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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): c1 - 446-d
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Load Characteristics of Synchronous Generators by the Finite-Element Method

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 1 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
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    In developing synchronous machine models for power system stability studies, it is essential that the magnetic saturation of the machine is adequately represented and that its internal state on load operation prior to the disturbance is accurately predicted. In this paper an iterative method employing the finite-element analysis techniqueis presented for determining the load operating point, which is defined by several quantities such as the field current, the d- and q-axis components of the stator current, and the load angle. The procedure developedin the-analysis is applied to a 50-MVA turbine-generator for determining the no-load and rated load operation and the evaluation of steady- state reactances View full abstract»

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  • A Practical Approach to Inclusion of Electromagnetic Field Nonlinearities in Dynamic Modeling of Large Turbogenerators-Part (I): Basic Principles for Inclusion of Instantaneous Magnetic Saturation

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 14 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    This paper details the salient features of an approach to include the influence of magnetic field saturation, on an instantaneous basis in large turbogenerators, on the values of machine inductances. This is done by means of numerical analysis of two dimentional magnetic fields coupled with a concept of ampere turn drop functions. This method is applied to the determinationof dynamic characteristics of an existing 659 MVA 4-pole turbogenerator, including the instantaneous saturation effect on the inductances, and the effects of instantaneous rotor speed variation coupled with saturation on equivalent damping resistances. Details of this development are given in a set of three companion papers, of which this is Part (I) View full abstract»

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  • A Structure Preserving Model for Power System Stability Analysis

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 25 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (117)
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    A new model for the study of power system stability via Lyapunov functions is proposed. The key feature of the model is an assumption of frequency-dependent load power, rather than the usual impedance loads which are subsequently absorbed into a reduced network. The original network topology is explicitly represented. This approach has the important advantage of rigorously accounting for real power loads in the Lyapunov functions. This compares favorably with existing methods involving approximations to allow for the significant transfer conductances in reduced network models. The preservation of network topology can be exploited in stability analysis, with the concepts of critical and vulnerable cutsets playing central roles in dynamic and transient stability evaluation respectively. Of fundamental importance is the feature that the Lyapunov functions give a true representation of the spatial distribution of stored energy in the system View full abstract»

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  • Generation Rescheduling and Load Shedding to Alleviate Line Overloads-System Studies

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 36 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A basic mathematical model to describe the problem of line overload alleviation has been developed in a companion paper. Algorithms for solving the modeland suitable for incorporation in the Newton-Raphson and decoupled load flow programs are also described. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed techniques is examined using a six bus model of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation system, and the IEEE 14, 30 and 57-bus test systems. A single pass of generation rescheduling and load shedding has been found to be adequate for alleviating line overloads in almost all the systems studied. Computational time of each pass of these techniques is approximately 1/2 to 3/4th of the computational time required for the initial load flow. Storage requirements are slightly more than the requirements of the load flow technique used. The proposed techniques identify and determine the existence of a physically realizable operating condition to alleviate the line overload condition. The techniques appear attractive for security and reliability studies, and for operational planning View full abstract»

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  • Motor Overload Protection for Motor Actuated Valves

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 43 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Normal load and abnormal load conditions for valve actuators are discussed and load characteristics are illustrated for typical valves. Overload protection for short time duty rated motors is discussed when twice normal loads occur and when locked rotor occurs. The required performance of the overload device is outlined with emphasis on protection during locked rotor. The condition of locked rotor temperature rise is analyzed and tests conducted to compare with calculated values. Different types of overload protection devices are described and the limited protection provided by the internal temperature sensor under the conditions of locked rotor is pointed out. A systematic approach to external overload relay selection is illustrated View full abstract»

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  • Sizing of Ground Conductors Against Fusing

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 51 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The correct evaluation of I2R heat, absorbed during a fault, is the most critical factor in determining the adequate size of a grounding conductor. This paper presents a general method for calculating and comparing the short-time ampacities of modern conductors made of copper clad steel, aluminum clad steel and galvanized steel, aluminum and aluminum alloys, etc. For copper, a direct correspondence is established between the general formula and the existing Equation No. 12 of IEEE Std. 80-1976 View full abstract»

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  • Electric Load Curve Synthesis - A Computer Simulation of an Electric Utility Load Shape

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 60 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (945 KB)  

    There are many promising customer-side load management activities under consideration in the the electric utility industry. These activities draw their current interest from a potentially positive impact on-system load shape. The ability to translate these load management impacts and non-load management impacts into hour-by-hour changes in load shape for an extended planning period has therefore become necessary. Public Service Electric & Gas Company has developed a computer simulation model which can predict a utility load shape for up to a 30 year period. The model is built upon the principal of disaggregation of the load shape and separates the load shape into 160 different components. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance Characteristics of Large Tower Footing to a A 100μS Wide Square Wave of Current

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 66 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Tests were performed, using a 2500 volt pulse generator, to determine impedance variations of six tower footings on the BPA 1100 kV test line. Comparisons are made with the tower's low frequency resistance. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Corona and Field Effects of AC/DC Hybrid Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 72 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    This paper describes laboratory and analytical studies that have been conducted by The Bonneville Power Administration to determine corona and electric field effects of a proposed ac/dc hybrid transmnission line. The proposed hybrid line would consist of a 500 kV ac circuit operating on the same structure as a ±500 kV dc circuit. Generally, the laboratory studies show that, with some modifications, equations used at BPA for calculating corona phenomenon can be used for a hybrid line. The paper also describes a technique for estimating dc electric field parameters which are enhanced by the presence of ions View full abstract»

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  • Power System Stabilizers for Thermal Units: Analytical Techniques and On-Site Validation

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 81 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3133 KB)  

    This paper reviews experience in the control design and tuning of power system stabilizers for thermal generating units. Special problems encountered in obtaining satisfactory performance at a particular generating station due to specific generator characteristics is highlighted. Analytical techniques used for establishing suitable stabilizer settings are described and their effectiveness in duplicating field measurements is demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Directional Characteristics of Distance Relay Mho Elements: Part I - A new Method of Analysis

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 96 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    A general study of the effect of line loading on the response of mho elements oth reverse faults has necessitated the development of an alternate method of representing the response of various types of mho elements. This paper reviews the usual methods and establishes the basis for an alternate method. With this new method, the response of any type of mho element is represented by impedances that are viewed with respect to a characteristic circle passing through the origin and the reach point on the R-X plane. This characteristic is the same for each element and is invariant with power system parameters and the fault type. Since the calculation of an impedance only is required, this method lends itself to general computer analyses of mho element response as well as to manipulation of expressions obtained from power system network analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Directional Characteristics of Distance Relay Mho Elements: Part II - Results

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 103 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The directional characteristics of mho elements in a 6 element distance protection are examined using a new method described in a companion paper. The results show the effect of polarizing, load angle and fault resistance on the response of mho elements that are either in or out of the faulted loop. Some mho elements are shown to become non-directional at normal reach settings and load angle, indicating the requirement for consideration of supervision by directional elements to prevent incorrect operations on reverse faults. Certain type of polarization in mho elements is also shown to lessen the likelihood of incorrect operations in reverse faults. View full abstract»

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  • Studies of Power Arc Faulta in SF6 Insulated Equipment

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 114 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Power arc behaviour in gas insulated equipment and the influence of arc motion on damage resulting from simulated faults were investigated in the laboratory. Experiments were carried out with power-frequency currents up to 22 kA in a co-axial test chamber insulated with pressurized SF6 and air. Arc motion was measured with time-of-flight and infrared thermal imagery techniques for various fault currents, geometries and pressures. A linear, relationship between the axial arc velocity and fault current was established. For a typical 138 kV SF6 bus duct, this velocity is 100 cm/s·kA. The influence of spacers on the motion of arcs in the gas insulated equipment was studied with respect to temperature rise of and damage to the sheath View full abstract»

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  • Formulas for Predicting Audible Noise from Overhead High Voltage AC and DC Lines

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 121 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
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    This paper describes Bonneville Power Administration's basic philosophy for predicting audible noise from ac and dc high voltage transmission lines. General formulas for predicting the A-weighted audible noise during rain for ac lines and during fair weather for dc lines which were developed from data from full-scale lines are presented. From this basic calculation, audible noise cumulative distributions, frequency spectrums, and lateral profiles can be estimated View full abstract»

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  • Non-Ceramic Insulators for Contaminated Environments

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 131 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
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    Non-ceramic insulators with polymer weather sheds were evaluated for applications in contaminated environments. Insulator design, material properties and construction of the weather shed component are discussed in terms of the effects of leakage current and erosion that accompany the deposition of contaminants and moisture. The deterioration of the EPR weather shed surfaces after outdoor exposure is of concern as the 60-Hz strength is decreased. The tests also confirm that radial joints formed by individual weather sheds are potential weak points of the insulator. The use of corona rings to alleviate damaging discharges between the metal fittings and the weather shed material is recommended for voltages as low as 230 kV View full abstract»

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  • System to Monitor the Conductor Temperature of Underground Cables

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 143 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A system has been developed to control the conductor temperature of the new and existing underground cables by using the conductor current, the insulation shield temperature and a computer method to calculate the conductor temperature. A typical line section of a 240 kv HPOF pipe type cable was installed and tests were conducted to evaluate this system. The accurate control of the conductor temperature, allows the operation of the underground cables at maximum capacity under normal and emergency loads, without exceeding the recommended temperatures View full abstract»

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  • Surge Protection of Cable-Connected Equipment on Higher-Voltage Distribution Systems

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 154 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Since the 1969 presentation on protection of cable-connected distribution equipment, 15 kV and below, the working group has studied systems of 25-kV and 34.5-kV voltage class View full abstract»

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  • Location of Partial Discharge Sites in On-Line Transformers

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 158 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)  

    A field-oriented technique is described by which partial discharge sites can be located within operating transformers. The method is based on the enhancement of the acoustic emission signals emanating from P.D. sources. No special electrical excitation is required and the calculations involved require only simple arithmetic. The complex nature of the speed of sound in transformer oil is discussed and the need for further work identified View full abstract»

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  • A Fundamental Concept for High Speed Relaying

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 163 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
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    This paper describes a fundamental approach for detecting the direction to a power system fault within the first milliseconds following the fault inception. The method is based on a combined evaluation of the voltage and current deviations generated by the fault occurrence. Design considerations and test results based on numerical simulations and on a transient network analyser are presented. The method solves several problems occurring in conventional relaying and is suitable for use in ultra high speed protection systems which employ a fast telecommunication channel between the ends of the protected network View full abstract»

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  • Long Term Tests on a ±600 KV DC Cable System

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 174 - 183
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Long term tests on a ±600 kV do cable system were successfully completed in 1979. They demonstrated the availability of such a system, i.e. cable and relevant accessories, for commercial operation View full abstract»

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  • Marketability of Low-Head Hydropower

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 184 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Low-head hydroelectric generation may be an important electric power source in the future for certain areas in the United States. A methodology is discussed in this brief technical paper for assessing the low-head hydropower marketability in each of twelve regions covering the continental United States. The potential marketability of low-head hydroelectric power was measured by the value to electric utilities of the energy and firm capacity available from hydroplants. The energy credit was calculated using streamflow information for an entire year: the capacity credit was calculated using streamflow information for the season when the electric demand reaches an annual peak View full abstract»

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  • Computation of Electromagnetic, Thermal and Mechanical Quantities During Asynchronous Starting up of Solid Salient Pole Synchronous Machines. Experimental Verification

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The computation of asynchronous operation of massive salient pole synchronous machines is performed to predetermine the behaviour of pump-storage reversible sets starting asynchronously as pumps, by beeing fed from the power system. The paper deals with the method of computing the electromagnetic behaviour of the synchronous machine, solving the local equations for the electromagnetic field in the air gap and in the saturated solid iron. This stage is followed by determination of local losses in the poles, then of temperatures, and finally of mechanical stresses. Comparison between computation and test results is made for two reversible sets with rated powers 72 MVA and 64 MVA View full abstract»

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  • Development and Commercial Use of 275 kV XLPE Power Cable

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 203 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    As the first such line in the world, a 275 kV XLPE-insulated power cable transmission line was completed for the Nagoya substation of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (Japan) in June, 1979 View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope