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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 4 • Date April 1956

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Contents

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 453
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  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 454
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  • Poles and Zeros

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 455
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  • Donald G. Fink, Editor, 1956

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 456
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  • Electronic Music

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 457 - 478
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    The three attributes of musical sound, pitch, loudness and timbre, are discussed in relation to their counterparts in an electrical signal, frequency, amplitude and harmonic spectrum. Although electrical devices can control these quantities simply according to the explicit instructions contained in written music, that is, to provide the "bare essentials" of a musical performance, it is more difficult to produce the complex patterns of frequency, amplitude and harmonic spectrum actually found in a musical performance on well known instruments. Control of the build up and decay of each note, arbitrary deviations of pitch, vibrato of varying rates and amounts, and a "choir effect" of random pattern of beats are required. Various means of achieving these effects are discussed, first in the electronic organ and then in various "monophonic" or single-note instruments. Finally, coded-performance of "synthetic music" devices are described, including those used by the Musique Concrete Group of Paris, and the Cologne Studio for Electronic Music. View full abstract»

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  • Transistors versus Vacuum Tubes

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 479 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • The Cryotron-A Superconductive Computer Component

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 482 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
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    The study of nonlinearities in nature suitable for computer use has led to the cryotron, a device based on the destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field. The cryotron, in its simplest form, consists of a straight piece of wire about one inch long with a single-layer control winding wound over it. Current in the control winding creates a magnetic field which causes the central wire to change from its superconducting state to its normal state. The device has current gain, that is, a small current can control a larger current; it has power gain so that cryotrons can be interconnected in logical networks as active elements. The device is also small, light, easily fabricated, and dissipates very little power. View full abstract»

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  • Factors Affecting Reliability of Alloy Junction Transistors

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 494 - 502
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Oxygen and water vapor, when individually in contact with the transistor surface, have been found to cause substantial and generally opposite changes in the characteristics of germanium alloy junction transistors. These changes, however, are reversible: by means of vacuum baking a reproducible set of characteristics can be repeatedly reestablished after water vapor or oxygen has caused a large change in the characteristics. Very pure forms of other ordinary gases, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium, are found to have no effect on these transistors. Very nearly ideal time stability of characteristics can be obtained, even under severe aging conditions, when water vapor and oxygen are completely removed and permanently excluded from the transistor surface, although under some circumstances a very pure atmosphere of oxygen (or air) may be desirable for the p-n-p transistor. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Detector

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 503 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A new microwave detector is described which possesses extremely large bandwidth capabilities in addition to being free from power limitations. The sensitivity is comparable to that of a crystal. This new device operates on the electron beam of a traveling wave tube as a velocity sorter by utilizing the stop-band phenomenon of a periodic magnetic focusing system. The electrons are sorted according to their rf velocity modulation and thus the collector current is a function of the microwave power in the beam. Several important related devices are discussed including a high level mixer. View full abstract»

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  • Increasing the Reliability of Electronic Equipment by the Use of Redundant Circuits

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 509 - 515
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Electronic equipments which employ large numbers of tubes and components are often unreliable because a large number of parts may fail. A means of countering the undesirable effects of increasing equipment complexity is by introducing even more tubes and components as redundant circuitry. A requirement for obtaining the conditions, in which redundancy is helpful is for the causes of failure of parts to be independent. This calls for circuits to be designed so that as parts fail, their failure will not cause others to fail. The equations relating reliability to the number of circuit elements in the redundant and nonredundant cases are derived and applied to examples which show the degree of improvement which can be achieved. It is shown that equipment having hundreds of tubes could be made sufficiently reliable to satisfy most requirements. This greatly increased reliability can be maintained indefinitely by providing maintenance periods during which replacements are made for the parts which have failed while the operation has continued satisfactorily, the faulty condition having been obscured by the redundancy. This latter property of redundant circuit must be considered when establishing maintenance doctrines for equipment using these principles, since operational tests do not usually indicate the presence of faulty components or tubes. Rather, each tube and component must be temporarily disconnected from its redundant counterpart for the purposes of the test. View full abstract»

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  • Transformer "Miniaturization" Using Fluorochemical Liquids and Conduction Techniques

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 515 - 520
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Reduction of size and weight in electronic type transformers to keep pace with miniaturization in other phases of electronic component designing has led directly to higher temperature operation. Temperatures in the region of 185°C require inorganic materials throughout, including where used, the dielectric coolant. Design details and materials performance in "miniaturized" electronic type transformers are discussed in this paper. Specific Class A transformers are redesigned using these new techniques, thus giving size comparison. View full abstract»

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  • IRE Standards on Electron Devices: Definitions of Terms Related to Storage Tubes, 1956

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 521 - 522
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  • A Systems Approach to Electronic Reliability

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 523 - 528
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    Certain broad general principles of electronic reliability become obvious when reliability is viewed as one of a number of important aspects of the broad general problem of achieving most efficient and effective performance of some desired task using electronic equipment. 1) The reliability of an electronic device or system depends not only upon the intrinsic properties of the device, but also on the tasks it is required to perform, the characteristics of the demand for performance, and the conditions under which successful performance of the tasks is demanded. 2) The over-all reliability objective is not merely the prevention of failures; instead it is the achievement of successful system performance. 3) Failure is important only because of its effect on the external situation, and it is not important in itself. These principles are perhaps so self-evident as to sound like platitudes, yet their implications are seldom fully recognized. Accepting them as valid leads to the conclusion that to attempt to insure success merely by improving the failure characteristics of individual parts of an equipment or system is to neglect many fascinating and attractive approaches to reliability improvement. The achievement of successful, failure-resistant systems is the type of problem suitable for attack by the classic scientific method and by specific techniques used in operations research. A rationale for the development of reliable systems is developed from such a viewpoint and presented in the form of a system development check-list. View full abstract»

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  • A Magnetic Thyratron Grid Control Circuit

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 529 - 532
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    A new compact magnetic method for driving thyratron grids has recently simplified high-power fast response servos and regulated power supplies. Since large power gain is available in the thyratron, power amplification can be sacrificed in the magnetic circuit to gain speed of response comparable to the thyratron inverse cycle. The new grid circuit provides a rapid rate of rise of thyratron firing voltage, widecontrol range and high-voltage amplification. It eliminates from the grid circuit most of the usual interference and "noise" pick-up. Dc or ac input signals to the magnetic circuit work equally well, and the signal voltage source can be isolated from the power circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 532
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  • Analysis of a Regenerative Amplifier with Distributed Amplification

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 533 - 534
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    It is shown that regenerative circuits of the discontinuous-output type such as the monostable multivibrator do not have their high speed performance improved by the use of distributed amplification in the amplifier portion. View full abstract»

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  • Keep-Alive Instabilities in a TR Switch

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 535 - 538
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The reliability of a pulse radar system is often reduced by intermittent burnout of the receiver crystal. It has been found that one possible cause of this is the occurrence in the Transmit-Receive (TR) switch of occasional transitions from a glow to an arc of the keep-alive gas discharge. Following a transition, the keep-alive discharge is extinguished for a period of the order of fifty microseconds, during which time the protection afforded by the switch is greatly reduced. Methods of preventing this effect have been applied to TR cells. In the best method, two keep-alive electrodes are fitted to the same cell. This considerably reduces the chances of the cell being without a keep-alive discharge at any time. Cells of a particular design originally protected crystals for less than 100 hours, and this was attributed to the occurrence of glow-arc transitions. After modification as above, crystal protection for more than 2,000 hours was obtained. View full abstract»

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  • The Optimum Tapered Transmission Line Matching Section

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 539 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (2)
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    The tapered transmission line matching section is analyzed by treating it as a high pass filter. The ideal reflection coefficient characteristic for the taper that gives the smallest pass band tolerance for a given cutoff frequency and vice versa is derived from the expression for the reflection coefficient of the optimum designed n section quarter-wave transformer by taking the limit as n tends to infinity. By neglecting the square of the reflection coefficient in the differential equation for the reflection coefficient on the taper, a synthesis procedure is derived for obtaining an optimum taper. The procedure is similar to that used in designing an optimum line source distribution in antenna theory. Conditions are derived for the maximum allowable pass band reflection and change in impedance level for which the theory remains accurate. For a maimum reflection coefficient of 0.1 in the pass band the theory remains accurate for all frequencies above the cutoff value provided the change in impedance level does not exceed 7.5. This optimum taper is compared with the well-known exponential and Gaussian tapers and is found to be 13.9 per cent and 27 per cent shorter respectively for the same cutoff frequency and pass band tolerance. View full abstract»

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  • A New Annular Waveguide Rotary Joint

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 548 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    A new waveguide rotary joint has been designed which will permit multiple stacking of similar joints on a common axis. The rotary joint of annular waveguide design will carry high power and permit low vswr and low insertion loss operation throughout the full rotation. The theory, design, and characteristics of such a joint are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Double-Slab Ferrite Field Displacement Isolator at 11 KMC

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 554 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    A double-slab ferrite field displacement isolator has been constructed for the 10.7-11.7 kmc band with the following performance: reverse loss of 70 db from 10.8-11.7 kmc and 64 db at 10.7 kmc; forward loss less than 1 db, except 1-1.2 db between 11.6 and 11.7 kmc; vswr less than 1.15, except 1.15-1.20 between 11.6 and 11.7 kmc; variation in forward loss less than 0.1 db for any 20 mc channel. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 556 - 558
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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 558 - 560
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  • IRE news and radio notes

    Publication Year: 1956
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  • Books

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 576 - 578
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  • 1956 IRE Convention Record

    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 578
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope