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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 181
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Validation of Synthetic Diamond for a Beam Condition Monitor for the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment

    Page(s): 182 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide two counter rotating proton beams. The energy stored in each beam is about 350 MJ. If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the accelerator itself, but also to the physics experiments installed. Within the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS), the use of a Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is planned to monitor a possible fast increase of the particle flux near the interaction point. The system will flag the onset of adverse beam conditions within the CMS experiment, and, if necessary, input into the beam abort system of the LHC requesting a fast beam dump. Constraints on BCM design from radiation hardness, a minimal material and services budget, and the need for fast signals from sensors with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range, have led to the investigation of synthetic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond for the BCM sensor. In a 5 GeV hadron beam the response of CVD diamonds was tested in fluxes ranging from single minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) to 108 MIPs per cm2, delivered over 40 ns. The signal response, linearity, and stability of both un-irradiated and irradiated sensors were tested over this flux range, and will be presented herein. The results confirm the applicability of CVD diamond for this beam monitoring application View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Analysis of the Saturation of Charge Sensitive Pre-Amplifiers

    Page(s): 186 - 191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of the charge sensitive preamplifier (CSPA) saturation is considered. It is shown that statistical uncertainty of the CSPA saturation time intervals is small in real measurements and it is possible to apply a periodical programmable external reset of CSPA (as well as programmable protection of other electronic blocks in a spectrometer against distortions caused by the preamplifier reset pulse) without essential increase of the dead time View full abstract»

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  • Concurrent Measurement of Individual Gamma-Ray Spectra During and Between Fast Neutron Pulses

    Page(s): 192 - 196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast commercial digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA) with a 40 MHz sampling frequency, was modified for concurrent acquisition during the same data collection run, of two separate gamma-ray spectra induced during and between fast neutron pulses. The DMCA was programmed to monitor the incoming and observed count rates, and the resulting real times and dead times separately for each spectrum. We report here the performance of the DMCA in terms of it's monitoring capabilities for each channel when using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator. The losses in the incoming and observed count rates were modeled based on the basic dead time parameter of the system View full abstract»

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  • A Smart Reset Circuit for Low-Noise Preamplifiers of X- γ Ray Sensor Signals

    Page(s): 197 - 201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a mixed continuous-pulsed reset technique suitable for multi-channel X-gamma ray sensor preamplifiers. The continuous-reset mode is used for typical signal amplitudes within the ADC input range, or 1 V. The pulsed-reset mode works on larger signal amplitudes, either caused by individual events or by bursts of piled-up events. Such operation mode maximizes the live time in the typical energy range and minimizes the dead time caused by ADC saturation on large individual signals or at high count rates. The amplitude of large individual signals can also be estimated from the reset time still achieving a high resolution. Using this technique and a bulky High Purity Germanium detector we got a "continuous-reset" range of 2 MeV with a resolution of 2.02 keV fwhm at 1.408 MeV, and an extended "pulsed-reset" range of 27 MeV, with a typical resolution of 0.3% at 27 MeV View full abstract»

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  • A Log Service Package for the ATLAS TDAQ/DCS Group

    Page(s): 202 - 207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces the Log Service, developed at CERN within the ATLAS TDAQ/DCS framework. This package remedies the long standing problem of centralizing log messages produced by TDAQ applications in order to ease later access and maintenance. One or multiple Log Servers form the system's archival container, based on the MySQL database engine. A C++ interface is provided to access the Log Servers in a transparent manner. Furthermore, a user-friendly web-based tool intended for developers is available to easily browse and/or remove Log Messages. The outline of these software components are herein explained. Performance testing has been conducted within a controllable environment to observe the behaviour of the Log Service View full abstract»

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  • On-Board Digital Signal Processing for 4 π-Detector Large-Area Telescopes

    Page(s): 208 - 213
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (946 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The digital pulse shape data acquisition (DAQ) system used by the large area telescopes of the 4pi-multidetector CHIMERA requires transferring large amount of data to the computer. This is necessary so that the same information can be extracted from the detector pulses as in previous analog based systems. To overcome this problem, we have used a sampling ADC-board equipped with two TigerSHARC digital signal processors. The board receives the data and reconstructs the event parameters online. The data volume is significantly reduced by transmitting to the DAQ only the reconstructed event parameters View full abstract»

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  • Channel Mapping of the ZEUS Straw-Tube Tracker

    Page(s): 214 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Straw-Tube Tracker (STT) is part of a global tracking system of the ZEUS detector at the eplusmnp storage ring HERA at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. The STT covers in combination with other tracking detectors the forward region of the experiment 1.75<eta<2.5. The highest hadronic particle flux appears in that region within the experiment. After the final installation of the STT within the ZEUS detector, intensive checks are done in order to confirm the functionality before the first STT data taking period. A channel mapping procedure described in this paper identifies dead and unstable channels. A correlation is seen between the number of dead or unstable channels and hadronic radiation level in the detector View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo Simulation Study of the Characteristics of Xe-Ne Gas Mixtures as Detection Media in Gas Proportional Ionization Counters

    Page(s): 219 - 223
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    A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed to investigate the performance of Xe-Ne filled proportional ionization counters, with a special interest on the intrinsic energy resolution Rint as a function of the Xe-Ne mixtures composition. The Monte Carlo simulation reproduces the growth of single-electron-initiated avalanches in cylindrical geometry, and the results for Rint are discussed in terms of the influence of the Penning ionization on the statistical parameter f characterizing the fluctuations of single-electron avalanches gain. The results for Rint, and f, as well as for the multiplication factor M, are calculated for each mixture as a function of the reduced anode voltage K=V/ln(c/a), where V is the voltage applied to the anode-wire and c/a is the cathode-to-anode radius ratio View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of Xe-Ne Proportional Counters for X-Ray Detection

    Page(s): 224 - 227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of appropriate mixtures of noble gases in proportional counters can take advantage of the Penning effect, a process of energy transfer between the two species which produces extra electrons. The Penning effect can occur in Xe-Ne mixtures and recent Monte Carlo simulation measurements have shown that a small percentage of Xe (below ~1%Xe) brings to a minimum the fluctuations in the formation of the primary electron cloud and decreases the w-value to a magnitude near that for pure Xe. In addition, the excitation and ionization thresholds and the fluctuations in charge multiplication become lower and the ionization efficiency becomes higher than in pure Xe, indicating that improved energy resolution can be achieved at low applied voltages for a Xe-Ne filled proportional counter. In this work, we present an experimental study of the performance of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with several Xe-Ne mixtures at atmospheric pressure, for 5.9 keV x-rays. Results are presented for the energy resolution and gas multiplication factor and a discussion of the experimental results is made View full abstract»

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  • Exploring Signatures of Different Physical Processes for Fusion With Scattering Muon Tomography

    Page(s): 228 - 235
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The success of scattering muon tomography has prompted us to explore cosmic ray flux attenuation, electro-magnetic shower induction, and muonic X-ray emission as additional means for the non-destructive assay of small and medium size objects. We report on the value of the signatures of these processes as an adjunct to multiple scattering muon tomography. We discuss our experiments and the Monte-Carlo calculations of these processes, the type of information that can be drawn from their signatures, the cost and the value of this information. We discuss the general requirements for detector systems to make use of cosmic ray flux attenuation, induction of electro-magnetic showers, and muonic X-rays in muon tomography. We find that the attenuation of the cosmic ray flux allows for the inference of the density distribution for objects of automobile size and smaller with exposure times of order a few minutes. Our preliminary experiments and calculations have shown that using muonic X-rays to identify composition is exceedingly difficult, requiring months of exposure. Our experiments are not yet sensitive enough to detect muonic x-rays at the rates expected from previous accelerator experiments View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of the First Prototypes of Silicon Photomultiplier Fabricated at ITC-irst

    Page(s): 236 - 244
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the electrical characterization of the first prototypes of Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APDs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) produced at ITC-irst, Trento. Both static and functional measurements have been performed in dark condition. The static tests, consisting in reverse and forward IV measurements, have been performed on 20GM-APDs and 90 SiPMs. The breakdown voltage, the quenching resistance value and the current level have been proved to be very uniform. On the other hand, the analysis of the dark signals allowed the extraction of important properties such as the dark count rate, the gain, the after-pulse and optical cross-talk (in case of the SiPMs) rates. These parameters have been evaluated as a function of the bias voltage, showing trends perfectly compatible with the theory of the device View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of a Single Photon Counting Imaging System by Transfer Function Analysis

    Page(s): 245 - 251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method to quantitatively evaluate the performances of a radiographic detection system consists in measuring the contrast, noise and modulation transfer functions. These functions have been evaluated for a digital radiographic system based on a single photon counting pixel detector. The X-ray detector is a Silicon sensor with one side segmented in a matrix of 256 by 256 square contacts with a pitch of 55 mum. The active area is about 2 cm2. The sensor is connected to the Medipix2 read-out chip by bump-bonding. As X-ray source we have used a tube for general radiography. To reproduce the conditions of a radiographic examination, a 4 cm thick lucite block positioned above the detector has been used to simulate a tissue sample. To study the Contrast Transfer Function we have measured the contrast of an 1 mm thick lead slab with respect to the background. To evaluate the scattering contribution from the lucite, the measurements have been performed with and without a collimator placed at the beam exit. To assess the efficiency and noise transfer properties, we have measured the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of the detector as a function of the tube voltage. The Modulation Transfer Function has been measured applying the slit method for different conditions of tube voltage and energy threshold View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous Fault Emulation: A New FPGA-Based Acceleration System for Hardness Evaluation

    Page(s): 252 - 261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The appearance of nanometer technologies has produced a significant increase of integrated circuit sensitivity to radiation, making the occurrence of soft errors much more frequent, not only in applications working in harsh environments, like aerospace circuits, but also for applications working at the earth surface. Therefore, hardened circuits are currently demanded in many applications where fault tolerance was not a concern in the very near past. To this purpose, efficient hardness evaluation solutions are required to deal with the increasing size and complexity of modern VLSI circuits. In this paper, a very fast and cost effective solution for SEU sensitivity evaluation is presented. The proposed approach uses FPGA emulation in an autonomous manner to fully exploit the FPGA emulation speed. Three different techniques to implement it are proposed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the proposed Autonomous Emulation approach can reach execution rates higher than one million faults per second, providing a performance improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to previous approaches. These rates give way to consider very large fault injection campaigns that were not possible in the past View full abstract»

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  • Gamma-Ray Backscattering Tomography Approach Based on the Lidar Principle

    Page(s): 262 - 275
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach is proposed, and its potentialities are studied, for single-sided gamma-ray in-depth sensing and tomography of dense opaque media. The approach is based on lidar (LIgth Detection And Ranging) principle or, in the present case, graydar (Gamma RAY Detection And Ranging) principle, that is, time-to-range resolved detection of the backscattering-due radiative returns from the probed object irradiated by pulsed gamma-photon pencil beams. The basic analysis and data processing delta-pulse single-scattering graydar equation is formulated by analogy with the lidar equation and is shown to be applicable, under some determinate conditions, to the problems of gamma-ray in-depth profiling of dense media. It is shown analytically and by computer simulations that the approach developed in the work would enable one, at large-enough but reasonable sensing photon fluxes and measurement time intervals, to determine with good controllable accuracy and resolution the location, the material content, and the mass density of different homogeneous ingredients inside the probed object as well as the mass (or electron) density distribution within one-material objects. This approach can be widely applied, e.g., for nondestructive material examination in industry and aviation, detection of landmines and explosives, investigating the constitution of archeological artifacts, etc View full abstract»

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  • Rad-Hard Silicon Diode Response for Photon Spectrometry

    Page(s): 276 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this Paper we describe the performance of a rad-hard diode (Al/p+/n/n+/Al), developed in the framework of research and development programs for the future CMS experiment at LHC, for detection and spectrometry of X-and gamma-rays envisaging its use in characterization of porous structures by X-ray tomography. The diode's response was studied using 57Co, 133Ba, and 241Am radioactive sources at room temperature. A reasonable good energy resolution was obtained in the energy range between 30 and 360 keV (FWHM=5.2 keV and 5.7 keV, respectively). In the same energy range, measurements of full-energy peak efficiencies were carried out and compared with the theoretical values. For 59.5 keV photons the angular dependence of the efficiency was also measured. The results have demonstrated that this diode is appropriate for direct detection of low energy electromagnetic radiation View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of a Si Photodiode for Position Sensitive Radiation Detection

    Page(s): 280 - 283
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have fabricated a position sensitive radiation detector by creating radiation damage regions in a Si photodiode. Radiation damage was created in layers at a depth of several mum by 7Li and 16O ion beams which had an energy between 2 and 4MeV. Ions were focused and scanned using a nuclear microprobe facility. The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) signals created in diodes during irradiation were simultaneously measured to monitor the exact ion beam fluence and analyzed to estimate the amount of defects created. By controlling the ion microbeam scanning system, graduated and position dependent radiation damage was produced in different micro-patterns. Such structures may be used as a simple position sensitive radiation sensor View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of Tracking Performance of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Page(s): 284 - 289
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive solution for high precision tracking of minimum ionizing particles. In these devices, a thin, moderately doped, undepleted silicon layer is used as the active detector volume with the readout electronics implemented on top of it. Recently, a new MAPS prototype was fabricated using the AMS 0.35 mum OPTO process, featuring a thick epitaxial layer. A systematic study of tracking performance of that prototype using high-energy particle beam is presented in this work. Noise performance, signal amplitude from minimum ionizing particles, detection efficiency, spurious hit suppression and spatial resolution are shown as a function of the readout pitch and the charge collecting diode size. A test array with a novel readout circuitry was also fabricated and tested. Each pixel circuit consists of a front-end voltage amplifier, capacitively coupled to the charge collecting diode, followed by two analog memory cells. This architecture implements an on-pixel correlated double sampling method, allowing for optimization of integration independently of full frame readout time and strongly reduces the pixel-to-pixel output signal dispersion. First measurements using this structure are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Notice to the 2006 Index

    Page(s): 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (12 KB)  

    The 2006 year-end index appearing in the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (TNS), vol. 53, no. 6, December 2006 issue contained formatting errors that omitted various authors from their indexed articles. A corrected PDF version has been made available on IEEEXplore in the contents listing of TNS December 2006, vol. 53, no. 6, labelled "2006 Index (Revised)." We sincerely regret the occurrence of this error and have already taken steps to ensure that this problem will not recur. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    Page(s): 291
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  • Editor-in-chief search

    Page(s): 292
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Page(s): C4
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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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