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Electronic Computers, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 1966

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Computer Group

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Breaker Page

    Page(s): nil1
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  • A Spectral Stability Analysis of Finite Difference Operators

    Page(s): 849 - 854
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    This paper outlines a simple technique for determining stability criteria for numerical integration procedures. Use is made of the Z-transform and the method is presented in engineering terms. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Analysis of Paged and Segmented Computer Systems

    Page(s): 855 - 863
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    This paper discusses some optimum design problems which arise when paging and segmentation are used in a multiprogrammed computer system, and suggests approaches to their solution. It is argued that design optimization depends fundamentally on the statistics of the typical software load presented to the computer system, and also that the investigation requires the aid of a total system model. Statistical techniques for defining software characteristics in such a model are presented. It is shown how these tools can be employed to simulate the changing contents of main memory; and as a further illustration, the simulation of an auxiliary memory is demonstrated. Graphs are given which show the variation of auxiliary memory performance with the number of associative cells available. View full abstract»

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  • On Connecting Modules Together Uniformly to Form a Modular Computer

    Page(s): 864 - 873
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    A modular computer may be informally defined to be a device consisting of a large (or infinite) number of identical circuit modules connected together in some uniform manner. This paper is concerned with making the concept of ``connected together in a uniform manner'' mathematically precise. Uniformity of connection in a modular device is first defined in terms of the linear graph whose vertices correspond to the modules and whose edges correspond to the cables connecting them. It is shown that the class of graphs satisfying the definition is precisely the class of group-graphs; that is, the vertices correspond to the elements of a group G, and there is a finite subset G0 of G¿ (1 ¿ G0) such that {g, g¿} is an edge of the graph if, and only if, there exists g0 in G0 such that g¿. = gg0. It is then shown that restricting the group G to be Abelian restricts the patterns of simultaneous activity which may occur within the computer. View full abstract»

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  • On Computer Self-Diagnosis Part I-Experimental Study of a Processor

    Page(s): 873 - 881
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    The problem considered is the derivation of self-diagnosis procedures for digital computers. A self-diagnosis procedure is defined as an experiment of two outcomes: 1) all transistor-diode logic is failure-free; or 2) card or module X has a fault of type Y. Also, the procedure must be sufficiently fast to permit execution every few hours by nontechnical personnel. A method for the production of self-diagnosis procedures is given. The method was experimentally applied to the problem of self-diagnosis of the central processor of an existing computer. Work was carried far enough to verify validity, and to obtain estimates of certain parameters. These were used in turn to develop an estimate of total length for the complete procedure, which indicated that execution time would be acceptably short. The experimental results will also be used in a companion paper to develop more extensive estimates. View full abstract»

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  • On Computer Self-Diagnosis Part II-Generalizations and Design Principles

    Page(s): 882 - 890
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    A general method for the production of self-diagnosis procedures for digital computers is given. A number of principles which facilitate the design of diagnosable machines are proposed. The most general recommendations are that the machine be asynchronous, free of redundant components, and that production of the diagnosis procedure be undertaken concurrently with design of the system. On the level of circuit design, it is recommended that sequential circuits be strongly connected, totally sequential, and of short transient length. System design principles given include the following recommendations. The design should be functionally well-modularized and free of pulse-mode circuitry. Each module of the design should cause a hangup whenever it receives an illegal control sequence from any other module. The design should be minimal in global (intermodular) feedback lines, and the global lines should not undergo transitions until all local (intramodular) lines have settled. All of the above material was motivated by the results of an experimental study reported in a previous paper. A somewhat new type of machine organization suited to the given production method and design principles is proposed (cascade organization). A feasibility study of self-diagnosis of a cascade-organized processor of moderate size is described. The results indicate that self-diagnosis of such a system is feasible although treatment of medium-and large-sized machines will require improved simulation procedures. Finally, several suggestions for further work are made. View full abstract»

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  • Simplification of the Covering Problem for Multiple Output Logical Networks

    Page(s): 891 - 897
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    This paper is concerned with the problem of determining diode optimal representations for two levels of logic with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Previous papers by the authors and others have formulated algorithms for obtaining optimal representations. However, the linear integer programming problem obtained is often prohibitively large. In the present paper, methods for reducing the size of the problem before and after expanding into the linear integer format are presented. These methods insure that at least one optimal representation for the system is retained after each reduction. Examples are given. View full abstract»

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  • Convolutional Transformations of Binary Sequences: Boolean Functions and Their Resynchronizing Properties

    Page(s): 898 - 908
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    Nonfeedback shift registers (finite-memory encoders) can be profitably adopted to perform transformations of binary sequences. The output sequence is convolutionally obtained by ``sliding'' the encoding device along the input sequence and producing a symbol at each shift. Invertible transformations are characterized and decoding schemes are analyzed. The crucial point in the decoding problem is that the simple finite-memory feedback decoder presents the undesirable well-known error propagation effect, while the nonfeedback decoder contains, in general, an indefinite number of stages. Finite-memory nonfeedback decoding is feasible, however, if some constraint is imposed on the input sequences, or, equivalently, if some decoding error is tolerated. The analysis is conducted through the concepts of resynchronizing states of Boolean functions. The algebraic properties of resynchronizing states are carefully analyzed; it is shown that they can be assigned only in special sets, termed clusters, which form a lattice. Moreover, each cluster of resynchronizing states is possessed by a set of Boolean functions, which form a subspace of the vector space of all Boolean functions. The presented analysis provides a formal tool to relate finite-memory nonfeedback decoding to the constraint imposed on the input generating source. View full abstract»

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  • An Algorithm for Non-Parametric Pattern Recognition

    Page(s): 908 - 915
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    The probability densities of each of K classes must be known for a statistically optimum classification of an input into one of K categories. This article describes an economical technique for the approximation of probability densities as generalized N-dimensional histograms constructed from a limited number of samples of each class. The histogram cell locations, shapes, and sizes are determined adaptively from sequentially introduced samples of known classification. A method of storing and evaluating densities at an arbitrary point in N-space is described. A computer flow chart is given, and the method is illustrated with an example. Some computational techniques facilitating the rapid evaluation of N-dimensional histograms are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Investigation of a Mixed-Font Print Recognition System

    Page(s): 916 - 925
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    This paper discusses an experimental study of a mixed-font print recognition system. With a program-controlled CRT scanner input, using 96 N-tuple recognition measurements with ternary minimum distance decision, the system reported is capable of reading a variety of type styles at a performance level which is quite acceptable for fair to good quality print. Performance is marginal for poor quality print. View full abstract»

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  • Correction [to "Linearity of sequential machines"]

    Page(s): 925
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    Because of the inadvertent omission of Fig. 6 in the October, 1966 issue, this correction is reprinted completely herewith. S.S. Yau and K.C. Wang, authors of the paper, "Linearity of Sequential Machines," which appeared on pages 337-354 of the June, 1966, issue of these Transactions, have called the to the attention of the Editor errors that appeared on pages 337, 338, 339, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 350, 351, and 352. View full abstract»

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  • Some Results of Amplitude Distribution Experiments on Shift Register Generated Pseudo-Random Noise

    Page(s): 926 - 927
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    The well-known cyclic error-correcting codes are used so far only for serial systems; that is, systems having a single channel with information transmitted one bit at a time. In data-processing equipments and communication systems, information is often transmitted serially by characters and parallel by bits within a character. That is, there are several channels in parallel. Error correction in the existing multiple channel systems has been restricted to the use of block codes with the block length equal to the number of channels. The use of cyclic codes will allow the length of a code word many times greater than the number of parallel channels. This offers simple mechanization and, at the same time, reduces the redundancy of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Cyclic Codes in Multiple Channel Parallel Systems

    Page(s): 927 - 930
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    A catalog of all nonredundant complete sets of functions of two and three binary variables is presented in the form of a table. View full abstract»

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  • Complete Sets of Functions of Two and Three Binary Variables

    Page(s): 930 - 931
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    A catalog of all nonredundant complete sets of functions of two and three binary variables is presented in the form of a table. View full abstract»

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  • Minimal Feedback Realizations of Sequential Machines

    Page(s): 931 - 933
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    In this note we define the amount of feedback in a realization of a sequential machine M, give a simple algorithm to compute the minimal amount of feedback which has to be present in any realization of M, and give a canonical realization of M which uses the minimal amount of feedback. View full abstract»

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  • A Lower Bound on the Number of Corrections Required for Convergence of the Single Threshold Gate Adaptive Procedure

    Page(s): 933 - 935
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    The adaptive single threshold gate realization procedure, originally proposed by Rosenblatt, has been rather extensively studied, and several upper bounds on the number of corrections required for its convergence have been derived. In this note a lower bound on the number of required corrections is determnined, and shown to differ from the upper bound by a factor of about n2 where n is the number of binary variables. This new bound then implies the existence of classes of linearly separable functions for which the number of required corrections increases exponentially with n. View full abstract»

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  • On the Hyperplanes of the Taylor-Steinbuch Linear Separator

    Page(s): 935
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    A Boolean function of n variables f(x1, x2, . . . , xn) is a k-thresh-old F/T/ . . . function1 if there exist a set of real numbers {w1, w2, . . . , wn}, called the weights, and a sequence of monotonically increasing real numbers {t1, t2, . . . , tk}, called the thresholds, which are such that View full abstract»

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  • A Nonbulk Addition Technique for Associative Processors

    Page(s): 938 - 941
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    A process is described for continuing adaptation, after hyperplanes that separate pattern classes in pattern space have been found, in order to increase the distance between sample patterns and hyperplanes. View full abstract»

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  • On the Improvement of a Linear Separation by Extending the Adaptive Process with a Stricter Criterion

    Page(s): 941 - 944
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    A process is described for continuing adaptation, after hyperplanes that separate pattern classes in pattern space have been found, in order to increase the distance between sample patterns and hyperplanes. It is then shown that the original adaptive process is a special case of a more general adaptive process in which the distance of a mis-assigned training pattern from the border of its proper category region is regarded as negative. This device permits the concept of nearly linearly separable classes. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern Recognition by Using an Associative Memory

    Page(s): 944 - 947
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    The purpose of this paper is to present a simple template-matching pattern recognition technique by using any general-purpose associative memory. The input patterns for recognition may have wide variations, provided that the distinct features of individual pattern classes can be extracted. Each pattern class is allowed to have deviations in size, style, orientation, etc. within certain limits. This pattern recognition technique is extremely efficient in handwritten character recognition, which is used for illustration in this paper. Because each input pattern is processed with all the pattern classes simultaneously, the speed of this pattern recognition technique is very high. It is found that most input patterns are recognized within first comparison process and no input patterns require more than two comparison processes for their recognition. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on an Adaptive Hypersphere Decision Boundary

    Page(s): 948 - 949
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    Supplementing earlier papers, this note treats two topics: nonsupervised adaptation to the optimum hypersphere for normal distributions, and supervised estimation of the shape parameter m for Pearson probability distributions. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 950 - 952
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1967. The current retitled publication is 

IEEE Transactions on Computers.

Full Aims & Scope