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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 4 • April 1960

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 63
  • Poles and Zeros

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s): 433
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • J. A. Ratcliffe, Vice President, 1960

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s): 434
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Space Electronics

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):435 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB)

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  • The NASA Space Sciences Program

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):438 - 450
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    This report, prepared in April, 1959, summarizes the objectives of the space sciences program of the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the immediate and long-range plans for carrying the program out. The report is divided into several broad areas: atmospheres, ionospheres, energetic particles, electric and magnetic fields, gravitational fields, astronomy, and biosciences. Inc... View full abstract»

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  • NASA and Industrial Property

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):451 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The purposes and powers of the National Aeronautics and Space Act are described briefly, particularly as they affect the electronics industry, as an introduction to a more extended discussion of the provisions of the Act relating to patent rights and rights to trade secrets and proprietary information generally. The stringent nature of the latter provisions is stressed, and adverse effects of stri... View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Ion and Plasma Propulsion

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):458 - 465
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1886 KB)

    Several important features and parameters of ion and plasma accelerators for propulsion are compared. Estimates for the thrust of individual ion and plasma acceleration units are given. Impulse measurements for a collinear electrode plasma accelerator are presented. The maximum thrust for an ion gun does not depend on the diameter of the beam, but primarily on the accelerating voltage. Because of ... View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Chemical and Electric Propulsion Systems for Interplanetary Travel

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):465 - 476
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    The basic mission parameters which are required for the evaluation of engine performance for interplanetary flights are defined. The engine parameters are also defined, and the relation between these parameters is formulated. The possibility of achieving much larger payload fractions by the use of electric propulsion systems, as opposed to the use of chemical propulsion systems, is indicated. Meth... View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic Propulsion

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):477 - 491
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    The thrust (newtons) developed by a system which accelerates a space charge limited flow of ions of specific charge q/m (coulombs per kilogram) through a voltage V is given by F = (2π/q) ϵV2R2 = √2m/qV2P. R is an aspct ratio of ion beam diameter to acceleration distance x0, and P is a diode perveance (amp/volts ... View full abstract»

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  • Photon Propelled Space Vehicles

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):492 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The interplanetary trajectories of vehicles propelled by solar radiation pressure are analyzed, and are shown to be logarithmic spirals if thrust direction is constant with respect to the vehicle-sun line. The required thrust may be obtained with a solar sail. Sail size as a function of trip time to Mars is determined for solar thrust, oriented tangent to the trajectory. Solar propulsion is compar... View full abstract»

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  • Interplanetary Navigation

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):497 - 499
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    The similarities and differences between interplanetary navigation and navigation on the earth are discussed. It is shown that in interplanetary space, position-fixing can be accomplished by a simple extension of the techniques already familiar to all navigators; but, when very close to the destination, other techniques are more suitable. View full abstract»

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  • Navigation Using Signals from High-Altitude Satellites

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):500 - 506
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2424 KB)

    If electronics can be satisfactorily applied to celestial navigation, a system having universal coverage without weather limitations might be produced. Radio stars are not a promising possibility, but the sun and moon are being tracked by the U. S. Navy Radio Sextant, AN/SRN-4, to provide limited coverage. Universal coverage might be achieved by the addition of artificial earth satellites. Satelli... View full abstract»

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  • A Satellite Doppler Navigation System

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):507 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2552 KB)

    It is shown that a satellite Doppler navigation system can provide navigation to at least one-half mile accuracy from a single pass of a satellite, provided that proper use is made of the full Doppler curve. While not extensively discussed, a satellite Doppler navigation system is presented which conveniently provides navigators with all necessary inputs for position calculation, including up-to-d... View full abstract»

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  • Electrically-Controlled Demand-Thrust Rockets for Satellite Guidance

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):517 - 519
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    Satellites which can be positioned precisely in space will be required for the space research programs of the near future. The information obtainable with such vehicles will be of immediate importance to both military and basic scientific research programs. Typical applications include meteorological observations, communications, atmospheric research and, ultimately, soft-landing vehicles for mann... View full abstract»

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  • Inertial-Guidance Limitations Imposed by Fluctuation Phenomena in Gyroscopes

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):520 - 527
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1673 KB)

    Because of recent improvements, inertial guidance is becoming increasingly important to space and missile programs in connection with the navigation of mobile bases and the launching of vehicles. Gyroscopes are an important component of inertial systems. In order to see if much room remains for further improvement, the performance limitation imposed by thermal fluctuations in gyroscopes is examine... View full abstract»

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  • The Astronautic Chart

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):528 - 531
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    The Astronautic Chart is a nomograph or alignment chart so arranged that a single straight line marks off values of the velocity, mass, mean distance, period, and acceleration of any two-body orbiting system. It is illustrated with numerous examples of orbits of planets about the sun, moons about their planets, and artificial earth satellites. All scales give correct values at the extremities of t... View full abstract»

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  • A Study of Natural Electromagnetic Phenomena for Space Navigation

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):532 - 541
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1809 KB)

    A study has been carried out for the United States Air Force investigating the use of natural electromagnetic radiation in the space environment for navigational purposes. Radiations from the sun, the stars, and interstellar space in both the visible and RF portions of the spectrum and also cosmic rays have been investigated. Emphasis has been placed on the measurement of velocity in space utilizi... View full abstract»

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  • The Optimization of Astronautical Vehicle Detection Systems through the Application of Search Theory

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):541 - 553
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    A generalized theory of detection system performance is developed and applied to the analysis of collision warning and the optimal allocation of search effort for astronautical vehicles. The kinematic basis of the relative frequency of intercepts with randomly moving particles is presented. The pronounced variation in warning system effectiveness if the possible contact space is uniformly scanned ... View full abstract»

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  • An Inertial Guidance System Field Test Program for a Ballistic Missile Weapon System

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):554 - 557
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    A field test program for an inertial guidance system can easily extend from coast to coast and will require large numbers of experienced personnel and equipments. Included in the field test program are Sled Tests, Captive Tests, Flight Test, Operational Tests and Contractor Liaison. These areas of tests are described and objectives are reviewed and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Pragmatic Approach to Space Communication

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):557 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Examination of the fundamental limitations on modulation efficiency and present state-of-the-art practices in transmitter design, solar cell power sources, receiver design and antenna design shows that communication with large information rates is possible throughout the solar system but that practical interstellar communication is not now feasible. Two representative telemetry systems are discuss... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation and Communications Problems in Space

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):567 - 569
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    The problems of propagation and communications arising from landings on the Moon, Venus, or Mars are treated in terms of the characteristics required for the communication system to achieve data transfer between parties on the surface of these bodies and the communications problems arising in the transfer of information from these bodies back to the Earth. Consideration is given to Doppler shift, ... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation-Doppler Effects in Space Communications

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):570 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB)

    A generalized form of the Doppler equation is derived by field theory. The equation permits consideration of the effect of propagation phenomena on the Doppler shift under space flight conditions. As an example of an application, the effect of a medium which is nonhomogeneous in the flight direction is investigated. A deviation of the longitudinal and a transverse Doppler shift are the consequence... View full abstract»

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  • Communication Efficiency Comparison of Several Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):575 - 588
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2384 KB)

    Of increasing importance in communication systems, particularly those required for data transmission from space craft, is the minimization of the total transmitted energy required to transmit a given amount of data. Modulation systems can be compared on the basis of a figure of merit defined as the ratio of energy required per bit transmitted in the presence of a given noise spectral density. Usin... View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Utilization of Narrow-Band Data Links for Interplanetary Communications

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):589 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB)

    Our ability to communicate with vehicles in space continues to be limited by the amount of received energy required to transmit a unit of information to earth. We have available, in practical hardware, radio-communication systems which provide us with theoretical maximum performance in terms of data bandwidth and distortion for a given transmission range and power output. The development and refin... View full abstract»

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  • Extraterrestrial Noise as a Factor in Space Communications

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):593 - 599
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Present-day refinements in communication systems make it appear that extraterrestrial noise sources may establish a fundamental limitation on long-range communications. The various cosmic and solar system radio sources are considered with respect to their intensities, spectral distributions, and temporal characteristics. The most severe forms of interference occur in the long-wavelength regions of... View full abstract»

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  • Space Communications Requirements of the Department of Defense

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):600 - 602
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    Military requirements for space communications are described in terms of general needs rather than specific applications. Communications to meet these needs may be divided into communications to, from, and among objects in space. The functions of these communications are command, tracking, and data transmission, the major considerations affecting each function being briefly described. Communicatio... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope