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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1960

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 1949
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • G. Sinclair, Director, 1960-1962

    Page(s): 1950
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 1951
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Electron-Optical Properties ot a Flat Television Picture Tube

    Page(s): 1952 - 1960
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    Ray paths and focusing properties are calculated for the deflection and acceleration fields of a flat picture tube with lateral beam injection such as has been introduced to the art by W. R. Aiken. The results give insight into the measures which must be taken to achieve linearity of deflection and to assure sharp spot focus over the picture area. Specifically, it is found that linear deflection can be obtained by the application of voltage variations to the deflection electrodes which do not depart greatly from linear variations between the prescribed maximum and minimum values. Horizontal focus is determined almost entirely by the focusing action of the gun and the horizontal deflection plates. The focusing action of the latter is such that the beam incident on the deflection field must be, in general, divergent. The point of divergence required shifts with the horizontal scan, resulting in the need for some kind of dynamic control of gun focus. The horizontal deflection fields, the fields between the accelerating electrodes, and the vertical deflection fields all contribute to vertical focusing. If the separation of the side plates of the horizontal deflection system is of the same order as or less than the height of the deflection structure, the first focus formed by the horizontal deflection field is re-imaged at the screen by the remaining focusing elements. The vertical deflection field alone will not focus a parallel incident pencil in the plane of the screen. View full abstract»

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  • Coupled-Cavity Traveling-Wave Parametric Amplifiers: Part I-Analysis

    Page(s): 1960 - 1973
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    A general class of traveling-wave parametric amplifiers based on coupled-cavity filter circuits is described. This type of amplifier is particularly suited to microwave frequencies and incorporates new features that overcome some severe difficulties associated with other circuit structures. Traveling-wave diode-type amplifiers having relatively wide bandwidths and great simplicity at S band have already resulted from this approach (details of experiments will be described in Part II). An analysis is presented which provides detailed information on operating characteristics, including the effects of terminal impedances, reflected waves, circuit loss, etc., and also leads to a simple physical picture of the cumulative interaction mechanism in terms of coupled-mode concepts. This physical picture is emphasized throughout this paper. Gain bandwidth considerations are discussed in terms of a fundamental "interaction-impedance" parameter. Representative calculated curves show that unilateral gains of 12 to 15 db over relatively wide bandwidths are attainable with as few as 4 to 6 diodes. Methods of increasing the gain through use of ferrites and special circuit techniques are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Coupled-Cavity Traveling-Wave Parametric Amplifiers: Part II-Experiments

    Page(s): 1973 - 1987
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    The filter-circuit approach to broadband travelingwave parametric amplification at microwave frequencies is described from an experimental point of view. The experiment revolves around a series of inductively coupled microwave cavities, each loaded with one variable-capacitance semiconductor diode. Gain-bandwidth products of 2000 Mc with a 350-Mc bandwidth at S band have been obtained by using commercially available diodes. Noise temperatures of 130°K have been measured. Based on the analysis of the companion paper, a qualitative prediction of the gain-frequency behavior is given. The experimental arrangement is set forth in some detail. It consists of a series of these coupled cavities with separate pump power distribution at each diode. Through this flexibility in pump phase shift and amplitude, a variety of advantages is achieved. The effects of the many variables on the performance of the amplifier are described. Several methods of achieving short-circuit stability of this amplifier are outlined. These are: 1) nonuniform pump phase shift between sections, 2) nonreciprocal loss with ferrites, and 3) nonreciprocal loss with upper pass bands. The experimental behavior of each method is shown, and the noise performance to date is briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Regenerative Fractional Frequency Generators

    Page(s): 1988 - 1997
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    A new regenerative frequency divider circuit is presented which offers several advantages over other available circuits. These advantages are large lock-in or "stability" range, ability to produce either relatively constant output or amplitude modulated output, circuit simplicity and the fact that it is self-starting. An approximate nonlinear analysis is given which provides a reasonable prediction of the operation. This analysis is a quasi-linear, semigraphical technique which clearly shows the dependence upon diode characteristics and transistor input impedance. Results are also given for harmonic generation, in order to actually give a fractional frequency output and not merely a subharmonic. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Decision Technique for Frequency-Shift Communications systems

    Page(s): 1998 - 2003
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    This paper describes a new circuit technique called a decision threshold computer, which enables a frequency-shift-keyed receiver system to use information in mark and space channels. independently, resulting in an improvement in circuit quality where fading exists between the mark and space frequencies. Frequency selective fading observed on ionospheric-scatter circuits and on high-frequency communication circuits is discussed. The results of a correlation study are presented which show such fading to be relatively uncorrelated a large portion of the time. Typical FSK demnodulators, with a fixed decision level set halfway between the long-term average amplitudes of the received mark and space frequencies, are shown to result in a high error liability when deep fades occur on either the mark or space frequency. It is further shown that such errors are unnecessary since the complete message is available on either frequency. The device discussed in this paper has been designed to make use of the normally deleterious effects of frequency selective fading, to provide up to a 30-fold reduction in teleprinter error rates over that which is theoretically possible when flat fading is assumed. Additional orders of diversity are shown to result where low correlation exists between the mark and space frequencies. Theoretical error rate equations and resulting error rate curves for the new technique are compared with those resulting from a fixed threshold device of conventional design. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Padé Approximation

    Page(s): 2003 - 2008
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    Approximation by minimizing the magnitude of the complex error phasor in the steady state is considered and relationships to conventional magnitude-only and phase-only methods are discussed. The particular case of the Taylor approximation about zero frequency is shown to be equivalent to the Taylor approximation in terms of the complex variable. Generalized examples are given which relate to rational approximations for transistor alpha, resistance-capacitance transmission lines, and the Z transform. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of Surface Roughness and Its Effect on the Backscattering Cross Section of Spheres

    Page(s): 2008 - 2016
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    The effect on the scattering cross section of a perfectly conducting object produced by surface roughaess whose scale is only a small fraction of a wavelength is discussed. The object itself is assumed large compared with the wavelength. The roughness is assumed to be statistically random in nature and it is shown that this can be treated by means of an impedance boundary condition. This permits the use of known results to determine the resulting modification to the cross section of the unperturbed object. Experimental data obtained by measuring the backscattering cross section of a large rough sphere at three frequencies, S, X and K band, are presented. It is found that even for a sphere whose depth of roughness is as large as 10-2 ¿, the measured change in cross section is no nore than about 0.1 db. This is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 2016 - 2041
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contributors

    Page(s): 2042 - 2043
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Books

    Page(s): 2044 - 2048
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the Transactions

    Page(s): 2048 - 2049
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Abstracts of IRE Transactions

    Page(s): 2049 - 2054
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    The issues of IRE Transactions listed herein have recently been published, and are now available from the Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc. The contents of each issue and, where available, abstracts of technical papers are given. View full abstract»

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  • Translations of Russian technical literature

    Page(s): 2070
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    Listed is information on Russian technical literature in electronics and allied fields which is available in the US in the English language. Further inquiries should be directed to the sources listed. In addition, general information on translation programs in the US may be obtained from the Office of Science Information Service, National Science Foundation, Washington DC, USA and from the Office of Technical Services, US Department of Commerce, Washington DC, USA. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope