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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1960

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 145
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  • John N. Dyer, Vice President, 1960

    Page(s): 146
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  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 147
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  • PERCOS-Performance Coding System of Methods and Devices Used for Measurement and Control

    Page(s): 148 - 155
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    This paper describes a classifying and coding system of functions and performance characteristics of devices in a way that is useful to the systems designer, who must select a chain of compatible instruments to achieve a measurement or control system of prescribed accuracy and reliability. The performance coding system consists of numeric codes for rating a device in terms of twelve parameters of importance to the over-all performance of the system, such as precision, stability of calibration, rate of performance, useful shelf life, mean operating time to failure, average repair time, cost, availability and physical volume. The numeric codes provide a quantitative description of the performance data to the nearest order of magnitude only. However, this broad classification is consistent with the magnitude of the expected span of performance data of all the devices in a complex system. An edge coded card system is described for the selection of devices or methods complying with the performance parameters. The individual card specifies the exact technical data of the device, the input and output requirements, and especially the environmental conditions under which the performance parameters are given. This classification is established for and with the cooperation of IRE Subcommittee 10.3 of the Industrial Electronics Committee. View full abstract»

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  • 100:1 Bandwidth Balun Transformer

    Page(s): 156 - 164
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    The theory and design of a Tchebycheff tapered balun transformer which will function over frequency bandwidths as great as 100:1 is presented. The balun is an impedance matching transition from coaxial line to a balanced, two-conductor line. The transition is accomplished by cutting open the outer wall of the coax so that a cross-sectional view shows a sector of the outer conductor removed. As one progresses along the balun from the coaxial end, the open sector varies from zero to almost 2¿, yielding the transition to a two-conductor line. The balun impedance is tapered so that the input reflection coefficient follows a Tchebycheff response in the pass band. To synthesize the impedance taper, the impedance of a slotted coaxial line was obtained by means of a variational solution which yielded upper and lower bounds to the exact impedance. Slotted line impedance was determined experimentally by painting the line cross section on resistance card using silver paint and measuring the dc resistance of the section. The measured VSWR of a test balun did not exceed 1.25:1 over a 50:1 bandwidth. Dissipative loss was less than 0.1 db over most of the range. Measurements show that the unbalanced current at the output terminals is negligible. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections

    Page(s): 164
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  • Measurement of Internal Reflections in Traveling-Wave Tubes Using a Millimicrosecond Pulse Radar

    Page(s): 165 - 168
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    This paper describes a test method which enables one to locate reflections on traveling-wave tube helices and to measure the return loss of each reflection. This information is needed for traveling-wave tubes used in pulse code transmission since "echo" pulses arising from reflections can distort the meaning of the code. This test method employs millimicrosecond pulses in a radar circuit with a stroboscopic viewing system. The sensitivity of the system permits easy observation of reflections having return losses as high as 40 db. Using this method we have been able to identify two previously unsuspected sources of helix reflections. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Consideration of the Variable Capacitance Parametric Amplifier

    Page(s): 169 - 179
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    This paper describes a model of the variable capacitance diode in which the spreading resistance is considered as the source of amplifier noise. Gain and noise figure calculations are made for this model and experimental results obtained at 5.84 kmc while pumping at 11.7 kmc are presented for gallium arsenide, silicon and germanium diodes. The qauntity 1/¿C0Rss defined as a quality factor" where Rs, is the spreading resistance and C0 is the static capacitance at zero bias point. Computations of minimum noise figure, optimum load admittance, optimum pumping factor, are all given in terms of the parameter ¿C0Rs. The essential differences between single- and double-sideband reception are discussed. Over a range of sufficiently large values of the parameter ¿C0Rs, there is a reasonable correlation of the theory developed with the measurements performed on most of the diodes. In the range of relatively small values of ¿C0Rs, the model proves inadequate to describe some diodes properly and suggests the need for introducing extra noise sources. These noise sources are also discussed. Of the experimental data obtained thus far, the best result has been with a gallium arsenide diode which yields a 0.9 db double-sideband noise figure and, equivalently, 3.9 db for single-sideband operation with 16 db gain and 25 mc of single-sideband frequency bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Analysis Techniques

    Page(s): 179 - 192
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    Reliability analysis has progressed to the point where a quantification of reliability is possible. Reliability models for electronic equipment and techniques for interpretation of field and laboratory data have been developed. Of more significance, analytical methods leading to higher reliability are available. Reliability estimates enable early pinpointing of low reliability. Catastrophic failures can be controlled and performance change failures reduced through analytical techniques. Redundant techniques allow further reliability improvement even though failures occur. Analytical techniques are a useful aspect of reliability improvement, but they comprise only a part of reliability improvement methods. View full abstract»

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  • A Stabilized Locked-Oscillator Frequency Divider

    Page(s): 192 - 200
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    This paper presents an analysis of a simple oscillator designed for stabilized frequency divider application. The oscillator combines some of the characteristics of sinusoidal and relaxation oscillators to provide a high degree of frequency stability while allowing sufficient tendency for synchronization. The analytical results are obtained in a graphical form which is easy to handle and which could be used as a design procedure for stabilized frequency dividers. Synchronization of the oscillator is described for the case of an input signal consisting of narrow pulses. It is shown that the circuit can maintain a given frequency division ratio regardless of variations in, the amplitude of such a synchronization signal. The results of the graphical analysis are confirmed by experimental observations. Performance data are presented indicating that the circuit is capable of frequency division ratios of 30 to 40 without requiring close control of the power supply voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 200
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  • Compandor Loading and Noise Improvement in Frequency Division Multiplex Radio-Relay Systems

    Page(s): 208 - 220
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    Graphical and numerical means are developed to compute the additional effective loading caused by the use of syllabic compandors on the input of a multichannel radio-relay system, and to evaluate the noise improvement yielded by the compandor in a telephone channel. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Lead Titanate Zirconate Compositions

    Page(s): 220 - 229
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    Detailed data are given for the piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric properties of lead titanate zirconate ceramic compositions near the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary. These compositions have markedly higher electromechanical coupling factors, remanent ferroelectric charge, and coercive field, than ceramic barium titanate. Another interesting feature is a pronounced change in the free permittivity ¿33T by the poling process; this change is in opposite directions for rhombohedral and tetragonal compositions. The dielectric and elastic anisotropy ratios of poled lead titanate zirconate are much greater than those of barium titanate, indicating a greater degree of alignment of domains during poling. View full abstract»

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  • Further Consideration of Bulk Lifetime Measurement with a Microwave Electrodeless Technique

    Page(s): 229 - 233
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    A new method for measurement of the lifetime of excess carriers in semiconductors is described. Using a steady light source and measuring changes in microwave power absorption as a function of position of the sample in a waveguide, bulk lifetime can be determined. Measurements described here were made at 9600 mc. The new technique offers the following advantages: First, the method does not require electrode attachments, thus making the preparation of the samples less difficult and the actual experiment less subject to error due to non-ohmic contacts. Second, the effects of surface recombination are made less important, thus giving a greater assurace of the evalaution of bulk lifetime. View full abstract»

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  • The Application of Linear Servo Theory to the Design of AGC Loops

    Page(s): 234 - 238
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    An analytical technique for designing automatic gain control (AGC) circuits is presented. This technique is directly applicable to high-gain high-performance radio receiving equipment. Use of this technique permits the designer to specify the performance of the AGC system completely with respect to step changes in signal level, ramp changes in signal level, frequency response, receiver gain error as a function of receiver noise, etc., before the receiver is constructed and tested. When used in conjunction with the statistical filter theory the technique has been used to synthesize optimal AGC systems when the characteristics of the signal and noise are appropriately defined. The mathematical derivation of the closed-loop equations is presented. The resulting expressions are simple and easy to understand by anyone acquainted with linear servo theory. Furthermore, the underlying assumptions used in theory have been tested experimentally, and the close agreement between theory and experiment attests the usefulness of the design technique. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 239 - 263
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 264 - 266
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  • Books

    Page(s): 267
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  • Scanning the Transactions

    Page(s): 268
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  • Abstracts of IRE Transactions

    Page(s): 269 - 273
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    The issues of IRE Transactions listed herein have recently been published, and are now available from the Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc. The contents of each issue and, where available, abstracts of technical papers are given. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope