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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1968

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Group

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Announcement [proposed publication schedule]

    Page(s): 1a - 2a
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Influence of Phase Connection and Terminal Conditions on Natural Frequencies of Three-Phase Transformer Windings

    Page(s): 1 - 12
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    With the increasing use of extra high-voltage transmission in power system expansion, the manufacturers of power apparatus and the electric utilities are studying the nature of overvoltages in power systems due to lightning and, in particular, switching operations. For such analyses, knowledge of the natural frequencies of the windings of transformers under a wide variety of conditions is important. The work reported by the author in a previous paper is extended and equivalent circuits have been developed to represent several sets of terminal conditions. These equivalent circuits can be used to determine the natural frequencies and transient voltages in the windings. Comparison of the measured and the computed results obtained with a model transformer indicates that they are in good agreement. Hence, this method of analysis provides a satisfactory procedure for the estimation of natural frequencies and transient voltages in transformer windings. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning Performance of Transmission Lines in Tokyo Area

    Page(s): 13 - 23
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    This paper presents the results based on detailed accumulation of lightning performance data on 140- and 250-kV lines in the Tokyo area. Data are arranged for the yearly variation of outage and the distribution of flashovers. The former changes through a rather wide range; the latter indicates the concentration of outage. The result of the investigation signifies that expression by means of an average not always indicates the real performance. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic Unbalance of Untransposed Single Circuit Lines

    Page(s): 24 - 34
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    This study is the continuation of research concerning electromagnetic and electrostatic unbalances of untransposed overhead lines.[1]-[6] The purpose of this investigation is to apply symmetrical component analysis to evaluate approximate expressions for ground displacement and negative sequence electrostatic unbalance factors of single circuit lines. View full abstract»

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  • Corrosion Aspects of HV DC on Buried Telephone Plant

    Page(s): 35 - 40
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    High-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission is proposed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to transmit power from Oregon to southern California, via a balanced line. Balanced transmission lines pose little or no corrosion problems to buried lead telephone cables. However, because of the use of ground return under fault conditions or scheduled line repairs, the corrosion aspects of continuous ground return operation have been considered. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Control of Reactive Power Flow

    Page(s): 40 - 48
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    The general problem of minimizing the operating cost of a power system by proper selection of the active and reactive productions is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem in accordance with previous work by Carpentier of Electricitéde France. This general problem is particularized to the minimization of transmission line losses by suitable selection of the reactive productions and transformer tap settings. An efficient computational procedure based on the Newton-Raphson method for solving the power-flow equations and on the dual (Lagrangian) variables of the Kuhn and Tucker theorem is discussed. This minimization procedure has been applied successfully to a 500-node system studied by the Bonneville Power Administration for which an effective power-flow program had been developed previously. The dual variables associated with the primary (electrical) variables are obtained in the course of the computation, and their engineering significance for power system design and tariffication is emphasized. The procedure has been extended to the general case of combined active and reactive optimization. View full abstract»

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  • Reactive Power and Its Control in a Large Metropolitan Electric Supply System

    Page(s): 49 - 52
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    In large metropolitan systems, the magnitude of reactive power can become so great that controlling it and system voltage demands more than the ordinary requirements in equipment and operating techniques. On the Consolidated Edison system, one of the major problems concerns an excess of charging Mvars from high-voltage cables during light load periods. At the outset this would seem to indicate that, with such excesses of capacitive Mvars, few capacitors would be required in the distribution area of the system. This unfortunately is not the case, since it is desirable and economical to have the reactive power for distribution located as near the load as possible, to maintain the megawatt capability of distribution stations and equipment at their maximum values. Additional capacitance is therefore required in the form of switchable capacitor banks at strategic locations, even though there may be an excess of charging Mvars on the high-voltage systems at the same time. Also, voltage control is usually held within relatively narrow limits in metropolitan areas and this aggravates the overall problem. On the system discussed here, a very large change has come about in the last two years with installation of approximately 65 miles of 345-kV cable. These situations and ways of handling them are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Special Cases of Orthogonal Networks - Mesh and Nodal Networks

    Page(s): 53 - 66
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    The conventional mesh and nodal methods, their theories, and their algorithms are examined from an entirely new direction. This new direction, or viewpoint, assumes both methods to be special cases of the orthogonal network theories and methods. A deeper and broader understanding of the conventional methods and the topological tools that they employ are thereby obtained. View full abstract»

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  • On-Line Digital Computer Application Techniques for Complex Electric System Dispatch

    Page(s): 67 - 73
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    The design, the implementation of, and the operating experience with a large-scale digital computer system used for optimum scheduling and on-line control of a complex hydro-thermal electric utility system is discussed. Dispatch techniques are outlined which produce optimal scheduling of steam, stored hydro, pumped hydro, and run-of-river hydro generation and economy interchange over a 32-hour period with full consideration given to unit selection and pumped hydro storage incremental cost-worth evaluation. Dispatch policy that results in the minimum practical dollars system power source cost within the framework of physical limitations and operational constraints is discussed. Operational features, including dispatcher-computer communication, scheduling program to on-line control program data interface, digital computer-analog load-frequency control interface, alarm-logging-monitoring programs, and off-line study mode programs are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Simulation of Multimachine Power Systems for Stability Studies

    Page(s): 73 - 80
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    A digital simulation technique suitable for detailed analysis of both large and small disturbances on extensive power systems is presented. The analysis employs a hybrid reference frame for statement of the problem and for its solution. The equations of the interconnecting network are expressed with regard to a synchronously rotating common reference frame and are treated with the aid of matrix methods. Synchronous machine equations and equations of the voltage regulator and of the speed governor are solved in Park's reference frame fixed to the field of each individual machine. Provision is made for representing different machines in different degrees of detail. An efficient numerical technique for solution of the resulting complex nonlinear equations describing the behavior of the complete power system is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Formation of the Coefficient Matrix of a Large Dynamic System

    Page(s): 80 - 83
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    The coefficient matrix for the set of first-order differential equations that describe a dynamic system is formed from the block diagram or equations that describe the system. The method for accomplishing this is described in terms of matrix equations. Then the derivative of this coefficient matrix with respect to one of the system parameters is found in terms of the matrices used to form it. The coefficient matrix and its derivative can be used to find the eigenvalues of the system and the sensitivities of the eigenvalues to the system's parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Determination and Analysis of Data for Reliability Studies

    Page(s): 84 - 100
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    Methods for transmission and distribution system reliability analysis currently being developed and used require that the expected values of component outage rates and outage durations be known. The paper describes how the required component parameters can be estimated from field data. Also described are methods of placing confidence limits on the parameters estimated. The methods presented were developed through a study of six years of field records provided by a utility company. Sample expected outage rates and outage durations for various components such as transmission lines, substation transformers, and circuit breakers are presented. Also presented are data which tend to confirm the distributional assumptions made in system reliability analysis methods. View full abstract»

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  • History and Design Parameters of High-Pressure, Pipe-Type Cables in the Western Hemisphere Operating at 69 kV and Above

    Page(s): 100 - 121
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    THE FIRST pipe-type cable in the Western Hemisphere was a 2000-foot long experimental installation at the Plymouth Meeting Substation of the Philadelphia Electric Company in 1932. The first commercial installation was energized in 1935 in Baltimore, Md., as a part of the electrification program of the Pennsylvania Railroad. There were a few lines installed during the Depression and War years. Since World War II the number of installations has increased rapidly. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Heat Exchangers to Existing High-Pressure, Oil-Filled, Pipe-Type Cable Lines

    Page(s): 122 - 128
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    The design and installation of six air-cooled heat exchangers to increase the capacity of existing double circuit pipe-type cable lines was completed on an emergency basis in ten months. Design increase in capacity ranges from 26 to 43 percent above the self-cooled rating. A method was developed for making connections to the cable pipe using liquid nitrogen to freeze the cable oil, a technique of cutting and prying to make a window in the pipe without danger of damaging the cable, and a special diffusion chamber that allowed the cable to be thermally insulated during welding. Coordination with the existing pressure maintenance plants was accomplished with the least trouble by maintaining pressure only on the line which is on the suction side of the nearest heat exchanger circulating pump. Transfer trip and sequential starting schemes were developed to minimize trouble on lines with more than one heat exchanger. View full abstract»

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  • The Cooling of Underground EHV Transmission Cables

    Page(s): 129 - 134
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    Proposed cable cooling methods to increase the heat dissipation and rating of underground EHV cables are described. The factors governing the design of water cooled cable systems, obtained from an electrical analog, are presented and discussed together with both steady-state and transient operating conditions. Special cooling methods for cable joints are investigated and modifications to construction suggested. The use of special types of cable with enhanced heat transfer properties is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric Tests for EHV Transformers

    Page(s): 135 - 145
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    Specific proposals for revision of dielectric tests for EHV power transformers are made. An objective is improved operating reliability by specifying tests which are more compatible with service requirements. Impulse and switching surge tests are coordinated independently with lightning arrester characteristics. Low-frequency tests are disassociated from transient voltage requirements and are related to operating voltage only. Low-frequency test voltages are reduced and their duration is increased; absence of corona during the test is required. Suggestions for further development work are made. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning Protection of 230-kV Stations by Pipe Gaps

    Page(s): 145 - 154
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    The impulse, switching surge, and 60-cycle breakdown characteristics of a pipe gap with an effective length of 18 feet and 36-inch spacing have been determined and the predischarge current for impulse surges measured. Superior protective characteristics of pipe gaps as compared with rod gaps for protecting 230 kV transformers against steep lightning surges are demonstrated. A pipe gap, developed for Ontario Hydro-Electric 230-kV stations, to be used in conjunction with the conventional rod gap, is described. View full abstract»

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  • Switching Surge Insulation Coordination: Lightning Arresters

    Page(s): 154 - 162
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    Methods to determine the protection assured by a lightning arrester with reference to switching surge stress are discussed from a statistical point of view. Two methods are examined: the first considers the lightning arrester as a means to reduce the cumulative frequency of surge distribution, the second considers the arrester as a means to reduce the discharge probability of the insulation to be protected as a function of the prospective value of the applied surge. View full abstract»

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  • Power Line Carrier on Insulated Bundle Subconductors of DC and AC Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 162 - 173
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    A system of power line carrier communication, utilizing insulated bundle subconductors and having an attenuation of about 0.1 dB/mi at 100 kHz, is described. Merits and disadvantages of this unconventional method are discussed. Push-pull coupling to the subconductors of one bundle is shown to exhibit an inherent property of high rejection of substation noise, a feature of particular interest for dc transmission lines. Simplified modal analysis is developed leading to a practical solution of coupling and transmission problems on 2-, 3-, and 4-subconductor bundles. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Noise on Transfer-Trip Carrier Relaying

    Page(s): 173 - 179
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    A test method is described for the measurement of the probability of error due to noise in transfer-trip (TT) relaying using power line carrier. Noise levels recorded on 230-kV carrier installations are given to permit the interpretation of the measured error probabilities in terms of reliability and security. Three possible applications of the method are demonstrated: 1) finding the required biasing for frequency-shift-keying receivers, 2) preservice checking of transfer-trip channels, and 3) comparison of different transfer-trip systems. View full abstract»

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  • Insulated Overhead Ground Wires - Protective Carrier Relaying Investigations

    Page(s): 179 - 187
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    The results of an extensive field investigation of the use of a single insulated overhead ground wire for protective carrier relaying are summarized and discussed. Transfer-trip relaying channels using either a single, continuous insulated ground wire or short insulated sections at each end of the line as carrier couplers are shown to be practicable. Balanced-pair operation of two insulated ground wires was not studied in field, however, the reliability for transferred-trip line protection is inferred to be poor. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Response Instrument for Measurement of Power System Phase Angles

    Page(s): 187 - 189
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    A phase-angle measuring device is described which has a response time of one cycle of the signals whose phase angles are being measured. It has an adjustable full scale range which allows high-accuracy readings of small phase angle changes. An output is provided for continuous, fast response recording of phase angle changes suitable for use on an oscillograph. Some test results using the device are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of High-Speed Rectifier Excitation Systems on Generator Stability Limits

    Page(s): 190 - 201
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    A device to provide a signal proportional to changes in generator speed has been developed by Ontario Hydro. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate that use of this signal with a high-speed rectifier excitation system results in dynamic stability limits which approximate those which can be obtained with a zero reactance generator. Transient stability limits are greater than those obtainable with high-response conventional excitation systems. Results from the field tests and a computer study are compared. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope