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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 68 • Date Oct. 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Communication and Electronics - September 1963

    Page(s): c2 - 800-a
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Locked-Rotor Temperature Test Repeatability-Small Impedance-Protected Motor

    Page(s): 601 - 608
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    Locked-rotor motor-temperature tests can be highly repeatable when the test conditions consist of ambient temperature, proximity draft, mounting geometry etc., and are held identical. Since any change of these conditions will affect the motor temperature, the latter can be meaningful only when the former are precisely defined. In judging motor temperature with reference to a temperature limit specified under a different set of conditions, allowance is to be made to account for the difference of conditions. View full abstract»

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  • The Relation Between Stroke Current and the Velocity or the Return Stroke

    Page(s): 609 - 617
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    The velocity of the return stroke is an important element in estimating (1) the surge impedance of the return stroke, (2) the potential of the downward leader, and (3) the length of the last striking distance. The energy required to establish an arc plasma can be determined from laboratory tests. By equating this quantity to the energy required to retard the velocity of a traveliing wave, the consequent velocity of the return stroke can be evaluated in terms of the stroke current. View full abstract»

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  • The Present State of Pumped Storage in Europe

    Page(s): 618 - 631
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    Pumped storage in Europe dates back to the late 19th Century with strong upsurges in the 1930's and 1950's. It is used for various purposes, the extremes of which are seasonal storage and peaking. The paper lists all major pumping stations with complete engineering data, discusses the various possible arrangements of the machinery, the types of pumps and turbines available today, and the coupling and shaft arrangements. A few typical storage and peaking operations are described in some detail. After a short review of the economic aspects, a separate chapter is devoted to reversible pump-turbine units. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical Energy Conversion in Double Cylindrical Structures

    Page(s): 631 - 638
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    Terminal characteristics of machines without saliency on either member are derived from the solution of Maxwell's equations in the air gap, using conductor configurations which may be present in actual machines. First, the harmonic current sheets are generated. Then energy methods are employed to formulate the equations of motion for both the electric and mechanical terminals. The formulation is general, with respect to both the machine construction and the number of harmonics included. View full abstract»

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  • Developments in Large Turbo-Type Generators

    Page(s): 639 - 646
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    The construction of the modern large turbogenerator has been made possible by developments in the manufacture of large forgings, techniques of construction, and design progress maintained by continued reappraisal of known and careful analysis of new problems. The present paper reviews the progress which leads to construction of the direct liquid-cooled generator and discusses a number of major problems which have become prominent with the increase in maximum output. These include negative sequence heating, asynchronous operation, current collection, and short-circuit torques. View full abstract»

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  • Fault and Load Current Testing of a Bundle Conductor Spacer

    Page(s): 646 - 652
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    Fault and load curretnt tests were made on a 16-inch spaced bundle conductor test line. Both a spring-type spacer and a laboratory-type rigid spacer were tested. Fault currents up to 36,400 amperes were applied asymmetrically, and load currents up to 3,800 amperes. View full abstract»

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  • Parametic Pump-Down of Synchronous Machine Oscillations

    Page(s): 652 - 657
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    A new stabilizing technique for synchronous electric machines is presented. The method uses an external series controller (utilizing silicon-controlled rectifiers) which affects the synchronizing torque. Experimental studies on a 5-hp (horsepower) synchronous machine confirm the results of theoretical performance calculations. The primary advantage of the new method is in applications where more conventional stabilizing methods fail. A normally unstable doubly fed double-speed synchronous machine has been successfully stabilized by this technique. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Pole Reclosing Tests on Long 275-Kv Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 658 - 661
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    This paper discusses field tests and operating experience on long 275-kv transmission lines. Successful single-pole reclosing depends upon the self-extinction of the secondary arc which persists after the interruption of the power arc upon the isolation of the faulted phase. Analysis of the test oscillograms showed the secondary arc to be inherently unstable. Operating experience during the 21 months since commissioning confirms these results as all reclosures have been successful. View full abstract»

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  • Experiments with Galloping Spans

    Page(s): 661 - 669
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    The energy imparted to a galloping span by the wind and the energy dissipated by frictional sources in the span are investigated, and a short-span experimental line fitted with air foils is used to verify the method of calculating the wind and friction energies. The experience gained from various test spans is presented. The input energy and the energy dissipation of a full-scale span is investigated for a hypothetical conductor cross section. A discussion of the role that torsional motion plays in galloping is also included in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Improvements in Cascade Potential Transrormers

    Page(s): 669 - 675
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    This paper describes a new cascade potential transformer which exhibits improved characteristics and utilization of materials as compared with a prior cascade design and with conventional potential transformers. Modifications responsible for these advances include major changes in the magnetic and electric circuits as well as in the mechanical parts. Features of the new design embrace a major reduction in height and weight, high metering accuracy over the entire range of transmission-line voltages, improved mechanical clamping and sealing, and excellen voltage distribution and transient responset View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Losses and Economy Loading by the Use of Admittance Constants

    Page(s): 676 - 683
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    In order to operate a power system at optimum economy, the production costs and transmission losses must be coordinated. A straightforward derivation of the co-ordination conditions is given. A widely adopted method of finding transmission penalty factors used so-called "B-constants." These constants are not easily modified to consider changes in the transmission system or deviation from "base-case" system conditions. By starting with the equilibrium equation of a power system written in terms of admittance constants, a concise expression for the total losses of a power transmission system which does not neglect shunt paths to neutral or the effect of off-nominal turns ratios is developed. Following this same approach, an easily modified, approximate expression for the penalty factor is formed. Any errors incurred by using this approximate penalty factor are small when compared with the inaccuracy of the original data on production costs. Several test cases on hypothetical systems are given. The generation schedules for economic dispatch, using approximate penalty factors, compare quite favorably in actual hourly costs with the costs of schedules obtained by exact penalty factors. View full abstract»

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  • Amplification of Power-Line Carrier Signals at Intermediate Stations

    Page(s): 683 - 686
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    On long power-line carrier circuits used for telemetering and automatic control, the signal-to-noise ratio during foul weather may become too low for reliable operation. Where the carrier circuit passes through an intermediate switching or transformer station, amplification of the signal is possible. This paper describes an investigation of the limitations on the gain of an amplifier inserted directly in a carrier by-pass cable. An amplifier with 20-db (decibel) gain installed near the middle of a 260-mile carrier circuit used for telemetering and control functions is described. Power requirements and reliability considerations in this amplifier are also discussed in the following paper. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting and Locating Interturn Short Circuits on Turbine-Generator Rotors

    Page(s): 686 - 698
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    A turn-to-turn short circuit in a turbine-generator rotor is detected by measuring the change in rotor reactance. To locate the turn-to-turn short circuit, iron and air-core search coils are used in conjunction with an AEG vectormeter to measure the imaginary component of the induced voltage in the search coils. The results are conclusive even when the rotor wedges are aluminum and the end rings are shrunk on the rotor body. View full abstract»

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  • EHV Elephant-Type Bushing

    Page(s): 698 - 705
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    Recent co-operative development by representative electric machine and cable manufacturers in Japan has resulted in a direct-connected combination of high-voltage cable, pothead, and transformer, designated as the EHV (extra-high-voltage) elephant-type bushing. With all connections from transformer to cable under oil, dimensions and space requirements are reduced, and problems of atmospheric contamination and flashover are eliminated. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Static Overcurrent Relay

    Page(s): 705 - 716
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    This paper describes the design and application of a new static overcurrent protective relay system. Design goals and physical characteristics are given. Basis for selection of the new time current characteristics is presented, and new curves are compared with existing shapes. Also given are application examples involving fuse coordination, low-voltage trip devices, motor protection, reset characteristics, and special distribution protective schemes. Burden and temperature data and field test procedures are included. View full abstract»

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  • Saturation Factors for Leakage Reactance of Induction Motors with Skewed Rotors

    Page(s): 716 - 725
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    Expressions for the saturation factors for the leakage reactance of induction motors with skewed rotors are derived. Saturation is taken into account by the effect of the combined slot-, zigzag-, and skew-leakage flux on the permeances of the flux leakage paths. Curves of saturation factors and leakage reactance of a standard motor are compared with test. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Probability Methods to the Determination of Spinning Reserve Requirements for the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection

    Page(s): 726 - 735
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    A procedure is presented for the determination of spinning reserve requirements such that the reliability of service remains constant from hour to hour, day to day, and season to season. The effect of such factors as changes in load level, changes in short-time load forecasting error probabilities and changes in the size of units scheduled to operate are taken into account. The procedure described has been adopted by the Pennsylvania¿New Jersey¿Maryland Interconnection. View full abstract»

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  • Radio Noise and Corona Loss Results from Project EHV

    Page(s): 735 - 750
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    Fair-and foul-weather corona loss and radio noise data from the Project EHV line are presented. Insulator loss and the dependence of corona loss on load current are discussed. Corona and radio noise data were logged continuously from three configurations tested at 500 kv and another at 700 kv and analyzed with a computer. They provide a basis for predicting line performance. The radio noise measurements from the test line are correlated with long-line performance. View full abstract»

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  • Electrodynamic Studies of Bundled Conductor Spacers

    Page(s): 750 - 760
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    Fault currents up to 54,000 peak amperes were imposed on bundled conductors equipped with instrumented and prototype spacers. Special instrumentation techniques were employed to gather experimental data from these spacers. The data were used to verify a mathematical analysis of the dynamic force problem. Comparison of experimental and analytical results shows them to be in good agreement; a mathematical model, therefore, may be used to direct future spacer design, eliminating the necessity of costly outdoor test programs. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical Energy Conversion in Salient-Pole Structures

    Page(s): 760 - 766
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    A conformal transformation is employed to solve for the magnetic vector potential in the air gap of structures with saliency present on one member. Boundary conditions at the cylindrical surface admit the evaluation of the total energy stored in the air gap by suitable changes of variable. Equations of motion may then be found by energy methods. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Conductor Ratings

    Page(s): 767 - 775
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    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of calculating transmission conductor ratings. These ratings are limited by the amount of annealing which can be tolerated during the life of the conductor. The method includes an approach to weather-data analysis, use of a digital computer for bulk calculations, and a graphical method of calculating annealing. The resulting ratings can be used with confidence, since they reflect both local weather experience and operating practices. View full abstract»

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  • Radio Interference from High-Voltage Lines

    Page(s): 775 - 782
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    Randomly varying quantities, contingent upon other independent variables, are not amenable to easy analysis. Continuously recorded radio noise data collected from operating lines over a 3-year period have been subjected to statistical techniques. Some anticipated relationships were established; others failed to be verified. The results presented are based upon records obtained at two high-voltage levels and with three different single-conductor diameters. View full abstract»

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  • Grounding Grids for High-Voltage Stations

    Page(s): 782 - 788
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    ln most high-voltage switchyards, basic grounding systems are formed by a grid of horizontally buried conductors. A method is developed to determine more accurately the resistance of such grounding systems. The dimensions are those usually encountered in practice with the conductors buried near the surface of the earth. The varying soil resistivity may either increase or decrease with depth according to a certain law, which can represent most of the soil conditions that normally occur in practice. The computed results check well with data obtained from tests in substations which are in service. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope