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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 70
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4425 - 4427
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  • Guest Editorial—Special 40th Anniversary Issue on Optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4428 - 4432
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  • Optical MEMS for Lightwave Communication

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4433 - 4454
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2111 KB)  

    The intensive investment in optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in the last decade has led to many successful components that satisfy the requirements of lightwave communication networks. In this paper, we review the current state of the art of MEMS devices and subsystems for lightwave communication applications. Depending on the design, these components can either be broadband (wavelength independent) or wavelength selective. Broadband devices include optical switches, crossconnects, optical attenuators, and data modulators, while wavelength-selective components encompass wavelength add/drop multiplexers, wavelength-selective switches and crossconnects, spectral equalizers, dispersion compensators, spectrometers, and tunable lasers. Integration of MEMS and planar lightwave circuits, microresonators, and photonic crystals could lead to further reduction in size and cost View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances in Ultrahigh Bit Rate ETDM Transmission Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4455 - 4467
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Increase of Internet traffic and introduction of triple-play services force operators to increase network capacity at moderate costs. Introduction of higher electronic time-division multiplexing (ETDM) channel bit rate targets reduce the cost per bit for the transmission due to lower power consumption, smaller footprint, less management effort, and complexity of the systems. Improved performance of electronic and optoelectronic components allows for research on ETDM bit rates beyond 40 Gb/s, which is currently the highest standardized channel bit rate for optical telecommunication networks. In this paper, an overview of recent progress in high-speed ETDM technology for 80 Gb/s and beyond and results of high-speed ETDM transmission experiments are given. Currently, the speed of electronics enables ETDM systems with line rates of 80/85 Gb/s and even 100 Gb/s, which is expected to be the next generation of Ethernet in data communication View full abstract»

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  • Optical Packet and Burst Switching Technologies for the Future Photonic Internet

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4468 - 4492
    Cited by:  Papers (112)  |  Patents (1)
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    This paper reviews advanced optical burst switching (OBS) and optical packet switching (OPS) technologies and discusses their roles in the future photonic Internet. Discussions include optoelectronic and optical systems technologies as well as systems integration into viable network elements (OBS and OPS routers). Optical label switching (OLS) offers a unified multiple-service platform with effective and agile utilization of the available optical bandwidth in support of voice, data, and multimedia services on the Internet Protocol. In particular, OLS routers with wavelength routing switching fabrics and parallel optical labeling allow forwarding of asynchronously arriving variable-length packets, bursts, and circuits. By exploiting contention resolution in wavelength, time, and space domains, the OLS routers can achieve high throughput without resorting to a store-and-forward method associated with large buffer requirements. Testbed demonstrations employing OLS edge routers show high-performance networking in support of multimedia and data communications applications over the photonic Internet with optical packets and bursts switched directly at the optical layer View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Theory of Photonic Crystals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4493 - 4501
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In this paper, the authors review some of the recent advances in the theory of photonic crystals, drawing examples from their own work in magnetooptical and dynamic photonic crystals. The combination of theory and simulations shows that these crystal structures exhibit rich optical physics effects and can provide new ways to accomplish sophisticated optical information-processing tasks View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4502 - 4513
    Cited by:  Papers (53)
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    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Data Processing for Error and Dispersion Compensation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4514 - 4525
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    The use of smart electronic signal processing is emerging as a key technology to enable economical high-performance transceivers for high-speed optical networks (10 Gb/s and beyond). This paper surveys the role, scope, limitations, and challenges of this technology for enterprise, access, and core networks to enable cost-effective optical transceivers and to reuse the installed fiber infrastructure. Further, the state-of-the-art technology results in these areas will also be presented View full abstract»

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  • Fiber-Based Broadband-Access Deployment in the United States

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4526 - 4540
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    After more than 20 years of research and development, a combination of technological, regulatory, and competitive forces are finally bringing fiber-based broadband access to commercial fruition. The three main approaches-hybrid fiber coax, fiber to the cabinet, and fiber to the home-are each vying for dominance in the industry, and each has significant future potential to grow customers and increase bandwidth and associated-service offerings. Further technical advances and cost reductions will be adopted, eventually bringing performance levels and bandwidth to gigabits-per-second rates when user demand warrants while keeping service costs affordable View full abstract»

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  • High-Bandwidth Plastic Optical Fiber for Fiber to the Display

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4541 - 4553
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel photonics polymer devices for broadband technologies are described, focusing on the high-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF). Based on these photonics polymer device technologies, the concept of "Fiber to the Display" is proposed, where GI POF is directly distributed to display from main server in a building or house. Therefore, real-time face-to-face communication with high-definition-television quality becomes possible, which cannot be achieved by current technologies. The authors believe that new innovative concepts of broadband society in the 21st century will be realized by "the proposal from the material side." View full abstract»

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  • Recent Progresses and Future Prospects of Two- and Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4554 - 4567
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photonic crystals, in which the refractive index changes periodically, provide an exciting new tool for the manipulation of photons and have received keen interest from a variety of fields. This paper reviews the recent progress and future prospects of photonic crystals and their applications to photonic-nanostructure devices View full abstract»

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  • Fiber to the Home Using a PON Infrastructure

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4568 - 4583
    Cited by:  Papers (135)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB)  

    Traffic patterns in access networks have evolved from voice- and text-oriented services to video- and image-based services. This change will require new access networks that support high-speed (> 100 Mb/s), symmetric, and guaranteed bandwidths for future video services with high-definition TV quality. To satisfy the required bandwidth over a 20-km transmission distance, single-mode optical fiber is currently the only practical choice. To minimize the cost of implementing an FTTP solution, a passive optical network (PON) that uses a point-to-multipoint architecture is generally considered to be the best approach. There are several multiple-access techniques to share a single PON architecture, and the authors addressed several of these approaches such as time-division multiple access, wavelength-division multiple access, subcarrier multiple access, and code-division multiple access. Among these multiple techniques, they focus on time-division multiplexing (TDM)-PON and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)-PON, which will be the most promising candidates for practical future systems. A TDM-PON shares a single-transmission channel with multiple subscribers in time domain. Then, there exists tight coupling between subscribers. A WDM-PON provides point-to-point optical connectivity using a dedicated pair of wavelengths per user. While a TDM-PON appears to be a satisfactory solution for current bandwidth demands, the combination of future data-rate projections and traffic patterns coupled with recent advances in WDM technology may result in WDM-PON becoming the preferred solution for a future proof fiber-based access network View full abstract»

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  • Polarization Mode Dispersion of Installed Fibers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4584 - 4599
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1676 KB)  

    Polarization mode dispersion (PMD), a potentially limiting impairment in high-speed long-distance fiber-optic communication systems, refers to the distortion of propagating optical pulses due to random birefringences in an optical system. Because these perturbations (which can be introduced through manufacturing imperfections, cabling stresses, installation procedures, and environmental sensitivities of fiber and other in-line components) are unknowable and continually changing, PMD is unique among optical impairments. This makes PMD both a fascinating research subject and potentially one of the most challenging technical obstacles for future optoelectronic transmission. Mitigation and compensation techniques, proper emulation, and accurate prediction of PMD-induced outage probabilities critically depend on the understanding and modeling of the statistics of PMD in installed links. Using extensive data on buried fibers used in long-haul high-speed links, the authors discuss the proposition that most of the temporal PMD changes that are observed in installed routes arise primarily from a relatively small number of "hot spots" along the route that are exposed to the ambient environment, whereas the buried shielded sections remain largely stable for month-long time periods. It follows that the temporal variations of the differential group delay for any given channel constitute a distinct statistical distribution with its own channel-specific mean value. The impact of these observations on outage statistics is analyzed, and the implications for future optoelectronic fiber-based transmission are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Silicon Photonics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4600 - 4615
    Cited by:  Papers (133)  |  Patents (1)
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    After dominating the electronics industry for decades, silicon is on the verge of becoming the material of choice for the photonics industry: the traditional stronghold of III-V semiconductors. Stimulated by a series of recent breakthroughs and propelled by increasing investments by governments and the private sector, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in silicon photonics and outlines challenges that must be overcome before large-scale commercialization can occur. In particular, for realization of integration with CMOS very large scale integration (VLSI), silicon photonics must be compatible with the economics of silicon manufacturing and must operate within thermal constraints of VLSI chips. The impact of silicon photonics will reach beyond optical communication-its traditionally anticipated application. Silicon has excellent linear and nonlinear optical properties in the midwave infrared (IR) spectrum. These properties, along with silicon's excellent thermal conductivity and optical damage threshold, open up the possibility for a new class of mid-IR photonic devices View full abstract»

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  • Ultrahigh-Speed OTDM-Transmission Technology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4616 - 4627
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews ultrahigh-speed data transmission in optical fibers based on optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) transmission technology. Optical signal processing in the transmitter and receiver as well as the requirements on ultrahigh-speed data transmission over a fiber link are discussed. Finally, results of several OTDM-transmission experiments, including 160-Gb/s transmission over 4320 km, 1.28-Tb/s transmission over 240 km, and 2.56-Tb/s transmission over 160-km fiber link, are described View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Photonics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4628 - 4641
    Cited by:  Papers (190)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The low-loss wide bandwidth capability of opto-electronic systems makes them attractive for the transmission and processing of microwave signals, while the development of high-capacity optical communication systems has required the use of microwave techniques in optical transmitters and receivers. These two strands have led to the development of the research area of microwave photonics. This paper reviews the development status of microwave photonic devices, describes their systems applications, and suggests some likely areas for future development View full abstract»

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  • Slow and Fast Light in Semiconductor Quantum-Well and Quantum-Dot Devices

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4642 - 4654
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
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    The ability to manipulate the speed of light has recently become one of the most exciting emergent topics in optics. There are several experimental demonstrations showing the capability to slow down light more than six orders of magnitude in a variety of media, ranging from atomic vapor, solid state crystal, to semiconductors. These results have led to intensive research into new materials, devices, and system studies that examine their impact to new applications. It is believed that we are on the verge of a dramatic change in the way we envision and construct communication, processing and control systems. One direct application of slow and fast light devices is in the area of communications. One grand challenge remaining in information technology today is to store and buffer optical signals directly in optical format. As such, optical signals must be converted to electronic signals to route, switch, or be processed. This resulted in significant latencies and traffic congestions in current networks. In addition, keeping the data in optical domain during the routing process can greatly reduce the power, complexity and size of the routers. To this end, a controllable optical delay line can effectively function as an optical buffer, and the storage is proportional to the variability of the group velocity. In addition to optical buffers, slow and fast light devices can be used as tunable true-time delay elements in microwave photonics, which are important for remotely controlling phased array antenna. Other novel applications include nonlinear optics, optical signal processing, and quantum information processing. There are various approaches that can be used to vary the optical group velocity. Ultraslow or fast group velocity may result from a large material dispersion, waveguide dispersion, or both. In this paper, the authors provide a review of recent progress of slow and fast light using semiconductor devices. Specifically, they will discuss results obtained using se- miconductor quantum-well/quantum-dot absorber and optical amplifiers. Slow and fast light are controllable electrically by changing the bias current or voltage as well as optically by changing the pump laser intensity and wavelength. Delay-bandwidth tradeoff and other figures of merits are analyzed View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Optics and Electronics in High-Capacity Routers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4655 - 4673
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the role of optical and electronic technologies in future high-capacity routers. In particular, optical and electronic technologies for use in the key router functions of buffering and switching are compared. The comparison is based on aggressive but plausible estimates of buffer and switch performance projected out to around 2020. The analysis of buffer technologies uses a new model of power dissipation in optical-delay-line buffers using optical fiber and planar waveguides, including slow-light waveguides. Using this model together with models of storage capacity in ideal and nonideal slow-light delay lines, the power dissipation and scaling characteristics of optical and electronic buffers are compared. The author concludes that planar integrated optical buffers occupy larger chip area than electronic buffers, dissipate more power than electronic buffers, and are limited in capacity to, at most, a few IP packets. Optical fiber-based buffers have lower power dissipation but are bulky. The author also concludes that electronic buffering will remain the technology of choice in future high-capacity routers. The power dissipation of high-capacity optical and electronic cross connects for a number of cross connect architectures is compared. The author shows that optical and electronic cross connects dissipate similar power and require a similar chip area. Optical technologies show a potential for inclusion in high-capacity routers, especially as the basis for arrayed-waveguide-grating-based cross connects and as components in E/O/E interconnects. A major challenge in large cross connects, both optical and electronic, will be to efficiently manage the very large number of interconnects between chips and boards. The general conclusion is that electronic technologies are likely to remain as integral components in the signal transmission path of future high-capacity routers. There does not appear to be a compelling case for replacing electronic routers - with optically transparent optical packet switches View full abstract»

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  • The Realization of Large-Scale Photonic Integrated Circuits and the Associated Impact on Fiber-Optic Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4674 - 4683
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1256 KB)  

    Large-scale photonic integrated circuits (LS PICs) have been extensively deployed throughout the fiber optic communication network. This paper discusses the properties of the LS PICs, the interaction between them, and what is necessary to create an optical transport system that fully utilizes the properties of the LS PIC View full abstract»

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  • Future Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4684 - 4696
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
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    This paper presents views on the future of optical networking. A historical look at the emergence of optical networking is first taken, followed by a discussion on the drivers pushing for a new and pervasive network, which is based on photonics and can satisfy the needs of a broadening base of residential, business, and scientific users. Regional plans and targets for optical networking are reviewed to understand which current approaches are judged important. Today, two thrusts are driving separate optical network infrastructure models, namely 1) the need by nations to provide a ubiquitous network infrastructure to support all the future services and telecommunication needs of residential and business users and 2) increasing demands by the scientific community for networks to support their requirements with respect to large-scale data transport and processing. This paper discusses these network models together with the key enabling technologies currently being considered for future implementation, including optical circuit, burst and packet switching, and optical code-division multiplexing. Critical subsystem functionalities are also reviewed. The discussion considers how these separate models might eventually merge to form a global optical network infrastructure View full abstract»

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  • Capacity Demand and Technology Challenges for Lightwave Systems in the Next Two Decades

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4697 - 4710
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ten to 20 years from now, optical networks will have to carry vastly increased amounts of Internet traffic. Today's knowledge (2006) already points to ultimate technology limits in the physical layer, foretelling the end of the so-called "Optical Moore's Law." Such an observation is discordant with the generic and optimistic view of a "virtually infinite" optical bandwidth combined with unlimited Internet-traffic growth. In order to meet long-term needs and challenges, therefore, basic research in wideband optical components and subsystems must be urgently revived today View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Modulation Formats for High-Capacity Optical Transport Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4711 - 4728
    Cited by:  Papers (91)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    Advanced optical modulation formats have become a key ingredient to the design of modern wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) optically routed networks. In this paper, we review the generation and detection of multigigabit/second intensity- and phase-modulated formats and highlight their resilience to key impairments found in optical networking, such as optical amplifier noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, WDM crosstalk, concatenated optical filtering, and fiber nonlinearity View full abstract»

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  • Photonic-Crystal Fibers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 4729 - 4749
    Cited by:  Papers (174)  |  Patents (5)
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    The history, fabrication, theory, numerical modeling, optical properties, guidance mechanisms, and applications of photonic-crystal fibers are reviewed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs