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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Group

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Transformer Inrush and Rectifier Transient Currents

    Page(s): 269 - 276
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    Formulas are developed and curves given for the magnetizing inrush current for a single-phase transformer. Series system inductance and resistance are included. The transformer is assumed to have no exciting current below saturation and constant saturated inductance above saturation. The formulas apply to circuits with either low or high resistance. The curves permit calculation of peak, average, or rms current, and show how these currents decay with time. The theory can also be used for certain cases where there is direct current in a transformer winding and also for certain types of phase controlled rectifiers supplying a series resistance and inductance load. View full abstract»

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  • Composite System Reliability Evaluation

    Page(s): 276 - 281
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    This paper illustrates the application of a conditional probability approach to the determination of a reliability index at any point in a composite system. A general design criterion is postulated in terms of quality of service rather than continuity. Using a Markov approach, it is shown that the effect of storm associated failures on the system failure probabilities is dependent upon the degree of redundancy in the configuration under study. The effects of shunt compensation, on-load tap changing, and variations in allowable voltage levels on the reliability of a simple configuration are illustrated. Using the techniques described in this paper, it is possible to arrive at a measure of steady-state adequacy for any point in a system and, particularly, at those points at which major transmission terminates and subtransmission begins. View full abstract»

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  • Creep of Transmission Line Conductors

    Page(s): 281 - 286
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    Results of creep tests of all-aluminum conductors and ACSR at several temperatures are presented. Elevated temperatures have less influence on the creep of ACSR than on the creep of the all-aluminum conductors. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Reducing Dead Time for Single-Phase Reclosing in EHV Transmission

    Page(s): 286 - 292
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    Most faults on transmission lines are single line to ground (SLG). For such faults single-phase reclosing would result in an improvement in transient stability over the alternative of three-phase reclosing. The improvement is offset by the capacitive coupling from the other two energized conductors because it tends to sustain current in the original fault arc path, thereby lengthening the time required for arc deionization. An increase in dead time is therefore required which decreases the net improvement. This paper presents a novel method of nullifying the capacitive coupling effect. The method requires the addition of a capacitor, connected across the terminals of each breaker pole, proportional to the particular line being switched. View full abstract»

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  • Line Discharge by Potential Transformers

    Page(s): 293 - 299
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    The isolation of a section of a high-voltage transmission line or cable may leave the section charged to a voltage in the order of operating values. Upon automatic reclosing, dangerous transient overvoltages which may exceed tolerable overvoltage factors could be produced unless the isolated section is discharged to a small fraction of operating voltage. Of all the means presently available that act to discharge the section, including shunt devices and circuit- breaker resistors, the electromagnetic potential transformers (under conditions described in this paper) could be the most effective. A theoretical analysis of the discharge phenomena which permits determination of instantaneous voltage as a function of time is included. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Features of Smith Mountain Hydro Project, Appalachian Power Company

    Page(s): 299 - 306
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    This paper describes a combination run-of-river and pumped storage hydro project with emphasis on automatic electrical controls. The plant is unattended and operation is fully automatic with remote control and telemetering via microwave. Motor starting is by reduced voltage, utilizing a corner delta connection on the unit transformer. Control logic diagrams are included in the paper. Electrical and mechanical protection is described. View full abstract»

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  • Conference paper open for discussion

    Page(s): 306
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Synchronous Starting of Seneca Pumped Storage Plant

    Page(s): 307 - 315
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    The synchronous starting method will be used at the Seneca Pumped Storage Plant when the two 220-MVA machines are started as motors. A 29-MVA generator will supply the driving power. Because the relative difference in machine size is greater than has been encountered in any existing plant, an extensive study was conducted to determine that reliable starting performance can be attained. Model tests and digital simulation have been used to investigate dynamic starting performance for a variety of conditions. A novel formulation of equations describing dynamic relationships of the two-machine system lends itself to efficient digital computation. Controls have been designed to permit reliable automatic remote control. View full abstract»

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  • Concepts of Synchronous Machine Stability as Affected by Excitation Control

    Page(s): 316 - 329
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    The phenomena of stability of synchronous machines under small perturbations is explored by examining the case of a single machine connected to an infinite bus through external reactance. View full abstract»

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  • The Mean or Maximum Stress Theory: Possible Solution of an Old Dilemma

    Page(s): 330 - 334
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    Ever since the application of cables for high voltages there has been a distinct difference in European and American practice for designing the dielectric. In Europe the design is based on the assumption that the maximum field strength (i.e., the stress at the conductor) determines the breakdown of the cable; in American practice the mean field strength throughout the dielectric is taken as the determining factor. Recently a Japanese paper on the design of oil-filled cable showed that the European practice should be extended by introducing a correction factor to provide for a broad field of conductor sizes and insulation thicknesses. View full abstract»

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  • 69-kV High-Pressure Oil-Filled Pipe-Type Submarine Lines to Offshore Drilling Islands

    Page(s): 334 - 341
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    A dual 69-kV high-pressure oil-filled pipe-type cable system was recently installed by the Southern California Edison Company, Los Angeles, Calif., to serve four offshore oil drilling islands in Long Beach Harbor. Each line is capable of carrying the entire load with parallel line out of service. A submarine pipeline was severed and repaired. Cable pulls, believed to be the longest on record, are discussed. Cable tests indicate higher permissible pulling tensions. View full abstract»

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  • Corona Detection Experience in Commercial Production of Power Cables with Extruded Insulation

    Page(s): 342 - 364
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    On the basis of extensive corona detection experience on full reel testing of cables it is proposed that, in addition to corona level, a characteristic designated as "corona factor" be determined on each reel length of high-voltage cable with extruded conductor and insulation shields. The corona factor establishes the relationship between discharges in the cable and voltage stress over a stress range up to several times the operating level. In addition, it is proposed that full reel power factor measurements be made to provide a check on the resistivity of the extruded shields. The use of a novel continuous corona discharge detector in the laboratory to locate defects in the cable core, with insulation semiconducting shield in place, is described. View full abstract»

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  • Compressed-Gas Insulation in Large Coaxial Systems

    Page(s): 364 - 369
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    The factors which affect the insulation strength of large compressed-gas-insulated systems were investigated. A coaxial electrode geometry of 10-inch outer diameter (OD) and either 3-or 4¿inch inner diameter (ID) was employed because of its applicability to large high-voltage apparatus currently under consideration, particularly gas-insulated cables. The power supply is a Van de Graaff generator with an 1800-kV dc capability. The study showed that the insulation strength of an annular gap can be improved by placing a thin layer of dielectric material on the inner conductor. A further improvement occurred when free conducting particles (FCPs) or metallic dirt was electrostatically precipitated from the system. With these improvements on the least favorable polarity, 1100 kV was insulated in 150 psi of SF6 and 850 kV in 300 psi of N2. With bare electrodes under similar conditions only 600 kV was insulated in SF6 and 450 kV in N2. View full abstract»

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  • Operating Parameters of Compressed-Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 369 - 375
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    This paper describes a method to choose the physical parameters of a compressed-gas-insulated cable. A calculation of the power rating, losses, and critical length is carried out based on the physical parameters. This calculation is then compared with the ratings of pipe-type cable and is shown to be superior particularly for high-voltage, high-power applications. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency and Duration Methods for Power System Reliability Calculations: II - Demand Model and Capacity Reserve Model

    Page(s): 375 - 388
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    This paper is a continuation of the work started in [1] and is aimed at incorporating a model of the power system load with the generation system model developed previously. Combination of this load and the generation model permits computation of the availability, frequency of occurrence, and mean duration of generation reserve, or margin states. The results of this work are illustrated by continuation of a simple numerical example begun in Part I. The most widely applied of the previously developed techniques for assessing generation system reliability, the loss-of-load and loss-of-capacity methods, assume fixed outage or load duration intervals. The present model, on the other hand, uses an exponential distribution of durations. The reserve margin states developed using the exponential distributions contain data giving both the availability of each margin state and the expected frequency of recurrence. Previous methods yield only the availability of the reserve margin states, or else availability and frequency data for generating capacity states, not considering the load. The method presented and illustrated may be extended t o consider the calculation of operating reliability or the inclusion of the effects of a simple transmission system. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients in Single-and Multiphase Networks

    Page(s): 388 - 399
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    Electromagnetic transients in arbitrary single- or multiphase networks are solved by a nodal admittance matrix method. The formulation is based on the method of characteristics for distributed parameters and the trapezoidal rule of integration for lumped parameters. Optimally ordered triangular factorization with sparsity techniques is used in the solution. Examples and programming details illustrate the practicality of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Programming Solutions for Load-Flow, Minimum-Loss, and Economic Dispatching Problems

    Page(s): 399 - 409
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    A unified approach to load-flow, minimum-loss, and economic dispatching problems is presented. A load-flow solution is shown to coincide with the minimum of a function of the power system equations. An unconstrained minimization method, developed by Fletcher-Powell, is used to solve the load-flow problem. The method always finds a solution or indicates the nonexistence of a solution. Its performance is highly independent of the reference- slack bus position and requires no acceleration factors. Several constrained minimization techniques that solve the minimum-loss and economic dispatching problems are investigated. These include the Fiacco-McCormick, Lootsma, and Zangwill methods. The technique finally recommended is shown to be an extension of the method used to solve the load-flow problem. The approved IEEE test systems, and other systems whose response to conventional methods was known, have been solved. View full abstract»

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  • Contingencies Evaluated by a Z-Matrix Method

    Page(s): 409 - 412
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    A method has been developed suitable for on-line evaluation of contingencies that requires a relatively small computer. The effect on critical lines, produced by removing a line from service or by changing the generation schedule, can be determined as an on-line function of a computer that is installed in the system operator's office. The method can also be used by system planning personnel to reduce the number of detailed power flow cases that must be made in an expansion study. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Structure in the Computation of Power-System Nonlinear Dynamical Response"

    Page(s): 412
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    Equations (10) and (20) of the above-named work (ibid., vol. PAS-88, pp. 1-6, January 1969) are corrected. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Optimum Scheduling of Power and Voltage Magnitude

    Page(s): 413 - 422
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    A general formulation of the economic dispatch problem is presented, based on the Lagrange multipliers approach. The necessary conditions are established and upon these conditions an algorithm is developed for real power and voltage magnitude dispatch (i.e., reactive power dispatch). Feasible solutions are always attained during the optimizing procedure. Basically the coordination equations have the same form of the Jacobian matrix for which efficient solution methods have already been developed. Very small additional work beside the necessary calculations for a load flow solution by Newton's method is required. All the equality constraints dual variables (Lagrangian multipliers) are calculated in the iterative procedure, but once the optimal solution is attained (within a specified precision) the additional dual variables of the Kuhn-Tucker theorem for the effective inequality constraints can be calculated. The feasibility of the method is shown by means of a sample system. View full abstract»

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  • The Markov Process as a Means of Determining Generating-Unit State Probabilities for Use in Spinning Reserve Applications

    Page(s): 423 - 430
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    A method is presented showing the use of the Markov process to determine the state probabilities of generating units as functions of time, i.e., the probabilities that at some given time, normally less than 24 hours, a unit will be in either the operating state, a derated state, or the forced-outage state. These probabilities can be used in a loss-of-load probability (LOLP) program for determining spinning reserve requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Analysis for Power System Applications

    Page(s): 431 - 437
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    The block diagram reduction technique for reliability analysis is reviewed and compared with the use of the state transition matrix. It is pointed out that an efficient technique now exists for calculating system mean time between failures directly from the transition matrix, and this fact removes the major advantage possessed by the reduction technique. The superior flexibility of analysis using the transition matrix and the fewer approximations that are necessary seem to favor this approach for further power system applications. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Protection with a Digital Computer

    Page(s): 438 - 464
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    A fundamental basis has been developed for the use of a time-shared stored-program digital computer to perform many of the electrical power-system protective-relay functions in a substation. Logic operations are given to detect a fault, locate it, and initiate the opening of the appropriate circuit breakers, whether the fault is in the station or on lines radiating from the station. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope