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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 3797
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • SEUs Induced by Thermal to High-Energy Neutrons in SRAMs

    Page(s): 3798 - 3802
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on experimental SEU studies using thermal and high-energy neutrons, conducted at the TRIUMF facility, Vancouver. Different SRAM samples were used and many samples showed to be highly susceptible to thermal neutrons. Moreover, a considerable part of the total SEU-rate, at high altitudes as well as down at sea level, may be attributed to thermal neutrons for RAM based devices View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Analysis Jobs With the Atlas Production System

    Page(s): 3803 - 3807
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will start data acquisition in 2007. The A Torioidal LHC ApparatuS (ATLAS) experiment is preparing for the data handling and analysis via a series of data challenges and production exercises to validate its computing model to provide useful samples of data for detector and physics studies. The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10 000 jobs were processed by the system on about 100 sites in one day. In this paper, we discuss the experience of performing analysis jobs using this system on the LCG infrastructure View full abstract»

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  • Cobalt Therapy Dosimetric Calculations Over a Voxelized Heterogeneous Phantom: Validation of Different Monte Carlo Models and Methodologies Against Experimental Data

    Page(s): 3808 - 3817
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main goal of the present paper is to quantify, in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, the differences between experimentally measured dose distributions inside it, and those calculated by the simulation of different transport models using the Monte Carlo computer code MCNP. This objective has been achieved simulating the electron and photon transport in a water phantom irradiated by a Theratron 780 (MDS Nordion) 60Co radiotherapy unit, which has been realistically modeled, considering field sizes from 5 cmtimes5 cm to 20 cmtimes20 cm. The source description and characteristics of the incident beam have been slightly modified in order to study the results variations of these models. Different methodologies have also been applied to speed up the calculations with the aim of applying MCNP efficiently in radiotherapy treatment planning View full abstract»

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  • Bulk Scheduling With the DIANA Scheduler

    Page(s): 3818 - 3829
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Results from the research and development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) scheduling engine, to be used primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. In Grid analyses, tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources. The central problem in the scheduling of these resources is the coordinated management of computation and data at multiple locations and not just data replication or movement. However, this can prove to be a rather costly operation and efficient scheduling can be a challenge if compute and data resources are mapped without considering network costs. We have implemented an adaptive algorithm within the so-called DIANA Scheduler which takes into account data location and size, network performance and computation capability in order to enable efficient global scheduling. DIANA is a performance-aware and economy-guided Meta Scheduler. It iteratively allocates each job to the site that is most likely to produce the best performance as well as optimizing the global queue for any remaining jobs. Therefore, it is equally suitable whether a single job is being submitted or bulk scheduling is being performed. Results indicate that considerable performance improvements can be gained by adopting the DIANA scheduling approach View full abstract»

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  • Track-Based Alignment of Composite Detector Structures

    Page(s): 3830 - 3833
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An iterative algorithm for track based alignment is presented. The algorithm can be applied to rigid composite detector structures or to individual modules. The iterative process involves track reconstruction and alignment, in which the chi2 function of the hit residuals of each alignable object is minimized. Six alignment parameters per structure or per module, three for location and three for orientation, can be computed. The method is computationally light and easily parallelizable. The performance of the method is demonstrated with simulated tracks in the CMS pixel detector and tracks reconstructed from experimental data recorded with a test beam setup View full abstract»

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  • New Developments of the Goodness-of-Fit Statistical Toolkit

    Page(s): 3834 - 3841
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Statistical Toolkit is a project for the development of open source software tools for statistical data analysis in experimental particle and nuclear physics. The second development cycle encompassed an extension of the software functionality and new tools to facilitate its usage in experimental environments. The new developments include additional goodness-of-fit tests, new implementations of existing tests to improve their statistical precision or computational performance, a new component to extend the usability of the toolkit with other data analysis systems, and new tools for an easier configuration and build of the system in the user's computing environment. The computational performance of all the algorithms implemented has been studied View full abstract»

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  • Discrimination Between Different Types of Material in Track Reconstruction With a Gaussian-Sum Filter

    Page(s): 3842 - 3849
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the context of track reconstruction, the description of the material in a detector is frequently a simplified version of the detailed description used in the simulation. In particular, complex structures of different types of materials are often approximated by simple layers consisting of a material with average properties. Multiple scattering is then usually modeled by a Gaussian distribution, and energy loss by a narrow Gaussian or a delta function (Dirac distribution). More detailed information about the material can be taken into account by modeling multiple scattering and energy loss by mixtures of Gaussians and Dirac distributions, respectively. Each component of the mixture corresponds to a particular type of material, and the weight of the component is given by the probability to encounter this type of material. Track fitting using these mixtures can then be accomplished by the Gaussian-sum filter (GSF). Its performance is compared to a standard Kalman filter using the average material properties. The gain in precision of the estimated track parameters is studied in a series of simulation experiments, and the most promising scenarios are identified View full abstract»

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  • Application of a Digital Technique for Timing of Events From Scintillation Detectors

    Page(s): 3850 - 3854
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The experimental application of a digital technique for high-resolution estimation of occurrence time of detected events is described. In particular, the method that achieves timing precisions well below the sampling time interval is tested for timing of events from scintillation detectors. The validity of the technique is demonstrated both in terms of achieved performances and of implementation simplicity in an electronic architecture based on a FPGA device View full abstract»

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  • Digital Control of a Bank of IIR Filters in Optimal Processing of Signals From Pulse Radiation Detectors

    Page(s): 3855 - 3864
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    New algorithm for measurement of mean count rate of pulses from radiation detectors is described. The algorithm is based on the control of a bank of digital IIR filters governed by the state of mean count rate-stationary or transient. The algorithm solves successfully the compromise between the contradictory requirements for low statistical fluctuations in steady state and fast response to sudden changes of mean count rate. The design of the bank of IIR filters is carried out by using the Chebyshev approximation of the second kind in order to achieve the high selectivity and high stopband attenuation applying as low as possible order of the constituent filters. All designed filters are of the second order. The static and dynamic characteristics of the new algorithm and the corresponding computational efficiency are tested and compared with those of the traditional ratemeter algorithms. The state of mean count rate, stationary or transient, is determined by a circuit for estimation of the gradient of mean count rate. The numbers of threshold levels within the adaptation logic circuit and their mutual positions have been optimized to achieve the best compromise View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Digital Filters for Baseline Restoration

    Page(s): 3865 - 3869
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a general method to directly calculate the digital zero-area filters to achieve the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), in presence of any additive stationary noise. This method is applied to two cases, and, can also be easily expanded to other situations. The synthesis results of a typical example are given and fully discussed, relations between SNR and other factors such as the filter length and noise spectrum are investigated. A priori knowledge of the noise power spectrum is not required, so it is suitable to be used in adaptive, self-calibrating digital spectroscopy systems View full abstract»

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  • Measurements and Simulations of Spatial Distribution Change of Ions Surrounding an Alpha Source With Temperature, Humidity and Airflow Using a Position-Sensitive Micro-Ionization Chamber

    Page(s): 3870 - 3876
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    A new alpha radioactivity measurement technique has been developed, which measures alpha radioactivity by ions created by alpha particles. In order to optimize this technique, a better understanding of ion's distributions surrounding an alpha source is required. For this purpose, we have developed a position-sensitive micro-ionization chamber with multichannel charge-integrating application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and obtained experimental results and simulation results of ion's distributions. In this paper, we continue to study ion's distribution changes with temperature, humidity, and airflow using the position-sensitive micro-ionization chamber and show their experimental results and simulation results View full abstract»

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  • Reduced Charge Diffusion in Thick, Fully Depleted CCDs With Enhanced Red Sensitivity

    Page(s): 3877 - 3881
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lateral charge diffusion in charge-coupled devices (CCDs) dominates the device point-spread function (PSF), which can affect both image quality and spectroscopic resolution. We present new data and theoretical interpretations for lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully depleted CCDs developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Because they can be overdepleted, the LBNL devices have no field-free region and diffusion is controlled through the application of an external bias voltage. Recent improvements in CCD design at LBNL allow the application of bias voltages exceeding 200 V. We give results for a 3512times3512 format, 10.5 mum pixel back-illuminated p-channel CCD developed for the SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposed satellite-based experiment designed to study dark energy. Lateral charge diffusion, which is well described by a symmetric two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian function, was measured at substrate bias voltages between 3 and 115 V. At a bias voltage of 115 V, we measure a root-mean square (rms) diffusion of 3.7plusmn0.2mum. Lateral charge diffusion in LBNL CCDs will meet the SNAP requirements View full abstract»

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  • Ionizing Radiation Effects in Single-Crystal and Polycrystalline YAG

    Page(s): 3882 - 3888
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of ionizing-radiation fields on optical materials is predominantly seen in changes in the transmission properties of the materials. Both transient and permanent photodarkening can occur in passive and active optical elements as a result of exposure to either short-pulsed or steady-state radiation. In laser materials, such as YAG, such induced optical loss can result in significant degradation of the lasing characteristic of the material, making its selection for optical device applications in radiation environments unfeasible. In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation on the optical response of undoped and 1.1%Nd-doped single-crystal and polycrystalline YAG have been investigated. Both room temperature and elevated temperature studies have been performed. An evaluation of the data shows some potential advantages of single-crystal over polycrystalline YAG in applications involving radiation exposure of the materials View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of the Radiation Tolerance of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Under 24-GeV Proton Exposure

    Page(s): 3889 - 3893
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    For the potential use in future high luminosity applications in high energy physics (HEP) [e.g., the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade], we evaluated the radiation tolerance of a candidate technology for the front-end of the readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for silicon strip detectors. The devices investigated were first-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The current gain as a function of collector current has been measured at several stages: before and after irradiation with 24-GeV protons up to fluences of 1016 p/cm2, and after annealing at elevated temperature. The analog section of an amplifier for silicon strip detectors typically has a special front transistor, chosen carefully to minimize noise and usually requiring a larger current than the other transistors, and a large number of additional transistors used in shaping sections and for signal-level discrimination. We discuss the behavior of both kinds of transistors, with a particular focus on issues of noise, power, and radiation limitations View full abstract»

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  • Design and Testing of a Position-Sensitive Plastic Scintillator Detector for Fast Neutron Imaging

    Page(s): 3894 - 3903
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1005 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the design and performance of a position sensitive scintillator detector developed for neutron measurements. Several of these detectors are to be used in the assembly of the Fast Neutron Imaging Telescope (FNIT), an instrument with imaging and energy measurement capabilities, sensitive to neutrons in the 2-20 MeV energy range. FNIT was initially conceived to study solar neutrons as a candidate instrument for the Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (IHS) program under formulation at NASA. It is now being adapted to locate Special Nuclear Material (SNM) for homeland security purposes by detecting fission neutrons and reconstructing the image of their source. The detection principle is based on multiple elastic neutron-proton scatterings in organic scintillator. The detector presented here utilizes wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers, grooved into the plastic scintillator and read out by multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) to determine scattering locations. By also measuring the recoil proton and scattered neutron's energies, the direction and energy spectrum of incident neutrons can be determined and discrete sources identified View full abstract»

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  • Design and Performance of a Thermal Neutron Imaging Facility at the North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor

    Page(s): 3904 - 3911
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    A thermal neutron imaging facility has been set up at the North Carolina State University PULSTAR reactor. The PULSTAR is an open pool light water moderated 1 MWth research reactor with six beam tubes. The present facility is set up on beam tube # 5 of the reactor. The facility is intended to have radiographic and tomographic capabilities. The design of the neutron collimator was performed using MCNP5. The collimator includes a 4-in bismuth filter followed by a 6-in single-crystal sapphire filter. Thermal neutron scattering cross-section libraries for sapphire and bismuth were generated and used in the MCNP simulation of the system. Based on the current design, the L/D of the facility ranges between 100 and 150. The neutron flux at the image plane can be varied from 1.8times106 to 7times106 n/cm2middots with a Cd-ratio of ~450. The resolution of the system for different imaging media was also estimated and found to be ~33 mum for conventional radiography film and ~110 mum for digital image plates. Initial measurements, using ASTM standards, show that the imaging facility achieves a beam quality classification of IA View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Scatter Detector for High-Resolution SPECT Imaging With Compton Telescopes

    Page(s): 3912 - 3917
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    We propose a novel Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) that can fulfill the demanding requirements of the ideal scatter detector for a high-resolution Compton Camera for medical imaging. This kind of detector demonstrates excellent performance in terms of energy and position resolution, maximum readout rate and the more relevant results are reported. The SDD proposed here is based on a multilinear architecture [controlled drift detector (CDD)] in which the backside has been segmented and instrumented to pick up the signal induced by the electron-hole (e-h) pairs generated by the interaction thus providing a fast coincidence signal between the recoil electron signal and the scattered gamma-ray signal. Several measurements have been carried out to study the shape of the induced signals and the achievable time resolution. Experimental tests with annihilation photons of a 22 Na source in a time coincidence setup showed best time resolution of 6 ns FWHM. These results confirm that SDD technology with fast pickup on the back electrodes and optimized design has the potential to develop a Compton telescope with Doppler limited performance for medical imaging View full abstract»

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  • Continuous Time-Charge Amplification and Shaping in CMOS Monolithic Sensors for Particle Tracking

    Page(s): 3918 - 3928
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the use of continuous time charge amplification and shaping is proposed for processing the signal delivered by CMOS pixel sensors in charged particle tracking applications. Such a choice aims at exploiting the large scale of integration of modern deep submicron CMOS technologies to incorporate into the design of a single device both the potential for thin detector fabrication, inherent in the concept of monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS), and the data sparsification capabilities featured by hybrid pixels. With respect to classical MAPS, adoption of the above readout method involves a substantial change in the guidelines for the design of the front-end electronics and of the whole elementary cell, in order not to jeopardize the collection efficiency of the sensitive electrode. For the purpose of supporting the feasibility of the proposed solution, the paper discusses some experimental data and simulation results relevant to monolithic CMOS sensor prototypes, fabricated in a 0.13 mum technology, which were designed according to the mentioned rules. Finally, the performances of an all NMOSFET charge preamplifier, suitable for improving charge collection efficiency, are investigated through circuit simulations View full abstract»

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  • Cryogenic Behavior of Optoelectronic Devices for the Transmission of Analog Signals Via Fiber Optics

    Page(s): 3929 - 3933
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmission of analog signals via fiber optics is a subject of interest for applications with detectors operating at cryogenic temperature, at ground or on space borne instruments. For those detectors, both thermal and galvanic decoupling shall be required. For a better understanding of the cryogenic performance of cooled optoelectronic devices, we have investigated an infrared AlGaAs LEDs, a Si p-i-n photodiode, a Si photodiode, and an avalanche photodiode (APD). Results of a study related to the photodiode's dark currents at low temperature is presented. In fact, we have clearly measured a strong reduction of the dark current when these devices are cooled down View full abstract»

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  • Study of the Broad Emission Wavelength of Lu 0.4Gd1.6 SiO5:Ce for APD Detection

    Page(s): 3934 - 3937
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    The emission spectra for X-ray and UV excitation, decay curve for emission above 460 nm under gamma-ray excitation, and energy spectrum by using avalanche photodiode (APD) for excitation with 137Cs gamma-rays have been measured for Lu0.4Gd1.6SiO 5 having 2.0 mol% Ce. The emission spectrum under X-ray excitation showed two peaks around 430 and 495 nm. The excitation-emission spectrum under UV excitation also had two peaks at 425 and 510 nm for excitation wavelength of 285 and 385 nm, respectively. There was no significant difference in decay constants of emission between the longer and shorter wavelength components. Energy resolution by using an APD was 8.0% for 137Cs gamma-ray excitation View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of a LaBr3 (Ce) Scintillation Detector With a Large Volume CdZnTe Detector

    Page(s): 3938 - 3943
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of hand-held radioisotope identification devices (RIDs) is still hampered by the performance of the NaI(Tl) detectors, which are commonly used in such instruments. In this paper, we continue the search for better detector options. One of the largest single elements ever made, a coplanar CdZnTe (CZT) detector (30times15times12.1 mm3 volume 5.45 cm3 designed by University of Michigan) is compared with a commercially available LaBr3(Ce) detector (ominus1''times1'' volume 12.9 cm3.) Parameters that are relevant to the performance of isotope identification devices, such as resolution and efficiency as function of the gamma-ray energy, temperature shift, linearity and others are measured and compared. According to measurement results, it seems that for this application LaBr3(Ce) detectors are a viable alternative to CZT detectors; even more so if one bears in mind that LaBr3(Ce) became commercially available only recently and detectors with larger volumes are likely to appear in the near future View full abstract»

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  • Quality Control Studies of Wavelength Shifting Fibers for a Scintillator-Based Tail Catcher Muon Tracker for Linear Collider Prototype Detector

    Page(s): 3944 - 3948
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detailed measurements of the wavelength shifting fiber response to a stable and reliable light source are presented. Particulars about materials, a double reference method, and measurement technique are included. The fibers studied were several hundred Kuraray, Y-11, multiclad, 1.2-mm outer diameter wavelength shifting fibers, each cut from a reel to about one meter length. The fibers were polished, mirrored, and the mirrors were UV epoxy protected. Each fiber passed quality control requirements before installation. About 94% of the fibers tested have a response within 1% of the overall mean View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a Fast Binary Readout CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Chip Designed for Charged Particle Detection

    Page(s): 3949 - 3955
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2041 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the performance of the MIMOSA8 (HiMAPS1) chip. The chip is a 128times32 pixels array where 24 columns have discriminated binary outputs and eight columns analog test outputs. Offset correction techniques are used extensively in this chip to overcome process related mismatches. The array is divided in four blocks of pixels with different conversion factors and is controlled by a serially programmable sequencer. MIMOSA8 is a representative of the CMOS sensors development option considered as a promising candidate for the Vertex Detector of the future International Linear Collider (ILC). The readout technique, implemented on the chip, combines high spatial resolution capabilities with high processing readout speed. Data acquisition, providing control of the chip and signal buffering and linked to a VME system, was made on the eight analog outputs. Analog data, without and with a 55Fe X-ray source, were acquired and processed using off-line analysis software. From the reconstruction of pixel clusters, built around a central pixel, we deduce that the charge spread is limited to the closest 25 pixels and almost all the available charge is collected. The position of the total charge collection peak (and subsequently the charge-to-voltage conversion factor) stays unaffected when the clock frequency is increased even up to 150 MHz (13.6 mus readout time per frame). The discriminators, placed in the readout chain, have proved to be fully functional. Beam tests have been made with high energy electrons at DESY (Germany) to study detection efficiency. The results prove that MIMOSA8 is the first and fastest successful monolithic active pixel sensor with on-chip signal discrimination for detection of MIPs View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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