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Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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  • An Effective P2P Search Scheme to Exploit File Sharing Heterogeneity

    Page(s): 145 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the original intent of the peer-to-peer (P2P) concept is to treat each participant equally, heterogeneity widely exists in deployed P2P networks. Peers are different from each other in many aspects, such as bandwidth, CPU power, and storage capacity. Some approaches have been proposed to take advantage of the query forwarding heterogeneity such that the high bandwidth of powerful nodes can be fully utilized to maximize the system capacity. In this paper, we suggest using the query answering heterogeneity to directly improve the search efficiency of P2P networks. In our proposed differentiated search (DiffSearch) algorithm, the peers with high query answering capabilities will have higher priority to be queried. Because the query answering capabilities are extremely unbalanced among peers, a high query success rate can be achieved by querying only a small portion of a network. The search traffic is significantly reduced due to the shrunken search space. Our trace analysis and simulation show that the DiffSearch algorithm can save up to 60 percent of search traffic View full abstract»

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  • Timeliness-Accuracy Balanced Collection of Dynamic Context Data

    Page(s): 158 - 171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the future, we are likely to see a tremendous need for context-aware applications which adapt to available context information such as physical surroundings, network, or system conditions. We aim to provide a fundamental support for these applications - a real-time context information collection service. This service delivers the right context information to the right user at the right time. The complexity of providing the real-time context information service arises from 1) the dynamically changing status of information sources, 2) the diverse user requirements in terms of data accuracy and service latency, and 3) constantly changing system conditions. In this paper, we take into consideration these dynamics and focus on addressing the trade-offs between timeliness, accuracy, and cost for information collection in distributed real-time environments. We propose a middleware-based approach to enable a judicious composition of services for accuracy-aware scheduling and cost-aware database maintenance. Specifically, we characterize the problem in terms of quality-of-service satisfaction (QoSSat), quality-of-data satisfaction (QoDSat), and cost. We propose a middleware framework for the real-time information collection process, where the information mediator coordinates and facilitates communication between information sources and consumers. We design a family of algorithms for real-time request scheduling, request servicing, and directory service maintenance to be implemented at the mediator to support QoSSat and QoDSat. Our studies indicate that the composition of our proposed scheduling algorithm and directory service maintenance policy can improve the overall efficiency of the system. We also observe that the proposed policies perform very well as the system scales in the number of information sources and consumer requests View full abstract»

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  • Handling Topology Changes in InfiniBand

    Page(s): 172 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    InfiniBand is a high-performance switched network. Its topology may change due to devices being turned on/off, hot expansion, link remapping, and component failures. The InfiniBand specification defines a management infrastructure which is responsible for detecting and assimilating any change in the network. When a change occurs, management entities must update switch forwarding tables, in order to maintain the connectivity among end nodes. This implies the acquisition of the current topology and the computation of a new set of routes accordingly. It is desirable that the execution of this process does not affect the performance of the upper-level applications that are using the network. In previous works, we have proposed enhanced implementations for the main tasks involved in the assimilation of a change. Now, we present a detailed performance evaluation of a management mechanism which incorporates all our proposals View full abstract»

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  • Localized Operations for Distributed Minimum Energy Multicast Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Page(s): 186 - 198
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To explore the advantages of power saving offered by the wireless multicast advantage property, we consider the case of source-initiated multicast traffic. Current research activity for the minimum energy multicast (MEM) problem has been focused on devising efficient centralized greedy algorithms for static ad hoc networks. In this paper, we consider mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) that use omnidirectional antennas and have limited energy resources. We propose the design and initial evaluation of the distributed minimum energy multicast (DMEM) algorithm for MANETs that attempts to reduce as much as possible the total RF energy required by the multicast communication. Several localized operations are presented for the DMEM algorithm, in which each node requires only the knowledge of and distances to all neighboring tree nodes. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that these operations are very efficient both in terms of energy saving and operation overhead View full abstract»

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  • Mobility Limited Flip-Based Sensor Networks Deployment

    Page(s): 199 - 211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An important phase of sensor networks operation is deployment of sensors in the field of interest. Critical goals during sensor networks deployment include coverage, connectivity, load balancing, etc. A class of work has recently appeared, where mobility in sensors is leveraged to meet deployment objectives. In this paper, we study deployment of sensor networks using mobile sensors. The distinguishing feature of our work is that the sensors in our model have limited mobilities. More specifically, the mobility in the sensors we consider is restricted to a flip, where the distance of the flip is bounded. We call such sensors as flip-based sensors. Given an initial deployment of flip-based sensors in a field, our problem is to determine a movement plan for the sensors in order to maximize the sensor network coverage and minimize the number of flips. We propose a minimum-cost maximum-flow-based solution to this problem. We prove that our solution optimizes both the coverage and the number of flips. We also study the sensitivity of coverage and the number of flips to flip distance under different initial deployment distributions of sensors. We observe that increased flip distance achieves better coverage and reduces the number of flips required per unit increase in coverage. However, such improvements are constrained by initial deployment distributions of sensors due to the limitations on sensor mobility View full abstract»

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  • Multimedia Object Placement for Transparent Data Replication

    Page(s): 212 - 224
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    Transparent data replication is a promising technique for improving the system performance of a large distributed network. Transcoding is an important technology which adapts the same multimedia object to diverse mobile appliances; thus, users' requests for a specified version of a multimedia object could be served by a more detailed version cached according to transcoding. Therefore, it is particularly of theoretical and practical necessity to determine the proper version to be cached at each node such that the specified objective is achieved. In this paper, we address the problem of multimedia object placement for transparent data replication. The performance objective is to minimize the total access cost by considering both transmission cost and transcoding cost. We present optimal solutions for different cases for this problem. The performance of the proposed solutions is evaluated with a set of carefully designed simulation experiments for various performance metrics over a wide range of system parameters. The simulation results show that our solution consistently and significantly outperforms comparison solutions in terms of all the performance metrics considered View full abstract»

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  • Feedback-Based Adaptive Packet Marking for Proportional Bandwidth Allocation

    Page(s): 225 - 239
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Differentiated service (DiffServ) networks have been proposed to assure the achievable minimum bandwidth to aggregate flows. However, analyses in the literature show that the current DiffServ networks are biased in favor of ah aggregate flow that has a smaller committed information rate (CIR) when aggregate flows with different CIRs share a bottleneck link. In order to mitigate this unfairness problem, we propose an adaptive marking scheme which provides the relative bandwidth assurance in proportion to the CIRs of the aggregates. By introducing a virtual target rate (VTR) and adjusting it depending on the provision level of the network, each aggregate can obtain its fair share of the bandwidth, regardless of traffic load. This scheme is based on a feedback approach. It utilizes only two-bit feedback information conveyed in the packet header and can be implemented in a distributed manner. Furthermore, the proposed scheme does not require calculating fair shares of aggregates or any additional signaling protocol. Using steady state analysis and extensive simulations, we show that the scheme can provide aggregate flows with their fair shares of bandwidth, which is proportional to the CIRs, under various network conditions View full abstract»

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  • uCast: Unified Connectionless Multicast for Energy Efficient Content Distribution in Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 240 - 250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2777 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present uCast, a novel multicast protocol for energy efficient content distribution in sensor networks. We design uCast to support a large number of multicast sessions, especially when the number of destinations in a session is small. In uCast, we do not keep any state information relevant to ongoing multicast deliveries at intermediate nodes. Rather, we directly encode the multicast information in the packet headers and parse these headers at intermediate nodes using a scoreboard algorithm proposed in this paper. We demonstrate that 1) uCast is powerful enough to support multiple addressing and unicast routing schemes and 2) uCast is robust, efficient, and scalable in the face of changes in network topology, such as those introduced by energy conservation protocols. We systematically evaluate the performance of uCast through simulations, compare it with other state-of-the-art protocols, and collect preliminary data from a running system based on the Berkeley motes platform View full abstract»

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  • Throughput Region of Finite-Buffered Networks

    Page(s): 251 - 263
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the current communication networks, including the Internet, are packet switched networks. One of the main reasons behind the success of packet switched networks is the possibility of performance gain due to multiplexing of network bandwidth. The multiplexing gain crucially depends on the size of the buffers available at the nodes of the network to store packets at the congested links. However, most of the previous work assumes the availability of infinite buffer-size. In this paper, we study the effect of finite buffer-size on the performance of networks of interacting queues. In particular, we study the throughput of flow-controlled loss-less networks with finite buffers. The main result of this paper is the characterization of a dynamic scheduling policy that achieves the maximal throughput with a minimal finite buffer at the internal nodes of the network under memory-less (e.g., Bernoulli IID) exogenous arrival process. However, this ideal performance policy is rather complex and, hence, difficult to implement. This leads us to the design of a simpler and possibly implementable policy. We obtain a natural trade-off between throughput and buffer-size for such implementable policy. Finally, we apply our results to packet switches with buffered crossbar architecture View full abstract»

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  • A Message Scheduling Scheme for All-to-All Personalized Communication on Ethernet Switched Clusters

    Page(s): 264 - 276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a message scheduling scheme for efficiently realizing all-to-all personalized communication (AAPC) on Ethernet switched clusters with one or more switches. To avoid network contention and achieve high performance, the message scheduling scheme partitions AAPC into phases such that 1) there is no network contention within each phase and 2) the number of phases is minimum. Thus, realizing AAPC with the contention-free phases computed by the message scheduling algorithm can potentially achieve the minimum communication completion time. In practice, phased AAPC schemes must introduce synchronizations to separate messages in different phases. We investigate various synchronization mechanisms and various methods for incorporating synchronizations into the AAPC phases. Experimental results show that the message scheduling-based AAPC implementations with proper synchronization consistently achieve high performance on clusters with many different network topologies when the message size is large View full abstract»

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  • VMNet: Realistic Emulation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 277 - 288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many research activities on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) need detailed performance statistics about protocols, systems, and applications; however, current simulation tools and testbeds lack mechanisms to report these statistics realistically and conveniently. To address this need, we have developed a WSN emulator, VMNet. VMNet emulates networked sensor nodes at the level of CPU clock cycles and executes the binary code of real applications directly. It emulates the radio channel with loss and noise as well as emulates the peripherals in sufficient detail. Moreover, VMNet takes parameter values from the real world and logs detailed runtime information of emulated nodes. Consequently, the application performance, both in response time and in power consumption, is reported realistically in VMNet, as demonstrated by our comparison studies with real sensor networks View full abstract»

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  • TPDS Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) is published monthly. It publishes a range of papers, comments on previously published papers, and survey articles that deal with the parallel and distributed systems research areas of current importance to our readers.

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Editor-in-Chief
David Bader
College of Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology