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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1961

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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  • Proceedings of the IRE Contents of Volume 49 - 1961

    Page(s): 2 - 9
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  • Index to authors

    Page(s): 9 - 11
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  • Index to subjects

    Page(s): 11 - 18
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  • Nontechnical index

    Page(s): 18 - 22
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  • Index to book reviews

    Page(s): 23 - 24
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  • Walter R. G. Baker, 1892-1960

    Page(s): 1
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  • Lloyd V. Berkner, President, 1960

    Page(s): 2
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  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 3
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  • The Computer Issue

    Page(s): 4 - 7
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Steps toward Artificial Intelligence

    Page(s): 8 - 30
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    The problems of heuristic programming-of making computers solve really difficult problems-are divided into five main areas: Search, Pattern-Recognition, Learning, Planning, and Induction. A computer can do, in a sense, only what it is told to do. But even when we do not know how to solve a certain problem, we may program a machine (computer) to Search through some large space of solution attempts. Unfortunately, this usually leads to an enormously inefficient process. With Pattern-Recognition techniques, efficiency can often be improved, by restricting the application of the machine's methods to appropriate problems. Pattern-Recognition, together with Learning, can be used to exploit generalizations based on accumulated experience, further reducing search. By analyzing the situation, using Planning methods, we may obtain a fundamental improvement by replacing the given search with a much smaller, more appropriate exploration. To manage broad classes of problems, machines will need to construct models of their environments, using some scheme for Induction. Wherever appropriate, the discussion is supported by extensive citation of the literature and by descriptions of a few of the most successful heuristic (problem-solving) programs constructed to date. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Organizing Systems-A Review and Commentary

    Page(s): 31 - 48
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    The class of self-organizing systems represented by networks which learn to recognize patterns is reviewed from an historical standpoint, and some of the behavioral similarities between such nets and biological nervous systems are discussed. Examples and results of several experimental models for alphanumeric character recognition are presented. The network synthesis problem is then recast in terms of redundant information removal, multivariable curve-fitting and expansion in orthonormal functions. Recognition network structures and the learning process are described from these points of view. The potential component and behavioral advantages to be gained from sequential feedback networks are discussed briefly. View full abstract»

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  • The Simulation of Neural Elements by Electrical Networks Based on Multi-Aperture Magnetic Cores

    Page(s): 49 - 52
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    Multilevel storage, gating, controlling threshold-level, and summation are basic functional operations common to several systems for the simulation of neural behavior by electrical networks. It is shown how these may be realized very efficiently in terms of multi-apertured magnetic cores; in a typical example, only two cores of the type described by Crane are required for a circuit with threshold control of three simultaneous gates and non-destructive analog read-out. A logic element equivalent to a self-holding relay exhibits dc current gain and has compatible input-output connections. View full abstract»

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  • High-Speed Arithmetic in Binary Computers

    Page(s): 67 - 91
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    Methods of obtaining high speed in addition, multiplication, and division in parallel binary computers are described and then compared with each other as to efficiency of operation and cost. The transit time of a logical unit is used as a time base in comparing the operating speeds of different methods, and the number of individual logical units required is used in the comparison of costs. The methods described are logical and mathematical, and may be used with various types of circuits. The viewpoint is primarily that of the systems designer, and examples are included wherever doing so clarifies the application of any of these methods to a computer. Specific circuit types are assumed in the examples. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Analysis of Certain Binary Division Algorithms

    Page(s): 91 - 103
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    Nondeterministic extensions of the nonrestoring method of binary division have been described by MacSorley [1]. One extension requires that the magnitudes of the divisor and partial remainders be "normal," i. e., in the range [0.5, 1.0). This leads to a time improvement of more than two relative to conventional nonrestoring methods. Other extensions involve the use of several divisor multiples (or trial quotients). A Markov chain model is used here to analyze these methods. Steady-state distributions are determined for the division remainder and performance figures based on both this steady-state distribution and a random distribution are calculated. These are compared with the results of a computer simulation of 214 randmly-chosen division problems using two specific methods of division. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Memories: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art

    Page(s): 104 - 127
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    Computer memory developments of the last decade, the present state, and efforts for improvements are surveyed. The following topics are included: principles of storage and selection of random-access memories; principles and engineering considerations of current-coincident-driven core memories; magnetic decoding and load-sharing switches; word-organized one-core and two-core-per-bit memories; fast and impulse switching; transfluxor memories; non-destructive read-out memories; ferrite apertured plates; twistors; fixed read-only memories; thin magnetic film memories-dots, sheets, coated wires and rods; present operational memories typically with capacities of 105 to 106 bits and read-write cycles of 2 to 15 Msec; likelihood of the order of 100-nsec read-write cycle times attainable with ferrite and thin film memories; consideration relating to large capacities; ferroelectric memories attempts; cryoelectric superconductive memories¿principle, superconductive films, Crowe cells, continuous sheets, systems, and the outlook for large capacities; tunnel diode memories which promise a read-write cycle of the order of 10 nsec; and outlook for content addressable memories. View full abstract»

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  • A Computer Subsystem Using Kilomegacycle Subharmonic Oscillators

    Page(s): 128 - 135
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    An investigation was made of the problems associated with a high-speed carrier computer, and a computer subsystem was constructed employing subharmonic oscillators driven with a 3.7-kMc sine wave source. The three-phase power source was modulated at a 30-Mc rate so the interval between successive logic operations was 11 nsec. The logic module is a balanced resonant varactor circuit having a pulsed subharmonic output at 1.85 kMc and a rise time of 3 nsec. The output from each module, at a level of about 1 mw, is distributed through a network of resistors and coacial lines to the modules of the succeeding power supply phase. The logic is done at 1.85 kMc by forming a majority of three from the three inputs. Thi majority logic, with the readily available inversion operation, provides a universal set of logic gates. The subsystem consists of four main parts: the logic modules, the 1.85-kMc signal distribution, the 3.7-kMc power distribution, and the power supply. The subharmonic oscillator has advantages characteristic of a carrier computer; among these is the ability to transform impedance levels, and the ability to get a logic inversion by adding a cable length to give 180° phase change of the signal. Advantages peculiar to the subharmonic oscillator system are the simplicity of the varactor and its inherently fast operation. This approach also has a high logic gain, and provides fully timed and amplitude limited pulses at the output of each module. Three-phase operation gives an effective directivity to the single port gate. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Tunnel-Diode Digital Techniques

    Page(s): 136 - 146
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    The tunnel diode, because of its high switching speed, wide environmental tolerance, and adaptability to digital computing circuits, has attracted much attention in the digital computer field. Efforts have been devoted to its application in both memory and logic circuits. Results have been most promising in high-speed random-access memories and in dynamic logic systems utilizing multiphase clock sources. This paper discusses the major techniques that have been reported plus some that have been developed by the authors and their associates at Bendix Research Laboratories. View full abstract»

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  • Calculated Waveforms for Tunnel Diode Locked Pair

    Page(s): 146 - 154
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    An introductory analysis of the tunnel diode locked-pair circuit is presented. The characteristics of the tunnel diode, together with the simplicity of the locked-pair circuit, make it a major contender for use as a high speed computer element. High speed and high gain are the main advantages of the locked-pairs; the three-phase power supply and lack of a simple means for logical inversion are its main disadvantages. The basic circuit consists of two tunnel diodes in series, the node common to the tunnel diodes being both the input and output terminal. As a computer element, the locked-pair functions in much the same manner as the phase-locking harmonic oscillator (PLO). Like the PLO, the locked pair overcomes the difficulty of coincident input and output terminals by using a three-phase voltage source. The feasibility of using a digital computer to solve nonlinear circuit problems is also demonstrated. A digital computer makes possisible an exact solution by doing away with relatively ineffectual linear approximation techniques. Furthermore, the stray parameters associated with laboratory work at high frequencies are excluded, thereby disclosing the true nature of the circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Film Memory Design

    Page(s): 155 - 164
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    Thin magnetic films of permalloy have characteristics ideal for high-speed digital storage. A simple rotational model modified to include the effects of wall switching and dispersion of the preferred direction of magnetization provides a basis for describing properties of engineering interest. A selection system has been chosen which allows great latitude in film uniformity. Production of films with magnetic properties uniform to within ± 10 per cent is readily achieved. Specifications for operation in a destructive mode can easily be met by existing film arrays; the nondestructive mode is considerably more stringent unless very small signals can be tolerated. The first film memory has been in reliable operation since the summer of 1959. It has 32 ten-bit words and has been operated with a minimum cycle time of 0.4 , ¿sec. Higher speed and larger capacities will require higher bit densities and improved techniques to minimize undesirable coupling between drive and sense lines. The use of 10 × 60 mil rectangles, balanced sense windings, and longer words will hopefully permit memories of about 200,000 bits with cycle time under 0.2 ¿sec. View full abstract»

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  • The Development of the Flexible-Disk Magnetic Recorder

    Page(s): 164 - 174
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    A brief history of the development of the flexible-disk magnetic recorder is presented. Principles of the aeroelastic behavior of the disk and the results of a mathematical analysis of the equilibrium operating conditions are discussed. Experimental results are given which illustrate the effects of operating parameters on disk dynamics. These results indicate the design considerations necessary to produce a wide range of new storage devices. The characteristics of some of the newly developed models are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern Recognition Using Autocorrelation

    Page(s): 175 - 185
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    A class of techniques for character recognition is described. These techniques are characterized by the property that the only parameters of the input which are used are those which are independent of the position of the character; that is, these techniques are registration invariant. In Section I of this paper, we describe the registration invariant mathematical formalism which underlies these techniques, and in Section II we describe in more detail the physical realization of several recognition schemes based on these concepts. Some results from our computer simulation of these procedures are given. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Generated Displays

    Page(s): 185 - 195
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    Increased use of computer output for decision-making has led to the need for effective computer-generated displays of symbols and lines in various formats. Two key functions involved in display generation are digital-to-image conversion, and image storage for projection. Symbol generation can be performed by use of logical and electron beam devices to create dot patterns, intensity modulated scans, mixtures of waveforms or shaped electron beams. Lines are generated as dots, line segments, or vectors. Large, bright displays are obtained by optically projecting images using CRT, photographic, electrostatic, oil film, or thermoplastic techniques. Many new developments show promise for application in computer-generated displays. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Data Communication Techniques

    Page(s): 196 - 209
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    The majority of digital communications are now carried on the teletypewriter networks. New modulation techniques, higher transmission speeds, and more effective error control schemes are being provided in systems now being introduced in the digital communications area. A considerable body of theoretical work has been completed which provides a base for most of the activity in the field; however, application of much of this work, until recently, has often been uneconomical in the current state of the art. This is most notably true in the case of error control and the practical achievement of theoretical channel capacities, but the problem also arises in other areas. The work towards a truly automatic central data processing system has been slow, but a number of projects are now showing the way in this area. These include reservation systems, centralized banking, central inventory control, air traffic control, and, above all, centralized military communications and control systems. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope