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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c2
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  • Information about the Society

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 1
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  • An Optimal Scaling Method

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 2 - 6
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    Many areas of systems deal with sets of nonlinear functions that can be handled more effectively if proper scaling is performed. When working with m functions and n variables, (m + n) scaling factors are used. A variety of approaches to scaling are reviewed. A method for establishing a scaling array for nonlinear functions is given. The array consists of m rows and (n + 1) columns, with the scaling factor for the (n + 1)-st column constrained to be unity. A particular approach to scaling, introduced by Hamming, is generalized to include weighting factors and target values for array entries. The minimum of the resulting scaling performance measure is characterized by sets of linear equations. A numerical procedure for solving for the optimal scaling factors is given for the general case, and closed-form solutions are obtained for a special case. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate benefits of the use of target values and weighting factors. View full abstract»

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  • Building and Understanding Adaptive Systems: A Statistical/Numerical Approach to Factory Automation and Brain Research

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 7 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
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    Successes with expert systems and other specialized systems have revived hopes for factory automation and productivity growth. A full realization of these potentials will require conscious effort to overcome obsolete rigidities, to develop unified and adaptive methods for integrating complex systems, and to increase our understanding of these systems (understanding which is vital to human productivity in developing software). How adaptive systems may be built and understood by extending control theory and statistics is discussed. Adaptive systems, like human infants, are less agile than young monkeys but have something important to contribute as they mature. It argues that the old dream of understanding intelligence in generalized terms, permitting a unified understanding of adaptive systems and of the human mind, was not incorrect; rather, the early attempts in that direction failed because they did not make full use of research possibilities in statistics, control theory, and numerical analysis (many of which are still unexploited) and were limited by hardware costs which are now coming down. A basic adaptive system derived from this approach fits the fundamental, qualitative empirical facts of human brain physiology in some detail (unlike the usual "general neuron models," which rarely even discriminate between basic components of the brain), and offers opportunities for further research; it can even translate certain fundamental ideas of Freud into something more mathematical and scientific. The mathematics of the basic system, and the fit to the brain, are described in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Collision-Free Motion Planning of Two Robots

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 21 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (73)
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    An approach to collision-free motion planning of two moving robots in a common workspace is presented. Each robot is represented by a sphere containing the wrist and the manipulator hand. The results from a strictly straight line trajectory planning method are utilized for planning a path avoiding potential collisions. Due to the distinct nature of the potential collisions between the two moving robots, a new classification of path requirement situations is presented and utilized for planning a collision-free path. Notions of collision map and time scheduling are developed and applied for realizing a collision-free motion planning. A procedure is developed for the time scheduling of the straight line trajectory. An example is shown for the time scheduling of the trajectory, which shows the significance of the proposed approach in collision-free motion planning of the two moving robots. View full abstract»

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  • A Qualitative Model of Human Interaction with Complex Dynamic Systems

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 33 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    A qualitative model describing human interaction with complex dynamic systems is developed. The model is hierarchical in nature and consists of three parts: a behavior generator, an internal model, and a sensory information processor. The behavior generator is responsible for action decomposition, turning higher level goals or missions into physical action at the human-machine interface. The internal model is an internal representation of the environment which the human is assumed to possess and is divided into four submodel categories. The sensory information processor is responsible for sensory composition. All three parts of the model act in consort to allow anticipatory behavior on the part of the human in goal-directed interaction with dynamic systems. Human workload and error are interpreted in this framework, and the familiar example of an automobile commute is used to illustrate the nature of the activity in the three model elements. Finally, with the qualitative model as a guide, verbal protocols from a manned simulation study of a helicopter instrument landing task are analyzed with particular emphasis on the effect of automation on human-machine performance. View full abstract»

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  • Representations of Perceived Relations among the Properties and Variables of a Complex System

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 52 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Three different techniques for representing human understanding of complex systems were compared. Novice veterinary students and cardiovascular research experts made judgments of the relations among the properties and variables of a complex system, the mechanical heart / blood vessel system. They also described the variables and properties by a series of bipolar ratings. A variety of analyses showed that the novices tended to conceptualize the system in static anatomic terms. Experts showed a more integrative conceptualization and distinguished more clearly than students between relations involving only system properties and those involving system variables. The methods of multidimensional scaling, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, and elementary digraphs were used to represent perceived relations among system variables and properties. It was concluded that the simplest form of representation, a digraph, has several advantages over the other representations. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Evaluation of Perspective and Stereoscopic Displays in Three-Axis Manual Tracking Tasks

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 61 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
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    Optimal presentation of three-dimensional information on a two-dimensional display screen requires careful design of the projection to the display surface. Monoscopic perspective projection alone is usually not sufficient to represent three-dimensional spatial information. It can, however, be improved by the adjustment of perspective parameters and by geometric visual enhancements such as reference lines and a background grid. Stereoscopic display is another method of providing three-dimensional information to the human operator. Two experiments are performed with three-axis manual tracking tasks. The first experiment investigates the effects of perspective parameters on tracking performance. The second experiment investigates the effects of visual enhancements for both monoscopic and stereoscopic displays. Results indicate that, though stereoscopic displays do generally permit superior tracking performance, monoscopic displays can allow equivalent performance when they are defined with optimal perspective parameters and provided with adequate visual enhancements. View full abstract»

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  • Learning Optimal Discriminant Functions through a Cooperative Game of Automata

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 73 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
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    The problem of learning correct decision rules to minimize the probability of misclassification is a long-standing problem of supervised learning in pattern recognition. The problem of learning such optimal discriminant functions is considered for the class of problems where the statistical properties of the pattern classes are completely unknown. The problem is posed as a game with common payoff played by a team of mutually cooperating learning automata. This essentially results in a probabilistic search through the space of classifiers. The approach is inherently capable of learning discriminant functions that are nonlinear in their parameters also. A learning algorithm is presented for the team and convergence is established. It is proved that the team can obtain the optimal classifier to an arbitrary approximation. Simulation results with a few examples are presented where the team learns the optimal classifier. View full abstract»

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  • A Decision Support System for Reliable Software Development

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 86 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Reliability has become a major concern for large-scale software developers. This concern has resulted in the development of a large number of models intended to describe the failure process of software. The use of these models during development has been restricted to the later stages of integration testing. A decision support system is described here which allows for the use of existing software reliability models throughout development. The system uses information from the developer in the form of constraints on the probability distributions which describe the uncertainty associated with the parameters of the various models. Model management is data driven to allow for maximum flexibility in probability assessments which can be provided by either the user or the system. View full abstract»

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  • A Model for Wafer Fabrication Dynamics in Integrated Circuit Manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 91 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Integrated circuit manufacturing has major operations of fabrication, sort, assembly, and test. The dynamic behavior of these operations can be modeled in terms of a highly structured queueing network. A model is presented of the components and interactions of wafer movements, processing equipment, and process steps. The model considers multiple process flows, fab organization and layout, and equipment properties such as batch size, process time, failure, and repair distributions. The model is implemented as a discrete event simulation and has been used in a number of case studies concerning realistic factory situations. This simulation model is general and can be used to study many types of discrete manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • The Information Capacity of the Human Fingertip

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 100 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    An order-of-magnitude upper bound is placed on the information channel capacity for vibrotactile stimulation of human fingertips. Results are presented which suggest an order-of-magnitude limit of 100 bit/s. This limit is compared to previously published figures for similar limits in the human ear and eye, showing a progression of 102: 104: 106, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Goal Programming, Method of Weighted Residuals, and Optimal Control Problems

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 102 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The feasibility of utilizing goal programming, a management science originated technique, in solving optimal control problems is investigated. The basic idea is to recast the problem in a pre-emptive goal programming model via the use of hard and soft constraints (or stiff and weak springs) in linear programming (or mechanics). It is found that the goal programming technique for solving the optimal control problem is fundamentally more general than the method of weighted residuals. An example is included to illustrate the methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of the Smallest Channel in Early Human Vision

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 106 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Using the optimal filter description for the difference of two Gaussian (DOG) functions model for early human vision, an extrapolation procedure is used to predict the smallest channel. It is found that the excitatory center of this smallest channel has a diameter of 1 min 22 s. The procedure is based on two factors: the maximum spatial frequency of 60 cycles/° for human visual sensitivity, and the assumption of equal (spatial bandwidth × spatial interval) product. View full abstract»

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  • Collision Effects on Two Coordinating Robots in Assembly and the Effect Minimization

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 108 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    When two robot arms execute coordinated motions in assembly, collision between the two end-effectors cannot be avoided. The collision effects on the motions of two coordinating robots are studied in this paper. At the moment of a collision, an impulse exerted on the two end-effectors is generated. This impulse will cause abrupt velocity-changes in robot motions. The direction of the impulse depends on the relative orientation of the end-effectors when the collision takes place. The magnitude of the impulse, on the other hand, depends on the relative velocity between the two end-effectors immediately before the collision, the joint positions, and the inertia matrices of the two robots. The minimization of the abrupt velocity-changes is discussed. The study reveals that to reduce the abrupt velocity-changes, the two coordinating robots must be symmetrical in all aspects, and the direction vector of the impulse must be an eigenvector of the Jacobian inertia matrix for the robot arms. Since the two conditions impose constraints on the robot trajectories, the approach of minimization is valid only when the two robot arms follow pre-planned paths. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 116-a
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  • Membership Grade Requirements

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 116-a
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  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 116b
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