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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1952

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1952
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  • The Transistor Issue

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 1283
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)

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  • Transistor Lineage

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 1284
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  • Transistors in Our Civilian Economy

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1285 - 1286
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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  • Transistors and the Military

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1287 - 1288
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Transistor Electronics: Imperfections, Unipolar and Analog Transistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1289 - 1313
    Cited by:  Papers (56)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5754 KB)

    The electronic mechanisms that are of chief interest in transistor electronics are discussed from the point of view of solid-state physics. The important concepts of holes, electrons, donors, acceptors, and deathnium (recomibination center for holes and electrons) are treated from a unified viewpoint as imperfections in a nearly perfect crystal. The behavior of an excess electron as a negative par... View full abstract»

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  • Present Status of Transistor Development

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1314 - 1326
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6346 KB)

    The invention of the transistor provided a simple, apparently rugged device that could amplify-an ability which the vacuum tube had long monopolized. As with most new electron devices, however, a number of extremely practical limitations had to be overcome before the transistor could be regarded as a practical circuit element. In particular, the reproducibility of units was poorunits intended to b... View full abstract»

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  • Properties of Silicon and Germanium

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1327 - 1337
    Cited by:  Papers (88)
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    This article provides the latest experimental information on those fundamental properties of germanium and silicon which are of device interest, currently or potentially. Electrical properties, especially carrier density and mobility, have been treated in greatest detail. Descriptive material has been provided to the extent necessary to give physical background. View full abstract»

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  • Preparation of Germanium Single Crystals

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1338 - 1341
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Single crystals of germanium have been prepared by two methods using a vacuum furnace (~5×10-6 mm Hg pressure) with induction heating. In the first method nucleation is induced at the upper surface of the melt by producing the necessary heat gradient, and a single crystal is grown in the crucible by controlling the rate of cooling. In the second method molten germanium is seeded with a single cry... View full abstract»

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  • P-N Junctions by Impurity Introduction Through an Intermediate Metal Layer

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1341 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB)

    This paper describes an experimental method for making p-n junctions by alloying and diffusing indium into n-type germanium through an intermediate thin layer of some other metal, such as gold, which has been plated on the germanium. The junction characteristics are similar to those of junctions made by other methods, but the shape may be clearly defined and controlled. New possibilities of differ... View full abstract»

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  • Lifetime of Injected Carriers in Germanium

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1342 - 1347
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
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    A method is described for the determination of the lifetime of injected carriers in a semiconductor by measuring the variation of the sample conductance after a voltage pulse has produced excess carriers. Volume and surface recombinations are separated by varying the sample dimensions. It is shown that carefully etched surfaces give very small surface-recombination velocity. The lifetime in high-r... View full abstract»

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  • Silicon P-N Junction Alloy Diodes

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1348 - 1351
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2508 KB)

    A new type of p-n junction silicon diode has been prepared by alloying acceptor or donor impurities with n- or p-type silicon. The unique features of this diode are: (a) reverse currents as low as 10-10 amperes, (b) rectification ratios as high as 108 at 1 volt, (c) a Zener characteristic in which d(log I)/d(log V) may be an high as 1,500 over several decades of current, (d) a stable Zener voltage... View full abstract»

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  • A Developmental Germanium P-N-P Junction Transistor

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1352 - 1357
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    A developmental germaniump-n-p junction transistor that may be readily made in the laboratory by alloying indium into opposite faces of a wafer of single-crystal n-type germanium is described. It is shown that this laboratory technique gives experimental transistors with desirable characteristics. Distribution curves of measured characteristics are given for a typical run of 118 units made and tes... View full abstract»

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  • Fused Impurity P-N-P Junction Transistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1358 - 1360
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    Fused impurity p-n-p junction transistors have been made which exhibit the useful circuit characteristics of high-gain, low-noise figure and alpha slightly less than unity. Such transistors are well adapted for application involving high ambient temperatures or high dissipation levels since alpha remains very nearly constant up to 120 degrees C and decreases somewhat above this temperature, permit... View full abstract»

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  • Four-Terminal P-N-P-N Transistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1361 - 1364
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB)

    The equivalent circuit of a p-n-p-n transistor is obtained. It is demonstrated that a p-n-p transistor and an n-p-n transistor can be connected so that the combination has the same equivalent circuit as the p-n-p-n structure. A simplified circuit is obtained which can be used when the p-n-p-n transistor is connected as a hook-collector transistor. A method of adjusting the current gain of p-n-p-n ... View full abstract»

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  • A Unipolar "Field-Effect" Transistor

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1365 - 1376
    Cited by:  Papers (397)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2302 KB)

    The theory for a new form of transistor is presented. This transistor is of the "field-effect" type in which the conductivity of a layer of semiconductor is modulated by a transverse electric field. Since the amplifying action involves currents carried pre-dominantly by one kind of carrier, the name "unipolar" is proposed to distinguish these transistors from point-contact and junction types, whic... View full abstract»

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  • Junction Fieldistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1377 - 1381
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3820 KB)

    A high-impedance, input-low impedance output amplifying device which utilizes surface conductivity control in the neighborhood of a p-n junction is described. The transconductances of the order of 1,000 micromhos can be reproduced at very low frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • The Control of Frequency Response and Stability of Point-Contact Transistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1382 - 1384
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The frequency response and stability of point-contact transistors are determined to a large degree by control of the point-contact spacing and germanium resistivity. Stability is particularly important in amplifiers in which the impedances of the emitter and collector circuits are very small in the frequency range in which the transistor is designed to operate. Satisfactory stability has been obta... View full abstract»

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  • Low-Drain Transistor Audio Oscillator

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1385 - 1395
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A 9-element transistor audio oscillator is described. This oscillator operates with relatively low drain from a single 6-volt battery. The oscillator gives reliable performance with an output uniform to approximately ±1 db with substantially all type 1768 point-contact transistors and without any circuit element adjustment required for variation in transistor parameters from unit to unit or with ... View full abstract»

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  • A Junction Transistor Tetrode for High-Frequency Use

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1395 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1251 KB)

    If a fourth electrode is added to a conventional junction transistor and biased in a suitable way, the base resistance of the transistor is reduced by a very substantial factor. This reduction in ¿b permits the transistor to be used at frequencies ten times or more higher than would otherwise be possible. Tetrodes of this sort have been used in sine-wave oscillators up to a frequency of 130 mc an... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Space-Charge Layer Widening in Junction Transistors

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1401 - 1406
    Cited by:  Papers (165)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (973 KB)

    Some effects of the dependence of collector barrier (space-charge layer) thickness on collector voltage are analyzed. Transistor base thickness is shown to decrease as collector voltage is increased, resulting in an increase of the current-gain factor (¿) and a decrease in the emitter potential required to maintain any fixed emitter current. These effects are shown to lead to two new elements in ... View full abstract»

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  • New Photoelectric Devices Utilizing Carrier Injection

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1407 - 1409
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB)

    The detection of injected carriers by their absorption and by emission due to their recombination with majority carriers is discussed. Two new components are proposed: (1) the "photo-modulator," which permits modulation of a light beam by the change in absorption due to injected carriers (the photomodulator in connection with a phototransistor, or some other type of photocell, may be useful as an ... View full abstract»

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  • Properties of the M-1740 P-N Junction Photocell

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1410 - 1413
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The p-n junction photocell has a sensitivity of 30 ma per lumen for light of 2,400 degrees K color temperature, corresponding to a quantum yield approximately unity in the spectral range from visible to the long wave cutoff at 1.8 microns. Dark currents of e few microamperes are observed at room temperature, with a temperature coefficient of about + 10 per cent per degree C. Both dark and light cu... View full abstract»

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  • Hall Effect

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1414 - 1419
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB)

    The Hall effect is one of the rich sources of information about the conduction properties of semiconductors. The mobility and carrier concentration can be obtained from the Hall constant in conjunction with the resistivity; this cannot be done with the resistivity alone. The mobility is pertinent to the understanding of transistors since such things as high-frequency cut-off and the intrinsic curr... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Minority Carrier Lifetime in Germanium

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):1420 - 1423
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1818 KB)

    A method for measuring the lifetime of minority carriers in germanium is described. Basically, it consists of liberating the carriers optically on a flat face of a crystal and measuring the concentration of minority carriers as a function of distance from the point of liberation. The mathematical model is analyzed and experimental results are presented here. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope