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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 68
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 1943-c
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Influence of Humidity on Lightning and Switching Impulse Flashover Voltages

    Page(s): 1433 - 1442
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    A long run flashover test was carried out from 1967 to 1969 to investigate the effect of atmospheric humidity on lightning and switching 50-percent flashover voltages of air gaps and suspension insulators. From the test results, it was found that the influence of humidity on flashover voltages of air gaps varied greatly from their flashover voltage-gap length characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • A Sensitivity Analysis of Lightning Performance Calculations for Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 1443 - 1451
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    Analyses have been made of the sensitivity of lightning outage rate predictions to uncertainties and variations in the various parameters incorporated in the normal prediction methods. The influence of upward streamers on the insulator voltages produced by charge in the stroke channel has been studied, and it is shown that the magnitudes of these voltages are very dependent on the assumed length of the streamers. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Actuated Load Shedding and Restoration Part I - Philosophy

    Page(s): 1452 - 1459
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    During the last few years, there has been expanded effort throughout the country to install frequency actuated load shedding programs for the purpose of providing means to safeguard a power system should a condition of declining frequency occur. Hand in hand with a load shedding program a convenient means must be provided for restoring load after the system returns to a normal state. In this series of papers, the authors will present some of the basic principles which should be considered in the application of a load shedding and load restoration program and will describe the philosophy which led to the frequency actuated load shedding and load restoration program being implemented on the American Electric Power System. As part of this presentation, the various analytical studies which were carried out to determine the load management programs for the AEP system will be described in detail. In addition, the method of program implementation and management is presented in a companion paper. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Actuated Load Shedding and Restoration Part II - Implementation

    Page(s): 1460 - 1468
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    Power systems must be operated within limits that will ensure adequate generation and transmission capacity to avoid cascading. In developing a set of operating limits, it is important to do so within a general framework in order to ensure that the operating objectives are met. In this regard, a set of general guidelines are presented below: 1. The integrity of the transmission system will be maintained at all times without planned internal separation. 2. Maximum reasonable assistance will be given to adjacent systems experiencing difficulty. However, such assistance will be terminated ¿without opening interconnection circuits ¿when the reliable operation of the assisting system is impaired. 3. The system should be operated so that the occurrence of the next single contingency (outage of tower, circuit, unit, breaker, bus, etc.) will not result in a cascading loss of the bulk transmission system. The single contingency is continually geared to the current state of the system and reflects maintenance and forced outage events as they occur. In addition, when evaluating overload contingencies, the time to relieve the stress must be compared to the permissible degree of overload. 4. When the system experiences a generation-load imbalance, the principles of sound interconnected operation will be maintained by bringing under control an unscheduled tie-line power flow condition as quickly as possible. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization and Optimal Control Signals for a Power System

    Page(s): 1469 - 1481
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    The stabilization of power systems with excitation control using speed or power signals has been very well developed,1-6 while the application of optimal control to power system stability study is relatively new.7 Both are based on linear models. In this paper, a comparison is made of these two techniques. Signals derived from a lower order linear model are tested on a high order non-linear system modelled as a single machine-infinite bus as well as multi-machine systems. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Requirements of Resistors used in Circuit Breakers for Transient Voltage Control

    Page(s): 1482 - 1491
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    The thermal requirements of resistors used for power system transient voltage control are a function of the applied voltage, the resistor ohmic value, and insertion time. These energy requirements are discussed for resistors used in circuit breakers for closing and/or opening operations and also for repetitive duty cycles. The thermal design levels are derived from fault duty, line energizing, line reenergizing, and out-of-step conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Field Tests of Low-Side Switching of EHV Transmission Line

    Page(s): 1492 - 1503
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    Over 400 low-side switching operations energizing EHV transmission lines were carried out by the Department of Water and Power, City of Los Angeles. These extensive field tests included measurement of the magnitude and range of overvoltages produced under various system conditions and with different values of preinsertion resistors. The purpose of the investigation was to gain first-hand field experience with low-side switching operation and to confirm the validity of Transient Network Analyzer (TNA) studies conducted with similar circuit parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Load Break Switches for Switching High-Voltage AC Shunt Capacitor Banks

    Page(s): 1504 - 1510
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    In the early part of 1968, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, with whom the authors are associated, began a study to determine the most economical means of switching 230 kV shunt capacitor banks of 84 MVAR each. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Transient Inrush Currents in Power Transformers Due to Out-of-Phase Switching Occurrences

    Page(s): 1511 - 1521
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    This paper describes a basic method to determine the crest value of the transient inrush currents flowing in power transformer windings resulting either from imperfect synchronizing procedures or from erroneous switching operations. The currents which flow under these unusual conditions are similar in magnitude and envelope to through-short circuit faults and may, in some cases, exceed the currents which flow through transformer windings during three-phase faults on their terminals. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Power Transformer Ratings for the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection

    Page(s): 1522 - 1527
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    This paper documents procedures to be used by member companies of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection to establish normal and emergency thermal ratings for power transformers affecting the Interconnection. The method can also be used to select the nameplate ratings of new transformers. Insulation systems containing the older standard kraft papers (55°C rise), and also the newer improved insulation (65°C rise), used after approximately 1958) are both considered. A complete review of the principles, parameters, and limits necessary to determine thermal performance and ratings was undertaken. The rating method was expressed in the form of a computer program, which all companies of the Interconnection have agreed upon, to ensure consistent ratings for any given application of power interchange transformers. View full abstract»

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  • Block Diagrams and Torque-Angle Loop Analysis of Synchronous Machines

    Page(s): 1528 - 1536
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    Block diagrams of synchronous machines supplying an infinite bus or lumped parameter load are develQped for large and small-signals. This representation includes the effects of saliency, the amortisseurs, variable speed operation, positive and negative sequence components of the infinite bus voltage and an approximate treatment of the saturation. The paper illustrates the application of the block diagram technique. First, the electrical torques proportional to the load angle and their contribution to the overall transfer function of the torque-angle loop are investigated by the elementary theory of servomechanisms. Second, transfer functions are derived for excitation system analysis. Finally self-excitation of the machine connected to a capacitive load is described. View full abstract»

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  • A Solid-State Regulator for Electric Utility Applications

    Page(s): 1537 - 1540
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    An all solid-state regulator with new and improved features over existing regulators has been developed. The new regulator is currently being applied in both brushless excitation systems and static excitation systems for electric utility applications. Solid state circuitry is ideally suited for the application of multiple supplementary control functions required in modern systems. Draw-out modular construction simplifies installation, testing, adjusting, and maintenance of the excitation system components. View full abstract»

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  • A Dual Mode Excitation Control of Synchronous Machine for Suppressing its Hunting

    Page(s): 1541 - 1545
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    To suppress the hunting of synchronous machine caused by stepwise load change, a dual mode field excitation control was investigated for conventional (one-axis) machine and 2-axis machine. For one-axis machine, a dual mode is applied successively, the first one being a bang-bang suboptimal control mode decided by use of energy function instead of Pontryagin's switching function, this mode is applicable to dynamic equation described in nonlinear form. The second one is a linear feedback control mode composed of a linear combination of state variables, and it will be adopted to the range near the steady state operating point where the equation will be linearized. For 2-axis machine at the instant of load change the original excitation introduced by mixing these two controls is efficiently applied. From the results of the investigation it is recognized that the employment of 2-axis synchronous machine is a potential means for the improvement of system stability. View full abstract»

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  • Critical Load Protection from Transient Surges

    Page(s): 1546 - 1554
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    Transients in electrical power systems at many installations are found to cause malfunctions in and damage to electronic equipment. Investigations to date indicate that harmful transients are injected into the critical power bus by both external and internal transients producers. Oscilloscope recordings show that the harmful transients consist of oscillatory voltages having predominant frequency components as low as 400 Hertz and high-frequency disturbances in the form of spike voltages as short as 10 ¿sec in duration. A study was conducted on the feasibility of developing power filters which could prevent the externally produced transients from reaching transient- sensitive electronic equipment, and prevent load-caused transients from reaching the critical power bus. Based on the findings, a single-phase filter was designed, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Arrester Protection of High Voltage DC Transmission System Converter Terminals

    Page(s): 1555 - 1562
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    The specification, design, and testing of arresters for the HVDC Pacific Coast Intertie are discussed. Included in the report is a description of the overvoltage events significant to arrester design and the resulting specification. The basic problems associated with dc arrester design and techniques used to overcome these problems are covered. View full abstract»

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  • Current Limiting Gap Arresters - Some Fundamental Considerations

    Page(s): 1563 - 1573
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    Current limiting gap arresters can be designed to operate successfully against switching surges and sustained overvoltages, but the current drawn by the arrester and the energy dissipated is a function of the circuit impedance as well as the system voltage and arrester design. Arresters designed to operate against sustained overvoltages may produce sufficient discharge voltage during operation to exceed arrester sparkover voltage and thus not provide the protection expected. A test method is suggested to determine the maximum voltage that an arrester may produce under normal operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Possible Improvements in EHV Overhead Line Insulation to Switching Surges

    Page(s): 1574 - 1578
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    This paper deals with a research aimed at testing possible means for reducing the effects of the saturation of the switching surge withstand voltage in line insulation. View full abstract»

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  • UHV Transmission Design Requirements - Switching Surge Flashover Characteristics of Extra Long Air Gaps

    Page(s): 1579 - 1589
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    This paper presents data on performance of air gaps of up to 29 meters, which is beyond any previously reported. The data is raw data without any endeavor being made to compensate for the many atmospheric variables which could affect the results. However, many of these atmospheric conditions were recorded and are reported herein for future analysis and comparison with the results from other test projects. View full abstract»

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  • A Guide to the Application of Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Page(s): 1589 - 1597
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    The paper shows that the vacuum circuit breaker is well suited for the duties that a circuit breaker must perform. Reasonable care must be taken under certain circumstances when applying these breakers. Such applications are identified and simple corrective measures are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Switching-Surge Design of Towers for UHV Transmission

    Page(s): 1598 - 1603
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    Criteria for switching-surge design of uhv tower insulation are discussed on the basis of test results obtained at Project UHV. Basic design curves and correction factors are presented. This information makes it possible to evolve preliminary designs of basic tower insulation for system voltages up to 1500 kV. View full abstract»

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  • Switching Surge Flashover of UHV Transmission Line Insulation

    Page(s): 1604 - 1611
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    The switching-surge performance of a large number of basic uhv transmission line insulation configurations has been extensively studied. The paper reports on outside phase, tower window, conductor- to-ground (with and without protrusions), conductor-to-conductor, vertical and horizontal rod-rod and rod-plane gaps. The investigated air gaps range from 10 to 66 ft (3.0 to 20.1 m) and the associated switching-surge strengths range from 1100 to 2700 kV. The paper extends earlier work1 and offers numerous design curves to the transmission line designer for uhv transmission systems up to 1500-kV system voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Switching Surge Performance of Contaminated Insulators

    Page(s): 1612 - 1619
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    The "wet contaminant" test method, originally developed for use with alternating voltage, is extended for use with switching surges. In order to evaluate insulators under conditions where dry bands would form, it was found necessary to first energize the contaminated insulators with alternating voltage before applying the surges. Included in the investigation are the effect of front time and tail time on the critical flashover voltages, and a comparison of the switching surge performance of five insulator types under various levels of contamination. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Pollution and Surface Discharges on the Impulse Strength of Line Insulation

    Page(s): 1619 - 1627
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    The effect of surface discharges on the ability of polluted insulators to withstand lightning and switching surges has long been a matter of conjecture. This paper describes combined power frequency and impulse voltage tests on 66 kV and 132 kV insulator strings. The tests have shown that an appreciable lowering of both lightning and switching surge strength may occur in the presence of pollution layers. The worst lowering of impulse strength (about 50%) has been found in cases where drying of the pollution has reduced the leakage current almost to zero by the production of extensive dry bands on the insulator surface. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope