakdown of Rod-Plane Gaps in SF6 Under Positive Switching Impulses

    Page(s): 537 - 546
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    The effect of the front of impulse voltages on the breakdown of nonuniform gaps in SF6 has long been reported to be unsystematic. The present study provides an explanation to this phenomenon by examining the breakdown probability distributions of rod- plane gaps in SF6 over a wide range of gas pressure and under different impulse wave forms. The unsystematic effects of the impulse front are experimentally confirmed and are attributed to the coexistence of two main aspects of discharge-corona stabilization which increases the breakdown strength and whose effect disappears beyond a certain gas pressure, and the statistical formation delay which is responsible, under impulse voltages, for the creation of a voltage range of uncertainty where breakdown may or may not occur. By considering the "impulse breakdown threshold", rather than the 50% breakdown voltage, the effects of statistical formation are deleted and the systematic effect of corona stabilization is singled out. The work applies this analysis to SF6 gaps with different degrees of field nonuniformity. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Operation of Fixed-Head Hydro-Thermal Electric Power Systems: Powell's Hybrid Method Versus Newton-Raphson Method

    Page(s): 547 - 554
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    The present paper deals with the computational aspects of the coordination equations for hydrothermal sheduling. The hybrid method of Powell is proposed and its details are given. The method avoids possible causes for divergence encountered with the application of Newton-Raphson method. As a result a very reliable and efficient algorithm for fast solution of coordination equations emerges. Comprehensive testing of the performance of the method in comparison with Newton's is offered in the text. It is concluded that the method should be used whenever Newton's method is suspected to give doubtful performance. View full abstract»

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  • Summary Update of Practices on Breaker Failure Protection

    Page(s): 555 - 563
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    In the July/August 1970 issue of IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, an IEEE committee report was published entitled "Local Backup Relaying Protection." That report compiled the results of a survey on the current preferences on duplicate relays, dc and ac sources, control power, and breaker failure protection. Since that time, the industry has gained experience with breaker failure schemes and practices are much better defined. These practices have been compiled and are submitted in this report. View full abstract»

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  • A New Algorithm of an Accurate Fault Location for EHV/UHV Transmission Lines: Part II - Laplace Transform Method

    Page(s): 564 - 573
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    Digital fault location scheme is presented based on the transient analysis of a faulted network. The theoretical basis is first described using the Laplace transform technique, and an attempt is made to clear its relation to the Fourier transform scheme. With the theoretical fault data, location performances are analyzed regard to system characteristics. Finally, the study is extended to determine the optimal operator value for numerical Laplace transform. The proposed scheme will be suitable for implementation at an integrated digital protection and control system for transmission substations. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Evaluation of Parameter Estimation Algorithms for Economic Operation of Power Systems

    Page(s): 574 - 582
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    Four algorithms for estimation of the parameters of models used in optimal economic operation of electric power systems, are proposed. The details of the formulations for estimating the parameters of the fuel cost expression, the loss formula coefficients, and the active-reactive power loss models are highlighted. Critical performance evaluation of each of the proposed algorithms is carried out using some practical test systems. The first evaluation criterion is based on the familiar modeling error-comparison. Further evaluation is carried out on the basis of the optimal strategies resulting from the use of each estimated model. Optimal costs as well as overall network performance (based on load flow analysis) resulting from the implementation of each model, provide the basis for our comparisons. View full abstract»

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  • General Rotating mmf Theory of Squirrel Cage Induction Machines with Non Uniform Air Gap and Several Non Sinusoidally Distributed Windings

    Page(s): 583 - 591
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    A new method is given to study the performances of squirrel cage motors of complex design (non uniform air gap, windings with high space harmonic content). It is based on the analysis of electric circuits with time varying coefficients, rather than on consideration of air gap fluxes. It is shown that this method provides good results. It is the basis of a companion paper devoted to the motor which has been the object of the 1975-1976 IEEE single phase motor calculation and test project. View full abstract»

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  • A Contribution to the 1975-76 IEEE Single Phase Motor Calculation and Test Project

    Page(s): 592 - 601
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    The three winding (tap winding) motor which has been the object of the 1975-1976 IEEE single phase motor calculation and test project has been analysed with the help of the method presented in a companion paper. Several levels of hypothesis have been successively considered, and their effectiveness has been tested on the purely single phase operation of the machine with only one winding excited. Then the complete motor has been studied for high speed and low speed operations. The paper shows the importance of some parameters such as space harmonics, skin effect, slot fringing, iron reluctance. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Distribution Substation and Primary Feeder Planning VIA the Fixed Charge Network Formulation

    Page(s): 602 - 609
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    The planning methodology presented in this paper is an application of recent advances in optimization techniques for distribution substation siting and radial feeder planning. The concept of a long range horizon year (target) is used together with a time-phased expansion process beginning with the base year and progressing to the target year. An optimal static horizon year design is first determined using a fixed charge transshipment problem formulation (FCNP). The FCNP solution methodology employs the branch-and- bound algorithm and includes explicit modeling of fixed charge and variable cost components for improved accu- racy. The time-phased expansion process selects substation sites and feeder routings from the horizon (or target) year plan, thus providing an orderly and coherent expansion. This method easily incorporates existing facilities in the decision process for maximum benefit. An example of an actual planning study is presented to illustrate the horizon year target system selection and the corresponding time-phased expansion patterns. View full abstract»

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  • Twenty-one Year Development in Turbine-Generators with Water-Cooled Stator and Rotor Windings

    Page(s): 610 - 616
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    This paper gives an account of turbine- generators with water-cooled stator and rotor windings made by Shanghai Electrical Machinery Mfg. Works. It emphasizes especially the special features of water cooling of the rotor windings. This tckhnique, as far as we know, vas first applied by us in the world manufacturing history of turbine-generators. More than 100 units of such kind of generators are now successful in operation in the power stations of our country. The first unit has been in service for 21 years and has operated for 130,000 hours. The largest rating is of 300 MW. The paper also gives the future prospects of such a new technique. Typical operating data are given in Appendix I. View full abstract»

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  • Power System Topological Observability Using a Direct Graph-Theoretic Approach

    Page(s): 617 - 626
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    The topological observability of a Power System State Estimation (PSSE) problem is considered. The PSSE observability is decoupled into two separate problems using the well-known P-¿/Q-V decouple characteristic of power systems. Using a linear decoupled model for the measurements, the proposed method tries to find an observable spanning tree of the P-¿measurement graph (and subsequently for the Q-V measurement graph) using an algorithm for the search of matroid intersections. The method is first applied to six well- known examples of the technical literature, and then is used to study six different cases of a realistic system comprising 121 buses. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of Three-Dimensional Electric Field Problems by a Surface Charge Method and its Application to Optimum Insulator Design

    Page(s): 627 - 634
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    This paper describes an improved surface charge method for computation of three-dimensional electric field distribution and its application to optimum insulator design. In this method, each curved surface on which the charge is distributed is divided into many curved surface elements instead of planar elements. After computing numerically the charge distribution, the distributions of both potential and electric field are obtained. Because the use of many curved surface elements provides a good approximation of the insulator contour, the correction of insulator contour to achieve optimum insulator design can be performed smoothly. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Solar Induced Current on Autotransformer Tertiary Windings

    Page(s): 635 - 638
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    Experimental results are presented showing the effect of solar induced current (SIC) in the series and common windings of an autotransformer on tertiary winding current. The three-phase autotransformer is rated at 18 MVA and 138/69 kV. Current transformers on the tertiary winding phases supply current to several directional relays and an overcurrent relay in the application described. Thus tertiary current fluctuations have the capability of causing transmission line service interruptions. View full abstract»

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  • The Bulb-Type Generators of Rock Island Power Station and Their Novel Cooling System

    Page(s): 639 - 643
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    Presentation of a new cooling system for bulb type generators, based upon three principles:-radial stator cooling of quite novel type, using about 100, 000 narrow ducts distributed in the magnetic core and formed by special way of cutting out and stacking the magnetic punchings,-complete independence of stator and rotor gas circuits in spite of radial stator cooling, the hot air flowing from the field coils back to the rotor spider,-transverse cooling of rotor winding. This new cooling system has been successfully applied to the eight 54 MVA generators of Rock Island and allows 100 MW bulb units to be contemplated. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution System Harmonics: Controls for Large Power Converters

    Page(s): 644 - 652
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    Because of the anticipated applicaton of large ac/dc power converters on utility distribution systems, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded Project RP1024-1 to study distribution system surge and harmonic characteristics. The harmonics produced by large converters depends on converter type (line-or self-commutated), converter pulse number, thyristor firing angle controls, commutation angles, voltage regulation techniques, voltage unbalance, and¿very importantly¿network impedance frequency response. Of particular significance is the fact that a great deal of effort is still required to determine tolerable levels of harmonic voltages and currents on distribution systems. Harmonic controls for power converters-important because of their effect on converter cost and efficiency-are now specified on the basis of engineering data which need to be enhanced by further testing and analysis. In the face of observable and ever-increasing background levels of distribution system harmonics, more precise anticipation of future concerns is required. Test methods and instrumentation need to be standardized to ensure conformance to yet-to- be-determined permissible harmonic limits. This paper discusses line-and self-commutated power converters and techniques for controlling the harmonics associated with them and presents the principal results of EPRI Project RP1024-1. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Operation of Nelson River HVDC Bipoles 1 and 2 Control System - Simulator Studies

    Page(s): 653 - 661
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    The paper describes the control and protection system provided in the Nelson River HVDC scheme for paralleling, parallel operation, and deparalleling of Bipoles 1 and 2. The distance between the paralleled rectifiers is about 40 km. Although the paralleled inverters are located on the same site, the control system developed is such that it can also tackle parallel operation of inverters remote from one another. This feature will be useful for the parallel operation of Bipoles 2 and 3 in the distant future. The scheme is unique in the sense that a bipole with mercury-arc valves will operate in parallel with another bipole with thyristor valves. View full abstract»

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  • Staged Fault Tests with Single Phase Reclosing on the Winnipeg-Twin Cities 500kV Interconnection

    Page(s): 662 - 673
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    Staged line-to-ground fault tests were performed on the longest section of single-phase switched line in the world, the 528 km Dorsey-Forbes 500 kV line. Fault location and line loading conditions were varied for the nine fault tests applied and measurements were made of the primary and secondary arc currents and the arc recovery voltage. Arc extinction occurred rapidly with no restrikes during all of the tests. Secondary arc extinction occurred less than 50 ms after the beginning of the open phase deadtime. The rennants of the direct current offset in the fault current had a significant effect in delaying the secondary arc extinction. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetizing Current Harmonics Caused by Pulse Burst Modulated Loads

    Page(s): 674 - 680
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    Pulse Burst Modulated (PBM) circuits inject dc currents into power networks. Non-linear inductances, especially transformers supplying or connected in parallel with PBM loads will be exposed to dc voltages which will cause the operation of the magnetic core to be on an asymmetrical B/H hysteresis loop. This work presents a theoretical model which enables the prediction of magnetizing current harmonics and dc biasing flux caused by a PBM load connected in a circuit with known parameters. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of the Corona Performance of Hydro-Québec's 735-kV Lines

    Page(s): 681 - 690
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    The corona (in particular RI and AN) performance of two basic configurations of Hydro- Québec's 735-kV transmission lines was recorded over a two-year period between 1976 and 1978. Statistical analysis of the data shows that both the RI and AN performances of the lines compare well with previously recorded data and are well within accepted norms. View full abstract»

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  • Current Harmonics Generated by a Cluster of Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Page(s): 691 - 700
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    This work analyzes the harmonic currents, apparent, active, reactive and distortion power associated with a cluster of electric vehicle taper-current type battery chargers, connected to a common bus. A Monte Carlo simulation using pseudorandum number generators taking into consideration the statistical distribution of the states of charge of the batteries and starting times of the chargers is the primary tool employed in this study. View full abstract»

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  • HVDC-AC Harmonic Interaction Part I - Development of a Harmonic Measurement System Hardware and Software

    Page(s): 701 - 708
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    This paper is Part I of a two part series. The two papers will report part of the research project RP-1138 sponsored by EPRI and BPA on HVDC-AC System Interaction from AC Harmonics. The two papers deal with the harmonic impedance measurement of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) system as seen from the Celilo HVDC substation, the development of analytical techniques to calculate the harinonic impedance of the system, and comparison of the calculated and measured results. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope