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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1957

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Contents

    Page(s): 129
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  • Yasujiro Niwa, Vice-President, 1957

    Page(s): 130
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  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 131
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  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 132
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  • Radio and Electronics in Brazil

    Page(s): 133
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Controlled Fusion Research-An Application of the Physics of High Temperature Plasmas

    Page(s): 134 - 160
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    Some of the long-range implications and advantages of achieving the production of power from controlled fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and lithium are set forth. The physical conditions which seemingly must be established to accomplish this are presented. These are shown to lead to a situation in which the fusion fuel will exist in the form of a very hot, tenuous, fully ionized gas-i.e., a plasma. It is shown that the required conditions can be maintained only by the use of a force field, for example, a magnetic field, to confine the plasma. A simple example of magnetic confinement¿the pinch effect¿is described. The electrodynamic properties of a fully ionized gas interacting with a magnetic field are briefly outlined. General scaling laws which would probably apply to any operable controlled fusion reactor are given. Examples are cited of fruitless approaches to the achievement of controlled fusion. Some aspects of the problem of "plasma diagnostics" are described to illustrate means for an experimental approach to high temperature plasma physics. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 160
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  • The Measurement and Specification of Nonlinear Amplitude Response Characteristics in Television

    Page(s): 161 - 165
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    With the advent of color television the need for extreme linearity of over-all systems has become apparent. The general problem of the measurement and specification of nonlinear characteristics in television is considered. A function, called the gradient gain of a system, is presented. At a point in the picture for which the gradient gain is positive there is an enhancement (expansion) of the tone rendition. Similarly there is a reduction (compression) in tone rendition when the gradient gain is negative. The gradient gain is a function of the characteristics of the camera tube, picture tube, and purely electronic devices. These characteristics have been defined and methods of measurements suggested in a way which follows most simply from the physical and physiological factors involved. The characteristics of electronic amplifiers are defined so that the extension to color television is readily achieved. The terms "Differential Gain" and "Differential Phase," which have been adopted by the IRE, are defined so that they are applicable to electronic devices, such as amplifiers, used for either monochrome or color television. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Analysis of Coaxial Cables Considering Skin Effect

    Page(s): 166 - 174
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    A transient analysis of coaxial cables is made by considering the skin effect of the center conductor as the distorting element. Generalized curves are presented by which the response of any length of coaxial cable can be predicted if one point on the attenuation vs frequency curve is known. An experimental check on the analysis is made by comparing measurements and prediction of the responses of several different coaxial cables. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 174
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  • The Serrodyne Frequency Translator

    Page(s): 175 - 186
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    A serrodyne frequency translator will translate, or shift, the frequency of a signal in a nearly ideal manner. Linear sawtooth modulation of a transit-time device, such as a traveling-wave tube or klystron, is employed to effect the translation. The power output at the translated frequency is practically equal to the capability of the same device operating as an ordinary amplifier. Furthermore, very little power is produced in undesired intermodulation frequency components. Frequency translations of a microwave signal ranging from subaudio frequencies to 57 megacycles have been accomplished. The translation loss for a translation of about 30 megacycles was less than 1 decibel; moreover, each undesired frequency component was suppressed at least 20 decibels. The serrodyne method can be used at nonmicrowave frequencies and with larger fractional frequency shifts, provided modulable transit-time devices having certain properties can be devised. An analysis is given of serrodyne performance as limited by a number of important practical factors. A general spectrum analysis is included which is in a convenient form for a variety of problems in combined AM and PPM (or combined AM and PM) when arbitrary modulating waveforms are used. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 186
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  • Direct-Coupled-Resonator Filters

    Page(s): 187 - 196
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    A new analysis is given of direct-coupled-resonator filters that results in excellent response at much greater bandwidths than has previously been possible. The method relies on the fact that the coupling elements can be made into perfect impedance inverters, or "quarter-wave" transformers, by the addition of negative elements in lumped-constant circuits, or of short negative lengths of line in waveguide and transmission-line circuits. Specific design formulas are given for filters constructed of lumped-constant elements, waveguide, and strip or other TEM transmission line, and for pass band response functions of the maximally flat and Tchebycheff types. The formulas include a simple frequency transformation that corrects for the frequency sensitivity of the coupling reactances, and thereby greatly improves the design accuracy for both lumpedconstant and microwave types when the bandwidth is more than a few per cent. Exact response curves computed from typical filter designs are compared to the prototype-function response curves, and it is shown that the design formulas give good results with bandwidths of at least 20 per cent in guide wavelength in the case of waveguide filters, or 20 per cent in frequency for TEM-mode transmission-line and lumped-constant filters. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed-Parameter Variable Delay Lines Using Skewed Turns for Delay Equalization

    Page(s): 196 - 204
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    Delay equalization of distributed-parameter delay lines is accomplished by a new method making use of skewed turns in the winding. A simple analysis of the basis for the use of this method of equalization is given, and the performance of experimental variable delay lines is discussed. A brief survey of the artificial-line delay-equalization problem is given with a discussion of some of the alternative methods of solving the problem. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Power Measurements Employing Electron Beam Techniques

    Page(s): 205 - 211
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    A new electron beam technique for measuring microwave power flow, either cw or pulse, in waveguides is described. This technique consists of accelerating an electron beam transversely through an evacuated section of waveguide carrying power in the TE10 mode. The transit time of the electrons is adjusted to a value which gives maximum interaction of the field in the guide with the electrons, i.e., electrons gain maximum energy. The energy gained by the electrons is measured by means of a dc stopping potential which can be related to the field. Power is then calculated from the Poynting vector. The instrument takes the form of a sealed-off vacuum tube having a short section of waveguide as part of the tube. The ends of the waveguide may be sealed using known window techniques. The theory for the ideal case is presented and then means of correcting for the various perturbations present in an actual tube are discussed. The theory and the corrections are verified by experiment. The technique appears to have definite value for monitoring or measuring high- and medium-level cw or pulse-power flow. Theoretically the device is self-calibrating and therefore might make a good primary standard. Its suitability as a primary standard is under further investigation. View full abstract»

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  • VHF Pulse Techniques and Logical Circuitry

    Page(s): 212 - 219
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    Techniques and components for use in systems handling pulses of 10-millimicrosecond width have been investigated. Bandwidth requirements have led to the use of secondary emission pentodes in amplifier service. The limitations of time delay in feedback type circuitry have made necessary the use of special logical reshaping circuits. A test program on commercially available semiconductor diodes resulted in the selection of high-conductance, goldbonded junction diodes for use in switching circuits. Multivibrator circuits have been designed for gating and delay functions. Electromagnetic delay lines of both the coaxial and helical-wound types have been used for delay and for pulse generation. These components have been applied to the design of an arithmetic unit which performs binary addition, multiplication, and dynamic storage at a pulse repetition rate of 50 megacycles per second. View full abstract»

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  • Back-Scattering Characteristics of the Sea in the Region from 10 to 50 KMC

    Page(s): 220 - 228
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    Measurements of radiation back scattering from the ocean have been made over the frequency range from 10 to 50 kmc by means of several cw, Doppler, micro¿ave systems operating simultaneously. The systems were mounted on the bow of a ship and various antenna depression angles from 0° (horizontal) to 90° were used. Data were obtained for vertical, horizontal, and circular polarization, and for the cross-polarized component of vertically polarized radiation. Horn antennas of 20-db gain were used at all of the operating frequencies and, in addition, higher and lower gain antennas were used at certain selected frequencies. Signals recorded from a variety of sea conditions have been used to calculate the back-scattering cross section per unit area, ¿°, and these calculations indicate that ¿° is nearly constant with microwave frequency and increases as the antenna depression angle is increased. The Doppler frequency characteristics of the returned signals have also been obtained from these measurements. A comparison is made between the experimental results and the characteristics predicted from simple scattering mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • Radar Terrain Return at Near-Vertical Incidence

    Page(s): 228 - 238
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    Measurements have demonstrated that, with occasional exceptions, radar return from the ground is largely due to area scatter, even at angles of incidence near the vertical. An expression is derived here for a power superposition integral expressing the mean pulse envelope for the pulse returned from the ground to a radar. This integral is the convolution of the transmitted pulse form in power units with a function which includes effects of antenna pattern, ground properties, and distance. This function is generalized to include the effects of specular reflection and large isolated scatterers, as well as the more prevalent area scatter. While beam-width-limited illumination always results in inverse-square altitude variation for area scatter, it is shown that the variation with altitude for pulse-length-limited illumination varies from inverse-square to inverse-cube, and is a function of altitude as well as of ground properties and antenna pattern. Mean returned pulses are presented for various grounds and antenna orientations. View full abstract»

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  • Operation of a Cold Cathode Gas Triode in a High Impedance Self-Biasing Circuit

    Page(s): 239 - 242
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    It has been found that when a cold cathode gas triode operates in a high impedance grid circuit in the absence of light or any other external radiation, these tubes have a tendency to fire without any triggering signal applied. This unsatisfactory operation is shown to be a function of the rate of rise of voltage and the time delays found in the breakdown of gaseous discharges. It is further shown that operation can be made satisfactory by making the prebreakdown current larger than a certain minimum value. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 243
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 244 - 246
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  • IRE news and radio notes

    Page(s): 246 - 248
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  • Books

    Page(s): 249 - 252
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  • Abstracts of IRE Transactions

    Page(s): 253 - 258
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    The issues of IRE Transactions listed herein have recently been published, and are now available from the Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc. The contents of each issue and, where available, abstracts of technical papers are given. View full abstract»

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  • Abstracts and references

    Page(s): 259 - 272
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope