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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1957

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Contents

    Page(s): 1583 - 1584
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 1585
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Howard R. Hegbar, Director, 1957-1958

    Page(s): 1586
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 1587
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On the Nature of the Electron

    Page(s): 1588 - 1598
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    In this paper the concept of the electron as a fundamental particle of modern physics is discussed in relation to Pauli's exclusion principle, wave mechanics, the uncertainty principle, and relativity. View full abstract»

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  • A Thin Cathode-Ray Tube

    Page(s): 1599 - 1604
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    A new type of cathode-ray tube typically only a few inches thick is described. The beam is injected parallel to one edge of the thin tube and caused to pass through two right-angle deflections: the first sends the beam into the region between the front and back tube surfaces, and the second turns it into the phosphor-coated front surface. A brief analysis of the deflection-focusing action is presented and the sweep-voltage requirements are described. The thin tube can be adapted to multicolor operation or to any other use to which cathode-ray tubes are put; it also has many unique features (in addition to small size), such as the capability of being viewed from both sides of the display screen or being rendered transparent. View full abstract»

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  • New Microwave Repeater System Using a Single Traveling-Wave Tube as Both Amplifier and Local Oscillator

    Page(s): 1604 - 1611
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    This paper describes a new microwave repeater system using one traveling-wave tube as both amplifier and local oscillator. The new system uses a minimum number of vacuum tubes and requires no afc because of the inherent stability of the local oscillator frequency due to the use of a high-Q cavity resonator in the feedback circuit of the traveling-wave tube. The result is marked simplicity in the over-all circuit composition of the repeater equipment. Output power, frequency stability, crosstalk, and other characteristics of the new system are examined. Over-all characteristics are also illustrated by examples, and application of the new system to the 480 telephone channels is mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • The 1959 International Radio Conference

    Page(s): 1618 - 1621
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The International Radio Consultative Committee

    Page(s): 1622 - 1628
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    The International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) will hold its Ninth Plenary Assembly in the United States beginning April 1, 1959. The Eighth Plenary Assembly was held in Warsaw, Poland, from August 9 through September 13, 1956. It was attended by approximately 400 delegates, representatives, experts, and observers from some forty countries that are members of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), sixteen recognized private operating agencies, eight international organizations, and seven scientific or industrial organizations. At the Eighth Plenary Assembly all the fourteen Study Groups of the CCIR held meetings in Warsaw, and the Plenary Assembly adopted 83 Recommendations, 58 Reports, and 19 Resolutions which were put forward by the Study Groups. The program of work for the next three years was also established. This program consists of 71 Questions and 57 Study Programs dealing with all aspects of radio communication, including programs of the transmission, propagation, and reception of electromagnetic waves which arise in the operation of all radio services. The Eighth Plenary Assembly at Warsaw accepted unanimously an invitation to hold the Ninth Plenary Assembly of the CCIR in the United States. This article relates to the results of the Warsaw Assembly in terms of the studies to be undertaken in preparation for the Ninth Plenary Assembly. View full abstract»

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  • A New Wide-Band Balun

    Page(s): 1628 - 1631
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    This paper describes a form of balun which is useful for matching a balanced circuit to an unbalanced circuit of nearly the same impedance over a wide frequency range. The bandwidth increase is obtained by the use of a quarter-wave transmission line section which is placed inside one of the balanced arms, thereby minimizing the over-all physical length. It is shown that a practical balun of this type, designed to match a 50-ohm unbalanced line to a balanced 70-ohm antenna, has a voltage standing-wave ratio of 1.4 or better over a frequency band of about 2.8 to 1. The wide bandwidth, simplicity, and reasonable physical dimensions make the balun particularly useful in connection with the adjustable-length dipole antennas which are generally used for vhf and uhf fieldstrength measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 1631
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  • Synthesis of Lumped Parameter Precision Delay Line

    Page(s): 1632 - 1642
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    In the design of delay lines one can break down the problem into two parts, namely: 1) to provide the required time delay and bandwidth with a least complicated network and 2) to have a good time response. This paper presents such a design technique for precision time domain applications. The network obtained is a tandem connection of a low-pass ladder which provides the shape of time response and an all-pass bridge structure which gives the desired time delay. The approximation to the ideal delay function is based on the potential analog method in both cases. A method of estimating the time domain error from the frequency domain error is used to determine the maximum permissible phase distortion of the all-pass network. View full abstract»

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  • The Principles of JANET-A Meteor-Burst Communication System

    Page(s): 1642 - 1657
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    The JANET system of long-range communication employs VHF radio signals which are forward-scattered by the ionized trails of individual meteors. The propagation characteristics and design considerations of such a system are surveyed in this paper, and preliminary operating experience is summarized. View full abstract»

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  • Bandwidth Considerations in a JANET System

    Page(s): 1658 - 1660
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    Some of the considerations which influence the choice of transmission bandwidth in a JANET system are discussed in this paper. It is shown that the mean rate of transfer of information increases with bandwidth, for bandwidths in the range currently contemplated, in spite of the consequent decrease in the duty cycle. A system designed to maintain a constant snr by varying the bandwidth with received signal power is discussed, and its advantage over a fixed bandwidth system is calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Storage Capacity in Burst-Type Communication Systems

    Page(s): 1661 - 1666
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    The relationship between storage capacity and mean rate of transfer of information is derived for a burst communication system of the JANET type. Specific probability distributions are then assumed for the durations of signals and the intervals between signals. An explicit formula for the mean rate as a function of storage capacity is calculated for these probability distributions. The specific distributions chosen are thought to approximate those which will be found in a typical JANET system. View full abstract»

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  • The Canadian JANET System

    Page(s): 1666 - 1678
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    JANET is a point-to-point communication system based on the forward scattering of radio waves from meteor trails. The properties of the transmission medium are such that special methods are required to take full advantage of them. Factors influencing system design have been discussed elsewhere; it is the purpose of this paper to desdribe a data handling equipment which has been designed for use on a single channel radio teletype link operating on the JANET principle. The equipment is designed for use with double sideband AM radio links having 3-kc bandwidths. Standard 60 wpm teletype machines are used for input and output, and the instantaneous transmission rate is 1300 wpm. View full abstract»

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  • Intermittent Communication with a Fluctuating Signal

    Page(s): 1678 - 1684
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    Intermittent transmission is proposed as a method to combat the effects of signal fading. Message error and average transmission rate are functions of operating bandwidth and threshold signal-to-noise ratio. The method is evaluated for Rayleigh-fading signals, using binary frequency modulation and phase modulation. One variable-bandwidth system is examined. The theoretical advantage (power gain>40 db for a binary error = 10-6) is reduced by practical limitations but should be nearly realized for some systems. View full abstract»

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  • The Utility of Meteor Bursts for Intermittent Radio Communication

    Page(s): 1684 - 1693
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    It has been suggested that the transient vhf signal produced by meteor ionization be used for communication, and several groups have been investigating this possibility. Analysis of the meteor bursts measured on the 49.8-mc transmissions from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, to Sterling, Va., implies that useful intermittent communication can be achieved. Transmission experiments in a 100-kc band have not realized the theoretical capacity of the signal, mostly because of multipath propagation. About half of the meteor bursts observed are unaffected by this distortion, however, so that a useful system of this bandwidth may yet be possible. View full abstract»

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  • A Meteor-Burst System for Extended Range VHF Communications

    Page(s): 1693 - 1700
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    A low-power burst communication system has been designed and tested, utilizing the intermittent propagation path provided by ionized meteor trails. A test circuit has been installed between Bozeman, Mont. (Montana State College), and Palo Alto, Calif. Details of the burst control techniques and storage devices used to handle the intermittent information flow are discussed along with the over-all system design. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Oblique Path Meteor-Propagation Data from the Communications Viewpoint

    Page(s): 1701 - 1707
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    The characteristics of signals reflected from meteor trails have been extensively measured and analyzed to determine their usefulness in communications. The random nature of meteor sizes, radiants, velocities, time of striking the upper atmosphere, showers, etc., make precise determination of the various desirable propagation parameters difficult; however, gross characteristics such as duration, interval between usable signals, antenna direction effects, diurnal rate and duty cycle, and rate of signal decay are presented in a form usable to the design of communications circuits. View full abstract»

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  • An Investigation of Storage Capacity Required for a Meteor-Burst Communications System

    Page(s): 1707 - 1709
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    The storage capacity requirement of a burst-type communications system is analyzed. Two main categories of storage devices, which correspond to the magnetic tape and magnetic core type units currently in use on burst circuits, are considered. Storage units used in the present Stanford Research Institute meteor-burst system are analyzed to determine the loss in over-all systems efficiency imposed by limited capacity of these devices. The equations developed provide a convenient method of assessing the storage requirements of any burst system provided certain of its measured parameters are available. View full abstract»

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  • On the Wavelength Dependence of the Information Capacity of Meteor-Burst Propagation

    Page(s): 1710 - 1714
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    The discontinuous vhf signal, propagated over ranges up to 2000 km by reflections from meteor ionization trails, makes possible an important new technique for radio communication. With this technique, the required transmitter power and antenna sizes are considerably less than for communication by the continuous vhf scatter signal supported by smaller meteors and other scattering sources in the lower E region. The wavelength dependence of the information capacity of meteor-burst propagation is approximately ¿2.7, which may be compared to approximately ¿4.7 for the continuous signal. Thus, by adding the complexity in the terminal equipment needed for discontinuous operation, meteor-burst communication can fill an important need at the same wavelengths that are used in ionospheric-scatter communication, and can be used at shorter wavelengths than are feasible with continuous scatter. This extension to shorter wavelengths should make it possible to reduce the interference problem now being encountered in the lower vhf band, and to greatly increase the number of channels available for reliable longrange communication. View full abstract»

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  • Directional Characteristics of Meteor Propagation Derived from Radar Measurements

    Page(s): 1715 - 1723
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    The directivity of radio reflections from meteor trails and the distribution of trail orientations (radiants) control the directional properties of meteor propagation. Because of the geometrical correspondence between radar and oblique path detection of meteors, the directional properties of meteor propagation can be determined from the range and azimuth distributions of the echoes detected by a radar system. The gross features of these directional properties for an east-west path in northern temperate latitudes are such that¿for maximum circuit duty cycle (product of number of echoes and their average duration)¿the antenna beams at the transmitter and receiver should be pointed north of the great circle bearing during the morning hours and south of this bearing during the evening. The optimum off-path angle may vary from a few degrees to greater than 20°. For a north-south path, the beams should be pointed west of the path at night and east of the path during the day, for maximum duty cycle. These gross features appear to repeat each day. In addition, short-term fluctuations in the radiant distribution have been noted, some of these fluctuations presumably being due to heretofore undetected meteor showers of very short duration. It appears that the information capacity of meteor burst and ionospheric scatter communication systems could be markedly increased by varying the bearings of the antenna beams according to the known diurnal variations in meteor radiants. View full abstract»

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  • On the Influence of Meteor-Radiant Distributions in Meteor-Scatter Communication

    Page(s): 1724 - 1733
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    The relative effectiveness of various regions of the atmosphere in furnishing usable meteor trails is examined on the basis of several distributions of meteor radiants. An idealized distribution in which the radiants lie near the ecliptic is analyzed and the results compared with previous calculations for a uniform radiant distribution. Experimental data on a 250-km link between Knoxville, Tenn., and Atlanta, Ga., show evidence of a rather diffuse concentration of radiants near the ecliptic. A method for predicting the contributions of meteor showers to forward-scatter propagation is developed. As an example the August Perseid shower is studied on the Knoxville-Atlanta link. Experimental data show good agreement with the shower analysis. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope