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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2007

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Cascaded Kalman Filters for Accurate Estimation of Multiple Biases, Dead-Reckoning Navigation, and Full State Feedback Control of Ground Vehicles

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 199 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1135 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops a cascaded estimation algorithm for estimating all of the biases and states for full state feedback and dead reckoning of a farm tractor through short global positioning system (GPS) outages. First, a conventional (one stage) estimation scheme is presented. The single state estimation scheme is shown to have degraded performance in bias state estimation and dead-reckoning due to vehicle model errors. However, the states for position and velocity are not highly coupled to the tractor dynamic states, allowing for separation of the estimators. Therefore, the state estimation algorithms are divided into two cascaded estimators in order to prevent the errors in the vehicle model from corrupting the navigation states. A dead reckoning (or navigation) estimator estimates all of the inertial sensor biases while GPS is available. When GPS is not available, the dead reckoning estimator integrates rate measurements to provide position and heading estimates in order to maintain continuous control of the vehicle through these GPS outages. A second estimator is then used to estimate the additional states needed for full state feedback control algorithms. Bias estimates from the dead reckoning estimator are used to correct the sensor measurement used in the second estimator. An extended kalman filter (EKF) is utilized for each of the estimators. Results are given, showing that the cascaded estimation technique provides better estimation of the vehicle states over a conventional estimation scheme, especially during a GPS outage. Results are also given which verify the ability of the estimation algorithm to estimate all of the system biases and provide continuous control of the tractor through a short GPS outage View full abstract»

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  • Stability Analysis in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines With High Dilution

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 209 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1195 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the stability of the autoignition process of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with exhaust dilution. We find conditions under which steady-state multiplicity exists with stable and unstable equilibria. This analysis is conducted taking into account the internal feedback structure of the thermal dynamics. Specifically, HCCI combustion timing determines the combustion heat produced and is determined by the heat provided through high internal exhaust gas recirculation from the previous combustion cycle. It is shown that the thermal equilibria are characterized by a simple returning map consisting of two curves, namely the breathing temperature curve and the combustion temperature curve. The influence of heat transfer and the cooling system in the system stability is also analyzed. The returning map and the stability of the multiple steady-state equilibria are confirmed with a high-order dynamic nonlinear model. The high-order dynamic model includes manifold filling and composition dynamics and has been validated both at steady state and during transient. It is shown that a static feedforward controller can cause instability during switching from a high to a low load. A dynamic feedforward controller, on the other hand, is able to stabilize the transition by reducing temperature excursions and, hence, keeping the temperature trajectories within stable regions View full abstract»

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  • Control Approaches to the Suppression of Machining Chatter Using Active Magnetic Bearings

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 220 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several control approaches to the active suppression of machining chatter, a self-excited vibration that limits metal removal rate, are examined using a specially constructed turning experiment. The experiment employs a magnetic bearing for actuation and mimics the dynamics of a flexible rotor. Control forces are applied and vibration measurements taken at a location along this structure that is not collocated with the tool. Three control approaches are considered: speed-independent control, speed-specified control, and speed-interval control. Experimental results with these are compared to those obtained using proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, a standard approach in the magnetic bearing industry today. Significant improvements over PID in machining stability lobes are obtained and the capability to highly tailor the cutting tool compliance so as to inhibit the onset of chatter is demonstrated. Cutting tests are also presented which demonstrate the significant improvements in chatter-free chip width that may be obtained with advanced control methods View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based Control of an Integrated Fuel Cell and Fuel Processor With Exhaust Heat Recirculation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 233 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the dynamic and controlled operation of an integrated natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC), and a catalytic burner (CB). The FC provides power based on the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen. The FPS generates the hydrogen from natural gas through catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) and the CB provides the energy for preheating the FPS inlet flows by burning any excess hydrogen from the FC exhaust. The coupling of these three systems poses a challenging optimization and control problem. Optimization is performed to generate the air and fuel flow intake setpoints to the FPS for various load levels. The optimal flow setpoints are used in a static feedforward map that ensures maximum efficiency at steady state. Linear quadratic techniques are then used to develop a controller to mitigate hydrogen starvation in the fuel cell and regulate CPOX reactor temperatures. We show in simulations that the designed observer-based feedback controller, which relies on temperature measurements of two reactors, speeds up the transient response fourfold, as compared to the baseline when the static feedforward controller is employed View full abstract»

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  • A Safe Longitudinal Control for Adaptive Cruise Control and Stop-and-Go Scenarios

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 246 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel reference model-based control approach for automotive longitudinal control. The reference model is nonlinear and provides dynamic solutions consistent with safety constraints and comfort specifications. The model is based on physical laws of compliant contact and has the particularity that its solutions can be explicitly described by integral curves. This allows to characterize the set of initial condition for which the constraints can be met. This model is combined with a simple feedback loop used to compensate unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances. Model simulations together with experimental results are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Control Design for Performance Management of Web Servers Via an LPV Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 259 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a control-theoretic approach to the performance management of Internet Web servers to meet service-level agreements. In particular, a CPU frequency management problem is studied to provide response time guarantees with minimal energy cost. It is argued that linear time-invariant modeling and control may not be sufficient for the system to adapt to dynamically varying load conditions. Instead, a Linear-parameter-varying (LPV) approach is presented in this paper, where workload arrival and service parameters are chosen as scheduling parameters to characterize time-varying operating conditions. Modeling the performance management of a Web server as an LPV system has been extensively discussed in this paper; we have derived first-principles models based on analyzing transient and steady-state queueing dynamics as well as empirical models using system identification algorithms. LPV-Hinfin controllers are then designed for the derived LPV system models. Using real Web server workloads, the performance of LPV control compares favorably to various linear control designs and a design based on the conventional queueing theory. The proposed LPV modeling and control framework can be generalized to incorporate more sophisticated workload models and more complicated server environments. In addition, due to the LPV nature of Web systems with respect to load conditions, the proposed approach can be applied to a variety of resource management problems and used for middleware designs View full abstract»

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  • Control and Pointing Challenges of Large Antennas and Telescopes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 276 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Extremely large telescopes will be constructed in the near future, and new radiotelescopes will operate at considerably higher radio frequencies; both features create significantly increased pointing accuracy requirements that have to be addressed by control system engineers. This paper presents control and pointing problems encountered during design, testing, and the operation of antennas, radiotelescopes, and optical telescopes. This collection of challenges informs of their current status, helps to evaluate their importance, and is a basis for discussion on the ways of improvement of antenna pointing accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Power Control of Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems for an Accelerated System Warm-Up

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 290 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Key technical challenges in hybrid fuel cell power system applications are the power management and the thermal control. In this paper, a charge-sustaining supervisory power controller is developed, which minimizes the warm-up duration of a fuel cell/battery hybrid power system by optimally controlling the power split between the fuel cell system and the battery, as well as the operation of an auxiliary heater. The controller is implemented as a model-predictive feedback law. First, a control-oriented, mathematical model of the system is established and partially validated with experimental data. An optimal control problem is then stated, and from the necessary conditions of Pontryagin's minimum principle a solution is derived. The operation of the controller is demonstrated in the simulation, and the controller's functionality is analyzed in detail. As the controller has a feedback structure and as it requires only low computing power, it is adequate for an on-board, real-time application View full abstract»

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  • A Model-Free Cross-Coupled Control for Position Synchronization of Multi-Axis Motions: Theory and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 306 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a model-free cross-coupled controller is proposed for position synchronization of multi-axis motions. The position synchronization error of each axis is defined as the differential position error between this axis and its two adjacent axes, which is then coupled with the position error to form a coupled position error. A proportional and derivative (PD)-type synchronization controller with feedback of this coupled position error is proposed and proven to guarantee asymptotic convergence to zero of both position and synchronization errors in a setpoint position control. A setpoint tracking controller is further developed by adding feedforward control terms and a saturation function to the PD synchronization controller. The proposed method is easy to implement in practice since it is model free and the control gains are time-invariant. Experiments are performed to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • Constrained Nonlinear Predictive Control for Maximizing Production in Polymerization Processes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 315 - 323
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a new constrained nonlinear predictive control scheme is proposed for maximizing the production in polymerization processes. The key features of the proposed feedback strategy are its ability to rigorously handle the process constraints (input saturation, maximum allowed heat production, maximal temperature values, and rate of change) as well as its real time implementability due to the low dimensional control parametrization being used. Simulations are proposed to show the efficiency of the proposed feedback as well as its robustness to model uncertainties. The controller performance is also validated experimentally on a laboratory scale reactor to control the emulsion polymerization of styrene View full abstract»

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  • Robust Failure Compensation for a Morphing Aircraft Model Using a Probabilistic Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 324 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a probabilistic robust control design for a morphing aircraft model subject to uncertain actuator failure. The morphing aircraft model has multiple distributed arrays of shape-change devices that are used to generate moments for stabilization and low-rate maneuvering, augmenting conventional control surfaces. Each actuator operates at either on or off state; failure of each actuator could cause uncertainty in the applied control input. We characterize the morphing aircraft's actuation failure in a probabilistic way. In particular, each shape-change device within an actuator array is assumed to have certain probability to fail while devices from different arrays may have different failure probabilities. Consequently, we model the uncertain actuator failure as a random parametric uncertainty in the input matrix of the morphing aircraft model. A probabilistic robust explicit-model-following controller is then designed to stabilize the closed-loop system and to satisfy tracking performance subject to uncertain actuator failure. Simulation results are presented and evaluated for the application of this probabilistic robust failure compensation design to lateral dynamics of an Innovative Control Effector morphing aircraft model View full abstract»

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  • Study of VSC Reliable Designs With Application to Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 332 - 338
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief investigates variable structure reliable control (VSRC) issues of a set of second-order nonlinear systems and their application to spacecraft attitude stabilization. Both passive and active reliable designs are presented. To achieve the active task, an observer to identify faults as they occur in the spacecraft actuators is also presented. These VSRC laws do not require the solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation, which is essential in the optimal approaches such as linear quadratic Riccati (LQR) and Hinfin reliable designs. As a matter of fact, this approach can relax the computational burden for solving the HJ equation. Simulation results regarding spacecraft attitude stabilization with comparisons among the VSRCs and the LQR reliable designs are also given. It is shown from these simulations that the active VSRC is the most flexible, robust and effective method because it does not need to prespecify susceptible actuators and because it allows more space for the control parameter adjustment View full abstract»

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  • An Online Rotor Time Constant Estimator for the Induction Machine

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 339 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Indirect field-oriented control of an induction machine requires knowledge of the rotor time constant to estimate the rotor flux linkages. Here, an online method is presented for estimating the rotor time constant and the stator resistance, both of which vary during operation of the machine due to ohmic heating. The method uses measurements of the stator voltages, stator currents, and their derivatives (first derivative of the voltages and both the first and second derivatives of the currents). The problem is formulated as finding those parameter values that best fit (in a least-squares sense) the model of the induction motor to the measured output data of the motor. This method guarantees that the parameter values are found in a finite number of steps. Experimental results of an online implementation are presented View full abstract»

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  • Using Time-Sequential Sampling to Stabilize the Color and Tone Reproduction Functions of a Xerographic Printing Process

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tone and color reproduction functions (TRC and CRC) characterize how a printer maps a desired tone or color into the actual printed output. TRC/CRC ideally, should be identity maps to achieve tone and color consistency. Whereas the TRC/CRC is potentially high or infinite dimensional, typically, only a small number of tone/color test patches for sensing can be printed and measured at a time and only a small number of actuators are available for control. Time-sequential sampling is proposed to address the sensing limitation issue in order to enable the time varying TRC or CRC to be reconstructed based on a small number of samples. A periodic Kalman filtering approach is employed for the reconstruction. A curve-fitting TRC stabilization controller based on linear quadratic (LQ) control with integral dynamics is proposed to address the actuation limitation issue. Two classic time-sequential sampling sequences are compared based on their spectral aliasing properties, and the reconstruction operations of the periodic Kalman filter is analyzed using Floquet theory. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed TRC/CRC stabilization system can be implemented practically and the control performance with one time-sequential sampled sensor is nearly as effective as using full sampling using sixteen fixed sensors View full abstract»

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  • Bounded Switched Linear Estimator for Smooth Nonlinear Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 358 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of establishing hard bounds on the state estimate of a nonlinear system using a switching piecewise linear hybrid estimator is addressed. Within an operating region, the proposed hybrid estimator uses a variant of the extended set-membership filter to select piecewise linear models based on minimizing uncertainty. Under certain conditions, analysis shows that the error between the center of the estimated set and the true value is bounded. A priori selection of the base piecewise linear models to guarantee a level of uncertainty is achieved by optimizing the placement of operating points over the operating region. The proposed methods are applied to a complex aircraft example to show its applicability View full abstract»

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  • Repetitive Learning Control of Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems Using Quasi-Sliding Mode

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 369 - 374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a quasi-sliding mode (QSM)-based repetitive learning control (RLC) method is proposed for tackling multi-input multi-output nonlinear continuous-time systems with matching perturbations. The proposed RLC method is able to perform rejection of periodic exogenous disturbances as well as tracking of periodic reference trajectories. It ensures a robust system stability when it is subject to nonperiodic uncertainties and disturbances. In this brief, an application to a robotic manipulator is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed QSM-based RLC method. A comparative study with the conventional variable structure control (VSC) technique is also included View full abstract»

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  • A Fuzzy Lyapunov-Based Control Strategy for a Macro–Micro Manipulator: Experimental Results

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 375 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A class of model-free fuzzy controllers based on the Lyapunov-function reasoning is presented for a Macro-Micro Manipulator (M3) system. The control strategy uses the structural properties of the system model and assumes no other a priori knowledge about the system dynamics. Although, in general, the control structure can be regarded as a fuzzy controller, it may also be interpreted as a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller. An experimental setup consisting of a three-link M3 is considered as a practical case study. The test-bed is a nonlinear nonminimum phase MIMO system with a complex model and considerable joint frictions. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the improved performance of the proposed control strategy over a joint PD controller View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy Stabilization of Power Systems in a Co-Generation Scheme Subject to Random Abrupt Variations of Operating Conditions

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 384 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a new stabilizing controller for the power system of an industrial plant operating in a co-generation scheme is proposed. The main source of perturbations considered in the operating conditions are random abrupt fluctuations in the local load, corresponding to the industrial processes being turned on and/or off. These fluctuations are described as Markovian jumps in the parameters of the power system. The proposed controller follows a standard structure which combines an automatic voltage regulator with a supplementary stabilizing term. This term is obtained with a fuzzy-model-based control technique formulated in the context of linear matrix inequalities under damping and control input constraints. Simulations performed on both a single-machine infinite-bus model and on a multimachine model show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control strategy in reducing the oscillations as well as in maintaining a desired operating condition View full abstract»

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  • Flatness-Based Feedback Control of an Automotive Solenoid Valve

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 394 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief considers the control of solenoid valve actuators used for gas exchange in internal combustion engines. Although solenoid valves offer performance benefits over traditional camshaft-based valve systems, maintaining low impact velocity is a critical performance requirement. Flatness provides a convenient framework for meeting a number of performance specifications on the valve's end motion. The proposed control design incorporates voltage constraints, nonlinear magnetic effects, and various motion planning requirements. A flat output acts as a design parameter and is parameterized with a spline basis. A nonlinear feasibility problem is solved to obtain optimal spline coefficients such that performance requirements are met. The resulting flat output provides an open-loop control which is augmented with feedback so that a linear stable tracking error system results. The proposed control scheme is demonstrated in simulation and on an experimental testbed. The performance of a proportional-integral controller is compared experimentally to the flatness-based method View full abstract»

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  • Order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 402
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C3
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