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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1951

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): nil1 - 108a-b
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  • News - New products

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 30a - 105a
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1361
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  • W. M. Rust, Jr., Board of Directors, 1951-1952

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1362
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  • The IRE Professional Groups and the Institute

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1363
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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  • Using Tests to Select Engineers

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1364 - 1367
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Experience in selecting students for admission to undergraduate engineering colleges provides a clear outline for a program of tests and related procedures that should prove helpful in identifying potential engineering talent early in high school. Qualified students may then be guided toward adequate preparation for engineering training. Such a program would include the following as a basic minimum: the students' average grades, tests of mathematical aptitude, reading comprehension, spatial visualization, and interest inventories. A recently revised program of examinations are now available for selecting students for graduate study in engineering. Research is being undertaken which gives promise of the development, in the measurable future, of a means of detecting creative talent for scientific research. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamentals of Secondary Electron Emission

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1367 - 1373
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    Secondary electron emission is of great importance to the physicist because of its bearing upon the problem of the interactions between fundamental particles and to the radio engineer because of its applications, as well as its effect, upon the operation of electronic tubes. A complete theoretical picture capable of accounting quantitatively for all observed phenomena does not exist. Secondary electron emission differs from other modes of emission in many respects. The essential characteristics can best be evaluated by considering a typical experimental arrangement for investigating the phenomenon. Three categories of emitted electrons are recognized. The yield may depend upon various factors, such as the primary energy, collector voltage, target temperature, time, angle of incidence, atomic properties of target, and the composition of the target. The difficulties of propounding a satisfactory theory are evident from an individual consideration of each of the various processes involved. The primary interaction, primary energy loss, escape of secondaries, and integration over the range of the primary must each be treated to arrive at a final solution. In several previous attempts at formulating a theory, only the most loosely bound electrons in the solid have been regarded as constituting the source of secondary electrons. Normalizations are required for comparison of the results with existing experimental data. There are cogent reasons for regarding bound electrons as a very important source of secondaries. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation at 412 Megacycles from a High-Power Transmitter

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1374 - 1382
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Extended measurements are reported which indicate the existence of pronounced nocturnal superrefraction during an appreciable percentage of the summer and of very persistent scattering by atmospheric turbulence near the surface in all seasons. The measurements were taken over rolling midwestern terrain at a distance of about 100 miles. Mobile road tests were made to supplement the fixed-point measurements and to provide an approximate indication of the relation between field strength and distance. Aerial tests were made to show the effects of antenna height at large distance. Graphs are provided which show the effects of distance, terrain, antenna height, and time upon the field strength. The practical significance of the results in the broadcast and commmunication fields is indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the Analysis of Radio-Propagation Data

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1382 - 1388
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper deals with the reduction of radio-propagation data. The primary aim is to present a clear picture of signalstrength variation with a minimum amount of computational work. A newly developed recording device is described and illustrated, together with an effective method of data analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial Dielectrics for Microwaves

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1389 - 1393
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper presents a procedure for measuring the dielectric properties of metal-loaded artificial dielectrics in the microwave region by the use of the short-circuited line method. Formulas, based on transmission-line theory, are included and serve as guides in predicting the approximate dielectric properties of certain loading configurations. View full abstract»

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  • A Precise Sweep-Frequency Method of Vector Impedance Measurement

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1393 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3970 KB)  

    The impedance of a two-terminal network is defined completely by the insertion loss and phase shift it produces when inserted between known sending and receiving impedances. Recent advances in precise wide-band phase and transmission measuring circuits have permitted practical use of this principle. Reactive and resistive impedance components are read directly from a simple graphical chart in which frequency is not a parameter. The basic principle described promises attractive possibilities in many cases of impedance measurements where present methods are inadequate. View full abstract»

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  • Speech-Reinforcement System Evaluation

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1401 - 1408
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    Speech-reinforcement systems in six large auditoriums were evaluated, using subjective rating tests, word-articulation tests, and, in two cases, a new test method. This method, called the "terminal-word test," makes possible the quantitative measurement of speech intelligibility for a sound system in actual use. A graphical method is presented for calculating the performance of a sound system in which account is taken of the frequency response of the system, the reverberation time of the room, the directivity index of the loudspeaker, and the room noise. Test results indicate that a flat frequency response in the range between 400 and 4,000 cps is required for good intelligibility. The graphical method indicates that little further increase in intelligibility would result from extending this range upward or downward. If the loudspeaker system is sufficiently directive in this frequency range and properly located in the room, room reverberation has little effect on speech intelligibility. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Resistance of a Two-Wire Line

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1408 - 1412
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A general formula for the radiation resistance of a two-wire line is derived by means of a Poynting vector integration over a large sphere. The result is shown to be in agreement with that computed by other techniques. Formulas for the useful special cases of a lossless system and a nonresonant line are presented. View full abstract»

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  • An Electrostatic-Tube Storage System

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1413 - 1415
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A storage system which will store binary (on or off) pulses has been constructed, and should prove useful in laboratory studies of certain communication problems. The system comprises two storage channels, each utilizing an MIT electrostatic storage tube and switching circuits which route incoming pulses into one channel while stored pulses are being recovered from the other. Pulses are stored in each tube in a square array of discrete spots of charge; each spot may assume one of two possible potentials, corresponding to the two possible states of a binary pulse. The order of occurrence of incoming pulses is preserved during storage, but the time relationship is not; the time relationship of pulses recovered from storage is determined by an independent pulse source under control of the user. Consequently, the system may be used to compress, expand, or delay a group of pulses. The capacity of each storage channel is, at present, 256 pulses. The system operates reliably at all frequencies up to 33 kc when storing incoming pulses and up to 70 kc when supplying stored pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Aperture Parameters by Electrolytic-Tank Measurements

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1416 - 1421
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (1)
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    In this paper it is shown how the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of an aperture may be determined accurately by electrolytic-analog measurements. Measured magnetic-polarizability data are given for rectangular-, rounded-slot-, cross-, rosette-, dumbbell-, and H-shaped apertures. View full abstract»

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  • Combination Open-Cycle Closed-Cycle Systems

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1421 - 1432
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The ancient idea of a combination coarse and fine adjustment is shown to be applicable to the design of precision automatic control systems. In the particular class of systems discussed, the coarse adjustment is taken to be a separate element operated by the input, but outside the feedback loop. Its position outside the feedback loop qualifies the coarse controller as an open-cycle system, and makes it possible to introduce such elements without affecting the system's transient response adversely. In this way, interference equalization of dynamical distortion errors is possible without such critical dependence being placed on a knowledge of series elements of the system as is required for interference equalization by a controller in the feedback loop. Three broad types of open-cycle systems are discussed: series, parallel, and partially parallel. Each of these may be "algebraic," "differential," or a combination. The algebraic controllers are useful when the average value of the input signal is predictable-particularly where a repetitive duty cycle is encountered. The advantages of adding completely parallel open-cycle elements for improving speed range and reducing over-all cost are shown. Idea is also applicable to nonlinear and multiplicoupled systems. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1432
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  • Transient Response of a Narrow-Band Automatic Frequency-Control System

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1433 - 1436
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    A method of analyzing the response of automatic frequency-control systems, operating in conjunction with a narrow band-pass filter, is presented in this paper. A time-lag, equivalent to the reciprocal of the bandwidth, is assigned to the filter. Circuit parameters are established for operation near the critically damped response condition. The equations of the system are derived with the aid of the Laplace transform. The method of residues is used to evaluate the transient response to a step-input frequency disturbance. View full abstract»

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  • The Folded Fan as a Broad-Band Antenna

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1436 - 1444
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    High-frequency model studies are reported which promise an antenna which operates over a 4-to-1 frequency range with a maximum power loss, due to mismatch, of 18.5 per cent. In the projected naval application, this loss is not unusual with currently used antenna systems. The antenna consists of an ordinary fan-type antenna folded back to ground, that is, electrically connected at the top to an identical fan grounded at its base. A means is described for matching the antenna to 52-ohm transmission line, although the folded structures center at about 160 ohms. The model described in detail is not necessarily of absolutely optimum proportions. The maximum variation with azimuth of the radiation intensity of the antenna is less than 10 db. In the vertical plane, the antenna illuminates the horizon adequately, wasting no appreciable portion of the energy on the zenith. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Complementary Slots in Aircraft Antenna Impedance Measurements

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1445 - 1448
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    This paper describes a method for eliminating the feed-cable effect in the measurement of aircraft wing-cap and tail-cap antenna impedances with the aid of models. The procedure employed allows greater accuracy in measurement than that obtainable with conventional techniques, but its application is restricted to use use on simplified models. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, and typical experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Alignment and Adjustment of Synchronously Tuned Multiple-Resonant-Circuit Filters

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1448 - 1455
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (37)
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    A simple method of "tuning up" a multiple-resonant-circuit filter quickly and exactly is demonstrated. The method may be summarized as follows: Very loosely couple a detector to the first resonator of the filter; then, proceeding in consecutive order, tune all odd-numbered resonators for maximum detector output, and all even-numbered resonators for minimum detector output (always making sure that the resonator immediately following the one to be resonated is completely detuned). Also considered is the correct adjustment of the two other types of constants in a filter. Filter constants can always be reduced to only three fundamental types: f0, dr(1/Qr), and Kr(r+1). This is true whether a lumped-element 100-kc filter or a distributed-element 5,000-mc unit is being considered. dr is adjusted by considering the rth resonator as a single-tuned circuit (all other resonators completely detuned) and setting the bandwidth between the 3-db-down-points to the required value. Kr(r+1) is adjusted by considering the rth and (r+1)th adjacent resonators as a double-tuned circuit (all other resonators completely detuned) and setting the bandwidth between the resulting response peaks to the required value. Finally, all the required values for K and Q are given for an n-resonant-circuit filter that will produce the response (Vp/V)2=1 +(¿f/¿f3db)2n. View full abstract»

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  • The Multisection RC Filter Network Problem

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1456 - 1458
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The Measurement of Antenna Impedence Using a Receiving Antenna

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1458 - 1460
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    Energy from a remote transmitter excites a receiving antenna that is erected vertically over a large conducting plane and base-loaded by a vertical slotted coaxial cavity of variable length. From measurements of the location and half-power width of resonance curves, the combined phase and damping factors for the two ends of the cavity are determined. By measuring these factors for the lower end of the cavity separately, those of the upper end are determined and used to calculate the impedance of the antenna. In effect, the receiving antenna is the generator driving the coaxial line, and it is the impedance of this generator that is measured. Curves of the measured impedance as a function of the electrical length of the antenna are given. Excellent agreement is obtained between impedances measured in this manner for the receiving antenna and corresponding impedances of the same antenna when base-driven through the slotted section. Both sets of measurements are in good agreement with the King-Middleton second-order theory. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E.

    Publication Year: 1951 , Page(s): 1461 - 1464
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope