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Systems Science and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems Science and Cybernetics Group

    Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 1
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  • A Search Technique for Multimodal Surfaces

    Page(s): 2 - 8
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    During the past decade many different computeroriented techniques for locating the extremum of a mathematically defined n-dimensional surface have been developed for use as aids toward optimum system design. The great majority of these techniques locate only the nearest peak if the surface is multimodal. This paper presents a technique for locating the global extremum of a multimodal surface. The search strategy is divided into three phases: a global search, a selection of hypervolume containing the global extremum, and a final unimodal search. The search strategy is discussed along with an illustrative example problem. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Approximation Algorithms for System Identification, Estimation, and Decomposition of Mixtures

    Page(s): 8 - 15
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    A stochastic approximation procedure that minimizes a mean-square-error criterion is proposed in this paper. It is applied first to derive an algorithm for recursive estimation of the mean-square-error approximation of the function which relates the input signals and the responses of a memoryless system. The input signals are assumed to be generated at random with an unknown probability density function, and the response is measured with an error which has zero mean and finite variance. A performance index for evaluating the rate of convergence of the algorithm is defined and then the optimal form of the algorithm is derived. It is shown that the least-square-error fit of the measured output signals of the systems offers a recursive formula which is a special case of the proposed algorithm. A recursive formula for estimation of a priori probabilities of the pattern classes using unclassified samples is then presented. The rate of convergence is computed. A minimum square-error estimate of a continuous probability density function is also obtained by the same algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • On Man-Computer Interaction: A Model and Some Related Issues

    Page(s): 16 - 26
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    A survey of the literature related to man-computer interaction reveals the many aspects of this problem, which appears to be in the crossroads among such diverse fields as computer languages, computer systems operational characteristics, control theory, decision theory, information theory, applied psychology, computer display and interface engineering, etc. In this paper we have chosen to present the on-line interaction from an information and decision point of view. After a brief discussion of classes of on-line situations and tasks, we propose an information-processing model of the case in which a human operator is engaged on-line in the solution of a problem like debugging a program, testing a model in a scientific application, or performing a library search. In this model the human operator is considered to seek to maximize overall cost. This cost is obtained by adding the operational cost of both man and computer to a remnant terminal cost originated by the remaining uncertainty. This analysis, performed for each of a set of possible alternatives for action, may lead the man to select and execute one of them, to terminate the process, or to reevaluate the possible alternatives and/or hypotheses in a search for new ones. Some practical applications in terms of response time and other characteristics of a computer utility are discussed, as well as some theoretical implications from an informational point of view. View full abstract»

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  • An Upper Bound on the Number of Measurements Required by the Contour Tangent Optimization Technique

    Page(s): 27 - 30
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    An upper bound for the number of measurements required by the contour tangent optimization technique [1], [3] to give an ¿ approximation to the maximum is determined. The bound is applicable to n-dimensional quasiconcave functions and requires an estimate of the modulus of continuity ¿ near the maximum. For large even n and domain on the unit interval, the number of contour tangent measurements required is less than 2.18n (¿ ln n - ln ¿ - 0.22). If each contour tangent is approximated by n + 1 explicit measurements of the objective, then an upper bound on the number of function evaluations is n + 1 times the above. The bound derived shows that the contour tangent technique is far superior to dichotomous search [3], the next best direct search elimination technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Theory of Bayesian Learning Systems

    Page(s): 30 - 37
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    Efforts are made to simplify the implementation and to improve the flexibility of Bayesian learning systems. Using a truncated series expansion to represent a pattern class, a simplified structure is shown with nearly optimal performance. A criterion of determining the learning sample size is given so that after taking a sufficient number of learning observations, the system may elect to learn by itself without relying on the external supervision. A time-varying random parameter is approximated by the polynomial with random coefficients. The Bayes estimates of the coefficients are obtained sequentially from the useful information in the learning observations. The condition for convergence of the unsupervised learning is established and shown to be closely related to the selection of the characteristic features. The system retains the same structure in both supervised and unsupervised learning processes with either the stationary or the time-varying random parameter. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Estimation in the Presence of Unknown Parameters

    Page(s): 38 - 43
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    An adaptive approach is presented for optimal estimation of a sampled stochastic process with finite-state unknown parameters. It is shown that, for processes with an implicit generalized Markov property, the optimal (conditional mean) state estimates can be formed from 1) a set of optimal estimates based on known parameters, and 2) a set of "learning" statistics which are recursively updated. The formulation thus provides a separation technique which simplifies the optimal solution of this class of nonlinear estimation problems. Examples of the separation technique are given for prediction of a non-Gaussian Markov process with unknown parameters and for filtering the state of a Gauss-Markov process with unknown parameters. General results are given on the convergence of optimal estimation systems operating in the presence of unknown parameters. Conditions are given under which a Bayes optimal (conditional mean) adaptive estimation system will converge in performance to an optimal system which is "told" the value of unknown parameters. View full abstract»

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  • On the Inverse of Linear Dynamical Systems

    Page(s): 43 - 48
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    The problem considered is that of determining the inverse of a linear time-invariant dynamical system characterized by a first-order vector differential equation. This problem has application to various problems in control and estimation, where a state space representation is utilized. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for the existence of an inverse system and an algorithm is developed for the inverse system when one exists. The inverse algorithm generates a system composed of a differentiation system cascaded with a dynamical system. View full abstract»

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  • Constraint Theory, Part I: Fundamentals

    Page(s): 48 - 56
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    The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic foundation for the determination of whether a mathematical model and its desired computations are "well-posed" in order to help alleviate the software problems associated with the simulation of complex large-scale systems by heterogeneous mathematical models involving several hundred dimensions. The problem is approached by providing a rigorous basis for the commonplace notion of constraint. Four distinct viewpoints of the mathematical model are established: 1) the set theoretic relation space; 2) the family of submodels; 3) the bipartite graph, which provides topological insight; and 4) the constraint matrix. Fundamental definitions of mathematical model consistency, computational allowability, and extrinsic and intrinsic constraint are established on a set theory basis. Correspondences are proved between the topological properties of a model's graph and its constraint properties. Variables located in different connected components of a graph are always mutually consistent, but computations performed on them are never allowable. If a model graph of universal relations has a tree structure, then all its variables are mutually consistent. Detailed treatment of special relation classes will be given in Parts II and III. View full abstract»

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  • The Managementality Gap

    Page(s): 57 - 64
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    While analyzing situations before making vital decisions has been practiced by realistic politicians since Machiavelli's time, business managers constantly make decisions with inadequate information and under the pressures of insufficient time. Too few managers have reached the point where they rigorously analyze alternate consequences before choosing one solution over another. A prime problem is the different mental attitude of those involved¿today's top executives and the more recent management-oriented technical graduates. The potential contributions of management science to the business process are limited by the gap between the mentality of the practitioners of management science and currently successful managers. The challenge of developing certain interactions, mutual trust, and commitment is offered to both sides. Melding of the disparate talents of the charismatic intuitive leader, the management scientist, and the behavioral scientist is needed to help close the "managementality gap." View full abstract»

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  • An Approximate Algorithm for Discrete Linear Programming

    Page(s): 65 - 70
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    An algorithm is presented for determining an approximate solution of a large class of discrete linear programming problems, and an upper bound on the profit loss due to the approximation is computed. A subregion of the original polyhedron of feasible solutions is also defined; such a subregion certainly contains the optimal solution of the discrete linear programming problem considered. A geometrical interpretation of the algorithm is given. View full abstract»

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  • On the Quantization of Line-Drawing Data

    Page(s): 70 - 79
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    This paper describes the development of a criterion for the quantization of line-drawing data. The criterion provides a guide for selecting the quantization fineness required to assure that the significant features of given line-drawing data will be preserved in the quantization process. The criterion is based on viewing a line drawing as an elastic beam under flexure and selecting a quantization grid size that is fine enough to permit the line drawing to be represented by a beam of minimum strain energy. In this model, regions of sharp curvature of the line drawing correspond to regions of high strain-energy density of the elastic beam. The smoothest possible curve that can be reconstructed from a quantized representation is the minimum-energy curve that satisfies the constraints of the quantized data. View full abstract»

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  • Concepts of an Estimation System, an Adaptive System, and a Network of Adaptive Estimation Systems

    Page(s): 79 - 85
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    A clear distinction is made between two concepts. One concept is called an estimation system and the other an adaptive system. Using these two concepts as building blocks and a Bayes minimum conditional risk approach, it is possible to give meaning to the concept of a network of adaptive estimation systems. Under the framework of the approach, unsupervised estimation (estimation without a teacher) is a classical statistical problem as is supervised estimation. Also, supervised estimation is a degenerate case of estimation and a special case of adapting. In general, adapting without a teacher is impossible. View full abstract»

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  • The Maximization of Nerve Conduction Velocity

    Page(s): 86 - 91
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    Histological and electrical examination of high-speed (myelinated) nerve fibers reveals a coaxial RC cable whose inner conductor has from 40 to 80 percent of the diameter of the outer conductor. If various reasonable engineering approximations are made, it turns out that the latter geometry corresponds to maximum conduction velocity. The model suggests that this was the basis for selection by evolutionary processes. It is shown that the measured velocity of 6 × 106 diameters per second is consistent with a node-to-node transit time of 14.2 ¿s, unregenerated signal loss of 4.6 dB, and spacing of 85 diameters. View full abstract»

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  • Modern Design Methods for Electronics

    Page(s): 91 - 94
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    Widely used methods, such as copy, modify, cut and try, and graphical and mathematical analysis, tend to focus on circuits previously created. Mathematical synthesis of circuits is very limited in application. The synthesis of circuits or large-scale systems can be aided by a methodology called the engineering design process. To obtain the physical reality of an electronic design, so many decisions are needed that data reduction methods are required. Computer programs can simplify decision making by the analysis of interaction matrices. From architecture we get Alexander's HIDECS, and from psychology we get factor analysis programs. Their use and misuse is illustrated by the application of their rationales to the combining of subsystems of a color television receiver. View full abstract»

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  • Agapurgy: Affection as a Service Ready for Anglo-American Industrialization

    Page(s): 97 - 98
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    Critical cultural changes in Northern Europe and North America are not being alleviated by the traditional value of instrumentalism. Affluence and urbanism intensify sociability in societies inexperienced in it. The resulting need for mass tender loving care may, however, be met, at least for the masses, by extending technology beyond its traditionally rigid mechanical limits. The constraint has now been potentially overcome by such flexible technology as xerography and computerization. Thereby, affectional communications can be synthesized. Eight production systems are schematized. There are now available both behavioral science principles and engineering capabilities for affectional industrialization, termed "agapurgy" here. View full abstract»

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  • Book Reviews

    Page(s): 99
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 100 - 103
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): [104]a
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