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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 6 • Date June 1956

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Contents

    Page(s): 733
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  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 734 - 735
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  • John R. Whinnery, Director, 1956-1958

    Page(s): 736
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  • Poles and Zeros

    Page(s): 737
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  • The IGY Program

    Page(s): 741 - 743
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    This paper presents very briefly the nature and origin of the International Geophysical Year, and in more detail two areas of special interest: rocket studies of the upper atmosphere, and satellite studies. It brings out the scientific basis for the satellite program and the development of U. S. interest in launching a satellite for scientific observations. The present status of the program is commented on briefly. View full abstract»

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  • The Exploration of Outer Space with an Earth Satellite

    Page(s): 744 - 747
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    Sometime during the coming geophysical year (July, 1957 to December, 1958) an attempt will be made to launch an artificial satellite in an orbit around the earth. The Office of Naval Research has been assigned the responsibility to perform this task and has established Project VANGUARD in the Naval Research Laboratory to carry it out. The Department of Defense turned to the Navy to manage this triservice project because of its extensive experience in upper-atmosphere research with rockets. The satellite which Project VANGUARD intends to launch in an orbit is a small one, yet must be a research vehicle. The National Committee for the IGY of the National Academy of Sciences has established a panel which is concerned with the nature of the scientific experiments to be done in the vehicle. Work is in progress not only on the vehicles, but on the experiments to be done in the satellite. Experiments conducted in an artificial earth satellite circling the earth in the outer tenuous region of our atmosphere can greatly increase our knowledge of the atmosphere-its structure, its constituents, and the powerful radiations both electromagnetic and corpuscular that impinge upon it and help determine its state. View full abstract»

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  • Placing the Satellite in Its Orbit

    Page(s): 748 - 751
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    The VANGUARD satellite launching vehicle is a three-stage rocket of which the first two stages are guided and the third stage is maintained in a fixed orientation while it is firing. The first stage, an improved Viking, serves primarily to raise the remaining stages to altitude. The second stage, another liquid-propellant rocket, contains the guidance for the three-stage vehicle and, in addition, supplies some of the propulsive energy. The third stage, a solid-propellant rocket, is ejected from the second stage at orbital altitude and provides about half of the required orbital velocity. The VANGUARD launching vehicle system was chosen from a number of possible two- and three-stage vehicle combinations. It represents the smallest satellite launching vehicle consistent with the present state of rocket development. View full abstract»

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  • Telemetering and Propagation Problems of Placing the Earth Satellite in Its Orbit

    Page(s): 752 - 754
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    The earth satellite vehicle telemetering requirements are briefly presented. Primary problems are propagation over extended ranges utilizing light weight transmitters, diversity of equipment needs during the testing phase, reliability, and complexity of operations. Some of the general considerations and planning are given. View full abstract»

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  • Tracking the Earth Satellite, and Data Transmission, by Radio

    Page(s): 755 - 760
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    The next round of problems created by an earth satellite after it is placed in its orbit are those associated with proving that the satellite is in fact orbiting, and the measurement of its orbit. The magnitude of these problems for optical methods is discussed, and the Minitrack system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for acquisition and tracking of the satellite by radio techniques is described. A sub-miniature radio transmitter operating continuously for at least two weeks will be provided within the satellite to illuminate antennas at ground tracking stations. By phase-comparison techniques, these ground stations will measure the angular position of the satellite as it passes through the antenna beam, recording its "signature" automatically without the need for initial tracking information. Analysis of this signature will provide the complete angular history of the satellite passage in the form of direction cosines and time. These data will be transmitted immediately to a central computing facility for the computation and publication of ephemerides. Specific ephemerides will be transmitted to each principal optical tracking station to provide acquisition data to them. The probable tracking accuracies and the major problems associated with the Minitrack System are described. View full abstract»

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  • A Research Program Based on the Optical Tracking of Artificial Earth Satellites

    Page(s): 760 - 764
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    The tracking of artificial earth satellites is here viewed as an integrated research program. The physical and orbital specifications of the first U. S. satellites are assumed in the tracking program planned under an assignment made to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory by the IGY Satellite Committee of the National Academy of Sciences. The optical program involves early acquisition tracking by (radio or) visual means, frequent orbit calculations, ephemeris predictions for the precise photographic tracking, the establishment and operation of 12 to 15 precision photographic stations over the earth, operation of a communication net, and both current and final analysis of the positional data for important geophysical results. Such results include density determinations in the high atmosphere, geodetic system calibrations over the earth, shape of the geoid, isostasy investigations, and other geodetic studies to a precision an order of magnitude greater than presently possible. View full abstract»

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  • The Scientific Value of the Earth Satellite Program

    Page(s): 764 - 767
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    Planning for the fullest possible scientific utilization of the initial group of U. S. satellites is proceeding actively under the supervision of the National Academy of Sciences and its appropriate Panels and Working Groups. An inert satellite, tracked from an array of ground stations, will provide a means of unprecedented precision for the determination of the geodetic figure of the earth, for the transoceanic linkage of mapping networks, and for the measurement of atmospheric density at very high altitudes. A variety of physical observations with active, on-board instrumentation has been considered. The highest "flight-priority" has been assigned to the following:a) the monitoring of the intensity of the solar ultraviolet; b) the monitoring of cosmic ray intensity and the measurement of its latitude, longitude, and altitude dependence; c) the measurement of the size spectrum and the number density of interplanetary dust; and d) the measurement of the earth's optical albedo over large areas. A concerted attack on the technical problems of successful on-board observations is being made. View full abstract»

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  • Television Sweep Generation with Resonant Networks and Lines

    Page(s): 768 - 775
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    The synthesis of a current sawtooth from a limited number of first harmonics has been studied. It was found that good linearity is easier to obtain than a fast retrace. Scan distortion may be held below 5 per cent over 80 per cent of scan, by adding only 4 harmonics in a "least square" proportion. Fast flyback, on the other hand, requires 8 harmonics to be usable for commercial television. Several practical systems for resonant sweep have been tested. All circuits used shock excitation of multiresonant networks by pulses of current. Both pentodes and small hydrogen thyratrons were used successfully. The best multiresonator for synthetic sweep is a delay-line, 3 per cent shorter than a halfwave long and shorted at the far end. To minimize dispersion, a "slanting wafer" type of construction has been developed which permits control of mutual without effect on self-inductance. View full abstract»

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  • IRE Standards on Facsimile: Definitions of Terms, 1956

    Page(s): 776 - 781
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Docile Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers

    Page(s): 781 - 787
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    A docile amplifier is one that remains stable when connected to any passive network of a specified class. A simplified geometrical approach is used to derive the docility criteria for passive-end-loading, ideal-transformer feedback, bilateral passive feedback, and arbitrary passive feedback. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Bandwidth

    Page(s): 788 - 790
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    The concept of "bandwidth" is commonly used as a measure of the range of frequencies over which a network has an approximately constant gain. In this note the notion of bandwidth is extended to networks with arbitrary transfer characteristics. Specifically, it is defined in terms of the maximum allowable variance of the output of a network (to within a multiplicative constant) from that of an "ideal" network, the input being a band-limited signal. The maxum bandwidth of such an input signal is termed the bandwidth of the network under consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Microwave Dielectric Constants and Tensor Permeabilities of Ferrite Spheres

    Page(s): 790 - 800
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    The Bethe-Schwinger cavity perturbation theory is applied to measurements of the microwave dielectric constants and tensor permeabilities of small spherical samples of ferrites. For the dielectric constant measurements, a cavity opened at a position of minimum transverse wall currents is used. A frequency-shift method is used for measuring the real part of the dielectric constant and a cavity-transmission method is used for measurement of the loss tangent. Circularly-polarized cavity methods yield effective scalar permeabilities of which the real and the imaginary parts are measured in a manner similar to the dielectric measurements. These scalar permeabilities yield sufficient information to describe completely the tensor components. Experimental data are given for a polycrystalline magnesium-manganese ferrite, to illustrate the techniques described. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of AGC on Radar Tracking Noise

    Page(s): 801 - 810
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    Radar angle tracking noise, such as that due to angular and amplitude scintillation of the target echo, is increased by the response of the receiver agc (automatic gain control) to the low frequency components of the fading of the echo envelope. An increase in angle tracking noise spectral density by a factor of two to three is representative of what can happen when the radar echo envelope is approximately Rayleigh distributed. This phenomenon has been investigated by analog simulation of the agc, both for an ordinary linear filter in the feedback path and for a nonlinear filter with quick attack and slow release in the loop. Since the increase in tracking noise decreases monotonically with increasing agc time constant, an analysis is presented to describe a particular basic problem which requires the agc time constant to be kept short, namely, the transient rise in average signal strength encountered by a radar when closing rapidly on a target. In fixing the agc time constant, a compromise must be reached between increase in tracking noise and the transient increase in mean output signal strength. Whatever considerations motivate a particular choice of agc time constant, the effect of the agc on angle noise spectral density can be determined from the curves presented. The results obtained show that the use of the nonlinear filter with quick attack and slow release does actually produce the desired result of reducing the transient rise in output signal strength while keeping the increase in noise spectral density constant. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Noisy Fourpoles

    Page(s): 811 - 818
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    The well-known theory of fourpoles only comprises passive fourpoles and active fourpoles with internal sources of sinusoidal currents or voltages of defined frequencies. This theory is now completed for fourpoles with internal noise sources. Simple equivalent circuits are derived for such networks. They consist of the original but noise-free fourpole cascaded with a preceding noise fourpole in which all noise-sources are concentrated. The latter contains the equivalent noise conductance G., the equivalent noise resistance Rn and the complex correlation admittance Ycor. With these quantities the noise behavior of any desired fourpole can be described sufficiently. In particular it is possible to calculate the noise figure F and its dependence on the matching conditions to the signal source of a single fourpole or a group of cascaded fourpoles. The methods of experimental determination of the elements of the noise fourpoles are discussed. The same theory is also useful for mixer-circuits as well as fortraveling-wave tubes and transistors, as application results are given for grid controlled electron tubes. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 818 - 819
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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 820
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 821 - 823
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  • IRE news and radio notes

    Page(s): 824 - 828
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  • Books

    Page(s): 828 - 830
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  • Abstracts of IRE Transactions

    Page(s): 830 - 833
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    The issues of IRE Transactions listed herein have recently been published, and are now available from the Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc. The contents of each issue and, where available, abstracts of technical papers are given. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope