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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1962

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 1745
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IRE Members Approve Merger with AIEE

    Page(s): 1746
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 1747
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Radio Telegraphy

    Page(s): 1748 - 1757
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The Engineer and the Life Sciences

    Page(s): 1758 - 1762
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    Within recent years the life sciences have realized the significance of the contributions which can be made by the engineer, and the engineering sciences are beginning to realize the value of the contributions which can be made by the life sciences in bionics. A new field has developed which may be called bio-medical engineering. The National Institutes of Health is now engaged in a program designed to provide support in research, training, and facilities for this broad area. Support will be largely in the field of the application of engineering theory to the biological sciences, and may not include some of the aspects of applied engineering or instrumentation except as they arise as a result of theoretical development. View full abstract»

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  • Group Theory and the Energy Band Structure of Semiconductors

    Page(s): 1762 - 1781
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    The purpose of this paper is to present the principles involved in calculating the energy band structures of semiconductors. These calculations can be simplified by the use of group theory, which is a branch of analysis that permits expressing the symmetry properties of crystals in a quantitative manner. Some of the simpler concepts of group theory are explained and then applied to band structure determinations. View full abstract»

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  • Injection Currents in Insulators

    Page(s): 1781 - 1796
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    The basic principles of one- and two-carrier, volume-controlled injection currents are reviewed. One-carrier injected currents are necessarily space-charge-limited and are strongly affected by the presence of traps which usually capture and immobilize most of the injected carriers. The trapped carriers are in an effective thermal equilibrium with the free injected carriers. The concepts of "shallow" and "deep" traps are defined and their effects on injected currents studied. It is shown that the presence of "deep" traps leads to a very steep rise of current with voltage, resembling a breakdown curve, at an appropriate voltage. Under double injection, that is, the simultaneous injection into the insulator of electrons from a cathode and holes from an anode, space-charge limitations are at least partially overcome but recombination of injected carriers presents a new limitation on the current flow. In any insulator at sufficiently high injection levels both recombination and space charge contribute to limitation of the current, leading to a dependence of current on the cube of the voltage, for monomolecular recombination processes. For double injection into a semiconductor, the presence of thermally generated free carriers leads to charge neutrality (the so-called ohmic relaxation process) and recombination alone limits the current. In a semiconductor long compared to a diffusion length this leads to a dependence of current on the square of the voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Considerations on Millimeter Wave Generation by Optical Frequency Mixing

    Page(s): 1796 - 1800
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    The generation of radiation by miing optical maser signals is one possible method for closing the gap between microwaves and infrared. The conversion efficiency attainable with different types of nonlinear media is considered. It is shown that lossless nonlinear media, such as dielectrics, have very low conversion efficiency properties, regardless of the way they are used. Nonlinear resistive media, on the other hand, have efficiencies up to 25 per cent, independently of the frequency conversion ratio. Consequently, in order to generate wavelengths in the nillimeter range by mixing optical maser outputs, the materials used should involve nonlinear dissipative processes. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Guns for Forming Solid Beams of High Perveance and High Convergence

    Page(s): 1800 - 1807
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    A new method has been employed for the design of solid-beam electron guns of high perveance and area convergence. This has resulted in designs with perveance 2.2×10-6 a/v3/2 and convergence ratio 300; and perveance 5×10-6 a/V3/2 and area convergence 6. Using conventional methods, a design with perveance 0.1×10-6a/v3/2 and area convergence ratio 1000 has been obtained. Each of these guns has yielded over 95 per cent transmission through a drift tube, in most cases with less than 1.5 times theoretical Brillouin focusing magnetic field. The design method consists of 1) paper design following earlier workers; 2) construction of a model using the design cathode and anode, but with the focus electrode replaced by a series of annular disk electrodes; 3) measurement, in pulsed bell-jar beam tester, of the beam leaving this gun, by means of a pinhole aperture followed by a split collector, yielding data on current density and trajectory angle as a function of radius and axial position; 4) modifications of annular disk potentials and cathode surface shape to improve beam quality; 5) electrolytic tank determination of the shape of a single electrode to replace the annular disks; and 6) test of the final design in a sealed-off, shielded-cathode, pulsed beam tester in which the beam flows through a drift tube in a uniform magnetic field. These methods are relatively exact and rapid. Drawings are presented for some specific designs. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Noise in Field-Effect Transistors

    Page(s): 1808 - 1812
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    The limiting noise mechanism in field-effect transistors is thermal noise of the conducting channel. The noise can be represented by a current generator ¿i2 in parallel to the output. The value of i2 is calculated; for zero drain voltage the noise corresponds to thermal noise of the drain conductance, and for other bias conditions the noise at a given gate voltage depends only slightly upon the drain voltage. Because of modulation effects in the channel, i2 is somewhat larger than the thermal noise of the dc drain conductance, except for zero drain bias and beyond saturation. The noise resistance of the device is approximately equal to gmax/g,m2, where gm is the transconductance of the transistor and gmax its maximum value. The approximation becomes even closer if feedback due to the series resistances of the channel must be taken into account. View full abstract»

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  • Higher-Order Temperature Coefficients of the Elastic Stiffinesses and Compliances of Alpha-Quartz

    Page(s): 1812 - 1822
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    The first-, second-, and third-order temperature coefficients of the elastic stiffnesses and compliances of alpha-quartz have been derived from thickness mode resonances of double-rotated quartz plates employing Christoffel's theory of wave propagation. The temperature dependence of all possible thickness modes can be calculated from the values of the elastic stiffnesses and their temperature coefficients as derived during this investigation. A curve showing the locus of the first-order zero temperature coefficient of frequency of thickness-shear modes has been calculated and compared with experiments. The second- and third-order temperature coefficients of frequency of the first-order zero quartz cuts are given. Applications to AT, BT, CT, and DT cuts are made by comparing the calculated with the experimental values which characterize the temperature behavior of frequencies and new useful piezoelectric cuts of quartz are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 1822 - 1856
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 1857 - 1858
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  • Books

    Page(s): 1859 - 1861
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the Transactions

    Page(s): 1862
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  • Abstracts of IRE Transactions

    Page(s): 1863 - 1873
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    The issues of IRE Transactions listed herein have recently been published, and are now available from the Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc. The contents of each issue and, where available, abstracts of technical papers are given. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope