By Topic

Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-feb. 2007

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (39 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Novel Driving and Protection Circuit for Reverse-Blocking IGBT Used in Matrix Converter

    Page(s): 3 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1147 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel drive and protection circuit for reverse-blocking insulated gate bipolar transistor (RB-IGBT) is proposed in this paper. For the drive circuit, a dynamic current source is introduced to reduce the turn-on and turn-off transients. Meanwhile, the di/dt of the collector current and the dv/dt of the collector-emitter voltage are strictly restricted, so do the respective stresses. The drive circuit consists of a conventional push-pull driver and two controllable current sources-a current generator and a current sink. These two current sources work in switching transitions. For the protection circuit, a novel collector current detecting circuit suitable for RB-IGBT is proposed. This method detects the collector current by sensing collector-emitter voltage of the device. Further study shows that this method can be used to acquire the current signs in commutation transitions of matrix converter. A series of experiments has been carried out concerning the proposed drive and protection circuit and the experimental setup; results as well as detailed analysis are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design of Equivalent Circuits and Characterization Strategy for n-Input Coupled Inductors

    Page(s): 14 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper begins with the definition of ideal coupler, the justification of negative inductance concept and the establishment of various equivalences between circuits. Then, an energy-based recursive method for designing for the equivalent circuit of an n-input magnetic system is presented and the leakage transformer concept is introduced. The obtained circuits allow easy checking of inequalities that inductance matrix elements must satisfy. Advantage is then taken from winding identity and dominant coupling to simplify circuit design. This new knowledge is applied to design equivalent circuits for a three-phase inductor and a three-column six-winding transformer. Finally, key points of a strategy intended to experimental identification of all circuit elements are given View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental High-Frequency Parameter Identification of AC Electrical Motors

    Page(s): 23 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to predict conducted electromagnetic interference in inverter-motor drive systems, high-frequency (HF) motor models are requested and the involved parameters have to be available. In previous studies, the authors have presented an accurate HF model for induction motors and they have defined the procedures to identify the model parameters. In this paper, these results are extended to several types and sizes of industrial ac motors such as induction, synchronous reluctance (without interior permanent magnets), and brushless motors. The model parameter-identification procedure has been improved, and it is based on a least-squares data fitting applied to the measured magnitude and phase-frequency-response curves of the phase-to-ground and the phase-to-neutral impedances. The aim of this paper is to provide quick indications to select the suitable values of the HF model parameters, with reference to the size and type of the ac motor, to evaluate the HF voltage and current components in inverted-fed ac motor systems View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • AC Motor Drives With a Reduced Number of Switches and Boost Inductors

    Page(s): 30 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents eight three-phase ac motor-drive configurations that operate with a reduced number of switches and boost inductors. Four of the configurations are single-motor drives, and four of the configurations are double-motor drives. The drives provide both bidirectional power flow and power-factor control. This paper presents the analysis and control strategy of the systems, including current control and pulsewidth-modulation strategy. In spite of using a reduced number of components, the dc-link voltage and the machine currents of some of the proposed configurations are not much larger than the equivalent values of the conventional configurations. These drive systems are suitable for applications where the size of the system is a critical factor. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed topologies View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Five-Phase Interior Permanent-Magnet Motors With Low Torque Pulsation

    Page(s): 40 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High torque pulsation is a major disadvantage of most interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motor configurations. Choosing the proper number of stator slots and winding distribution as well as increasing number of phases are among the possible solutions for reducing torque pulsation. In this paper, five-phase IPM motor with fractional-slot stator is studied. It is shown that despite other IPM motors, the new five-phase IPM motor with fractional slot has a very low torque pulsation. For comparison purposes, a five-phase IPM motor with common configuration is also considered. It is shown that the torque pulsation of the proposed fractional-slot five-phase IPM motor is much lower than the conventional five-phase IPM motor. Nonlinear finite-element method is used to analyze different machine configurations. A prototype four-pole five-phase IPM motor with 15 stator slots has been built and is used for experimental verification View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Method to Calculate Transient Characteristics of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Considering Iron Loss and Cross-Magnetic Saturation

    Page(s): 47 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to calculate the transient characteristics of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM). Using an approximate equation suitable for expressing d- and q-axes inductance variation, the authors derive a nonlinear state equation considering both iron loss and cross-magnetic saturation. All electrical motor parameters used for the calculation are measured from tests. Calculation results on transient and steady-state characteristics of a vector-controlled flux-barrier-type 1.1-kW SynRM are verified with experimental results View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Novel Self-Commutating Low-Speed Reluctance Motor for Direct-Drive Applications

    Page(s): 57 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel low-speed and high-torque motor, self-commutating low-speed reluctance motor (SCLRM), for direct-drive applications. With six diodes connected to the stator windings, it is capable of self-commutating when working on normal three-phase ac source for constant-speed operation. It provides an uncomplicated and low-cost method to increase the torque capability of the traditional vernier-type motors without the requirement of permanent magnets and inverter drive. In this paper, the basic theory of SCLRM is presented, including the operation principle and the mathematical models from which the calculation equations of the inductance parameters as well as the electromagnetic torque are deduced. Besides, the simulation and implemental results are shown, and the reasons of the improvement of the torque capability are analyzed. Moreover, an inverter drive system for SCLRM whose topology is different from that of the standard three-phase inverter is proposed for variable-speed applications View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Novel Magnetic Suspension-Force Compensation in Bearingless Induction-Motor Drive With Squirrel-Cage Rotor

    Page(s): 66 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an improved analysis of magnetic force compensation in a bearingless induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor. The expressions for air-gap flux linkages are derived. Simulation blocks of suspension force are constructed. A novel control system, which compensates the delay and direction error in suspension force generation for a squirrel-cage rotor, is proposed. The efficacy of the proposed control system is established by both simulation and experiment View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Saliency-Tracking-Based Sensorless Control of AC Machines Using Structured Neural Networks

    Page(s): 77 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The focus of this paper is the use of structured neural networks for sensorless control of ac machines using carrier-signal injection. Structured neural networks allow effective compensation of saturation-induced saliencies as well as other secondary saliencies. In comparison with classical compensation methods, such as lookup tables, this technique has advantages such as a physics-based structure, general scalability, reduced size and complexity, and correspondingly reduced commissioning time. When compared with traditional neural networks, structured neural networks are simpler, physically insightful, less computationally intensive, and easier to train. All make the proposed method an improved implementation for sensorless drives View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Influence of Rotor Geometry of an IPM Motor on Sensorless Control Feasibility

    Page(s): 87 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB)  

    The sensorless control technique based on the superimposition of a high-frequency stator voltage is commonly used to detect the rotor position of a synchronous interior-permanent-magnet (IPM) motor. This technique is effective at zero and low motor speed, where back electromotive force is null or extremely low. Then, the accuracy of the rotor-position detection depends strictly on the rotor saliency, that is, on the geometry of the IPM rotor. This paper aims to determine some IPM rotor-design criteria so as to improve the sensorless rotor-position detection. Since the design has to be effective in different operating conditions, both saturation and cross-coupling effects have to be taken into account. It is found that the effectiveness of the sensorless rotor-position detection can be improved by means of a proper design of the IPM motor geometry even under heavy operating conditions View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reactive-Power Compensation of Coal Mining Excavators by Using a New-Generation STATCOM

    Page(s): 97 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB)  

    This paper deals with the development and implementation of a current-source-converter-based static synchronous compensator (CSC-STATCOM) applied to the volt-ampere-reactive (VAR) compensation problem of coal mining excavators. It is composed of a plusmn750-kVAR full-bridge CSC with selective harmonic elimination, a low-pass input filter tuned to 200 Hz, and a Delta/Y-connected coupling transformer for connection to medium-voltage load bus. Each power semiconductor switch is composed of an asymmetrical integrated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT) connected in series with a reverse-blocking diode and switched at 500 Hz to eliminate 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th current harmonics produced by the CSC. Operating principles, power stage, design of dc link, and input filter are also described in this paper. It has been verified by field tests that the developed STATCOM follows rapid fluctuations in nearly symmetrical lagging and leading VAR consumption of electric excavators, resulting in nearly unity power factor on monthly basis, and the harmonic current spectra in the lines of CSC-STATCOM at the point of common coupling comply with the IEEE Std. 519-1992 View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimizing Wireless LAN for Longwall Coal Mine Automation

    Page(s): 111 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A significant development in underground longwall coal mining automation has been achieved with the successful implementation of wireless LAN (WLAN) technology for communication on a longwall shearer. WIreless-FIdelity (Wi-Fi) was selected to meet the bandwidth requirements of the underground data network, and several configurations were installed on operating longwalls to evaluate their performance. Although these efforts demonstrated the feasibility of using WLAN technology in longwall operation, it was clear that new research and development was required in order to establish optimal full-face coverage. By undertaking an accurate characterization of the target environment, it has been possible to achieve great improvements in WLAN performance over a nominal Wi-Fi installation. This paper discusses the impact of Fresnel zone obstructions and multipath effects on radio frequency propagation and reports an optimal antenna and system configuration. Many of the lessons learned in the longwall case are immediately applicable to other underground mining operations, particularly wherever there is a high degree of obstruction from mining equipment View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct Electrical Heating of Subsea Pipelines—Technology Development and Operating Experience

    Page(s): 118 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The formation of hydrates in the subsea production of oil and gas is a well-known problem. As the unprocessed well stream cools down, hydrates start to form around 25 degC, depending on the water cut and pressure in the pipeline. Several solutions are available to solve this problem. Generally, chemicals (i.e., methanol) have been used. Methanol reduces the critical temperature where hydrates are formed. Alternatively, hydrates can be prevented by using thermal insulation in combination with direct electrical heating (DEH). Thus, the well stream is kept above the critical temperature for hydrate formation. DEH heats the pipeline by forcing a large electric current to flow through the pipeline steel. The system model for design and sizing of the system is presented. DEH uses a single-phase system where the heated pipeline is electrically connected to the surrounding sea water. Thus, the system current is divided between sea water and pipeline, requiring additional sacrificial anodes on the pipeline. The anode system for a pipeline with DEH is discussed. There are currently more than 100 km of DEH pipelines on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The operating experience from these installations is discussed. This paper presents the research and development for application of the system for pipelines with lengths up to 50 km View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improving Safety and Reliability Via Cost-Effective Upgrades of Existing Systems

    Page(s): 130 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent focus has been placed on improving the reliability and safety of new equipment. This paper describes a few cost-effective upgrades and retrofits for existing electrical systems, which can improve maintenance effectiveness, reduce process downtime, limit physical exposure to hazards, and improve personnel safety. A typical power system, which comprises a high-voltage substation, medium-voltage switchgear, and low-voltage switchgear, has many attributes that are prone to failure and misoperation. These common features in existing systems can be unsafe since failures and misoperations typically result in increased exposure to hazards. A few select cost-effective upgrades or modifications that increase reliability and safety are presented in the general categories of protection, control, operation, and diagnostics View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Intelligent Diagnostic Requirements of Future All-Electric Ship Integrated Power System

    Page(s): 139 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future ship integrated power systems (IPSs) will be characterized by complex topologies of advanced power electronics and other evolving components. Advanced capabilities, such as intelligent reconfiguration of system function and connectivity will be possible; however, system level knowledge of component failure will be needed for intelligent power distribution under failure mode conditions. Diagnostic and prognostic coverage for sensors, components, and subsystems will be essential for achieving reliability goals. This paper will look at some diagnostic requirements and emerging technologies available for insertion into future ship IPSs View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrical Surge-Protection Devices for Industrial Facilities—A Tutorial Review

    Page(s): 150 - 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industrial facilities are becoming more and more dependent on computer control of their processes, and as a consequence, require an increase in cleanliness and reliability of the electrical power supply system. Electromechanical subsystems are being replaced by electronic logic. Harmonic interference, welding, variable speed drives, and other "in plant" noise have reliable mitigation procedures. However, lightning and other external sourced power disturbances rank high on the list of "uncontrollable" events that have shut down facilities in recent years. This paper provides an overview of the causes of power-line surges and their consequences for an industrial plant. The relevant international surge-protection standards will be briefly reviewed, and their differences will be analyzed. Different technologies utilized in the implementation of various commercially available surge-protection devices will be presented, followed by a comparative analysis. Finally, the latest trends and the most promising technologies in surge-protection systems as well as their ability to overcome the problems associated with conventional protection devices will be overviewed, and experimental data based on field trials are reported View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Applying the API Alternate Method for Area Classification

    Page(s): 162 - 171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 1997 editions of API RP 500 and RP 505 pertaining to the classification of petroleum facilities included a new informative annex-an alternate method for area classification. The intent of this paper is to go beyond the development of the alternate method and provide some insight and ideas on the application of the alternate method. This paper will briefly cover the history behind the development of the alternate method. It will then review the application of the method to specific sources of release and compare the results with other methods of evaluation such as the conventional methods described in RP 500/505 and the methods described in NFPA 497. Finally, this paper will describe real-life scenarios, in which the alternate method has or could be used to evaluate difficult applications View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Platform Alarming Through Multiple Agencies

    Page(s): 172 - 179
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1731 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The offshore oil and gas industry strives to make every process safe for operators and employees. Unfortunately, it is not inconceivable that dangerous life-threatening conditions present themselves. Should an undesirable condition occur, it is ultimately the operator's responsibility to ensure that personnels are notified, and steps are taken to convey this alert for appropriate action. While some incidents require little intervention, others may escalate to a call for evacuation of the facility. From process upsets to fire and gas detection alarm events to facility abandonment, it is essential that employees are notified in a clear, timely, and effective manor. The most prominent method in use today of facility-wide notification is an alarm broadcast over the public-address system in conjunction with associated visual and audible alarm devices. When a public-address system is tasked to perform this additional function, requirements for design, application, and installation then become regulatory and compliance issues View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Highly Accurate Fiber-Optic DC Current Sensor for the Electrowinning Industry

    Page(s): 180 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fiber-optic current sensor for direct currents up to 500 kA is presented. Applications include current measurement for process control and protection in the electrowinning industry, for example at aluminum smelters. The sensor offers significant advantages with regard to performance and ease of installation compared to state-of-the-art Hall-effect-based current transducers. The sensor exploits the Faraday effect in an optical fiber and measures the path integral of the magnetic field along a closed loop around the current-carrying bus bars. The differential magnetooptic phase shift of left and right circular light waves propagating in the fiber is detected by means of a novel polarization-rotated reflection interferometer. Fiber gyroscope technology is employed for signal detection and processing. The fiber is packaged in a flexible strip of fiber reinforced epoxy, which can be installed without opening the current-carrying bus bars. Subsequent recalibration is not necessary. The sensor achieves accuracy within plusmn0.1% over a wide range of currents and temperatures View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Quantifying Reliability and Service Quality for Distribution Systems

    Page(s): 188 - 195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliability indices for distribution systems are used by utilities and regulators to benchmark performance and prioritize investments in projects to improve performance. However, there can be many variations in the methods used to describe reliability levels, and the indices used may not be the best measures of system performance in terms of the impacts on customers. This paper describes the concept of a "service quality index" that can be used to characterize system performance in a manner that is more appropriate for customers, taking into account customer quality and reliability requirements and expectations View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Nuisance Operations of Distribution Fuse Links Due to Lightning-Induced Current Surges

    Page(s): 196 - 201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The probability of nuisance operations of distribution fuse links due to lightning-induced current surges is the subject of much discussion today. This discussion is driven, in part, by the practice of moving the surge arrester to the transformer tank to improve overvoltage protection of the transformer. One consequence of this practice is that the probability of nuisance operation of the fuse link protecting the transformer will increase significantly unless larger fuse-link sizes are employed or unless high-surge-capacity fuse links are used. Section II of this paper describes a method for determining the probability of nuisance operations of fuse links under various conditions. Section III describes one utility's experience with moving the arrester to the transformer tank and also its success with high-surge-capacity fuse links View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spacer-Cable Lightning-Induced Overvoltages Computed Using Measured Ground Resistances

    Page(s): 202 - 207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spacer cable provides compact distribution of three-phase power. However, the close proximity of the phases to each other and the neutral carrier wire results in very high fields under lightning conditions. The concept of spacer cable is based on the assumption that the neutral carrier wire is grounded at each pole with an earth resistance no greater than 25 Omega. In many areas, this assumption is far from met. In this paper, we compute lightning-induced overvoltages for long lengths of spacer cable including the effect of every lightning arrester, transformer, etc., on the line and using measured ground resistances, for a range of lightning currents and rise times View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Investigation of Indirect Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) for a Three-Body Problem

    Page(s): 208 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An experimental investigation of indirect electrostatic discharge events for an inline three-body geometry was undertaken. Using conducting cylinders of different sizes to model the test system's conductors, capacitance coefficients were measured, and body potential differences and electric fields were calculated for different geometries of the three floating conductors in close vicinity. The test geometry was chosen to model the approach of the charged human body to an electronic system, which has a neighboring floating conductor; this situation may arise in a manufacturing environment where faulty grounding exists. The parameters studied include body sizes, test geometry, and the relative magnitude and polarity of the charges on the three bodies. An analysis of both first and secondary discharge events is presented and interpreted using a series of charge sensitivity factors. Conditions to support secondary discharges are investigated as a two-body problem View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck