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Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering publication information

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  • Suitability of the Cingulate Cortex for Neural Control

    Page(s): 401 - 409
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent neuroprosthetic work has focused on the motor cortex as a source of voluntary control signals. However, the motor cortex can be damaged in upper motor neuron degenerative diseases such as primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The possibility exists that prefrontal areas may also be used in neuroprosthetic devices. Here, we report the use of the cingulate cortex in a neuroprosthetic model. Seven rats were able to significantly modulate spiking activity in the cingulate cortex in order to receive reward. Furthermore, experiments with single neurons provide evidence that the cingulate cortex neuronal modulation is highly flexible and thus useful for a neuroprosthetic device View full abstract»

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  • A Component-Based FPGA Design Framework for Neuronal Ion Channel Dynamics Simulations

    Page(s): 410 - 418
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neuron-machine interfaces such as dynamic clamp and brain-implantable neuroprosthetic devices require real-time simulations of neuronal ion channel dynamics. Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) has emerged as a high-speed digital platform ideal for such application-specific computations. We propose an efficient and flexible component-based FPGA design framework for neuronal ion channel dynamics simulations, which overcomes certain limitations of the recently proposed memory-based approach. A parallel processing strategy is used to minimize computational delay, and a hardware-efficient factoring approach for calculating exponential and division functions in neuronal ion channel models is used to conserve resource consumption. Performances of the various FPGA design approaches are compared theoretically and experimentally in corresponding implementations of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) synaptic ion channel models. Our results suggest that the component-based design framework provides a more memory economic solution, as well as more efficient logic utilization for large word lengths, whereas the memory-based approach may be suitable for time-critical applications where a higher throughput rate is desired View full abstract»

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  • Inotropic Effects of the {\rm K}^{+} Channel Blocker 3,4-Diaminopyridine: Differential Responses of Rat Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus

    Page(s): 419 - 426
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    The K+ channel blocker 3,4-diaminopyrindine (DAP) increases diaphragm force, use of which could potentially improve muscle performance during functional neuromuscular stimulation. To determine the extent of hindlimb muscle force augmentation, and delineate whether DAP effects vary in muscles comprised of mainly slow versus fast fibers, rat soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm muscle samples were studied in vitro. DAP increased force of all three muscles, but at high concentrations the force increases were transient and were followed by declines in force below baseline. The maximum DAP-induced twitch force increase was smaller for soleus (38 plusmn 7%) than both EDL (94 plusmn 12%) (P<0.05) and diaphragm (93 plusmn 13%) (P<0.01). During fatigue-inducing 20 Hz stimulation (tested at an intermediate DAP concentration), force of soleus muscle remained significantly elevated by DAP for the entire testing period, force of DAP-treated EDL muscle rapidly declined to values in untreated muscle, and force of DAP-treated diaphragm had an intermediate force-time profile. Muscles varied in extent to which isometric contractile kinetics were altered by DAP. Thus, the K+ channel blocker DAP improves contractile performance of limb muscles, but the profile of improvement is distinct between the soleus and EDL muscles. Nomenclature) 4-AP: 4-aminopyridine) DAP: 3,4-diaminopyridine) EDL: extensor digitorum longus View full abstract»

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  • Very Low-Noise ENG Amplifier System Using CMOS Technology

    Page(s): 427 - 437
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the design and testing of a system for recording electroneurographic signals (ENG) from a multielectrode nerve cuff (MEC). This device, which is an extension of the conventional nerve signal recording cuff, enables ENG to be classified by action potential velocity. In addition to electrical measurements, we provide preliminary in vitro data obtained from frogs that demonstrate the validity of the technique for the first time. Since typical ENG signals are extremely small, on the order of 1 1 muV, very low-noise, high-gain amplifiers are required. The ten-channel system we describe was realized in a 0.8 mum CMOS technology and detailed measured results are presented. The overall gain is 10 000 and the total input-referred root mean square (rms) noise in a bandwidth 1 Hz-5 kHZ is 291 nV. The active area is 12 mm2 and the power consumption is 24 mW from plusmn2.5 V power supplies View full abstract»

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  • Engineering Better Wheelchairs to Enhance Community Participation

    Page(s): 438 - 455
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With about 2.2 million Americans currently using wheeled mobility devices, wheelchairs are frequently provided to people with impaired mobility to provide accessibility to the community. Individuals with spinal cord injuries, arthritis, balance disorders, and other conditions or diseases are typical users of wheelchairs. However, secondary injuries and wheelchair-related accidents are risks introduced by wheelchairs. Research is underway to advance wheelchair design to prevent or accommodate secondary injuries related to propulsion and transfer biomechanics, while improving safe, functional performance and accessibility to the community. This paper summarizes research and development underway aimed at enhancing safety and optimizing wheelchair design View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic Design to Improve Ergonomics in Human Machine Interaction

    Page(s): 456 - 469
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    This paper introduces a novel kinematic design paradigm for ergonomic human machine interaction. Goals for optimal design are formulated generically and applied to the mechanical design of an upper-arm exoskeleton. A nine degree-of-freedom (DOF) model of the human arm kinematics is presented and used to develop, test, and optimize the kinematic structure of an human arm interfacing exoskeleton. The resulting device can interact with an unprecedented portion of the natural limb workspace, including motions in the shoulder-girdle, shoulder, elbow, and the wrist. The exoskeleton does not require alignment to the human joint axes, yet is able to actuate each DOF of our redundant limb unambiguously and without reaching into singularities. The device is comfortable to wear and does not create residual forces if misalignments exist. Implemented in a rehabilitation robot, the design features of the exoskeleton could enable longer lasting training sessions, training of fully natural tasks such as activities of daily living and shorter dress-on and dress-off times. Results from inter-subject experiments with a prototype are presented, that verify usability over the entire workspace of the human arm, including shoulder and shoulder girdle View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Analysis of the Ankle Strategy Under Translational Platform Disturbance

    Page(s): 470 - 480
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ankle strategy is one of the postural adjustment maneuvers humans utilize when the support platform is disturbed. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the ankle strategy. A three-link sagittal biped model is considered. The first link represents the two legs locked together. The second link represents the two thighs locked together. The third link represents the hip, the torso, the upper limbs, the neck, and the head. The dynamics, control, and stability of the three-link biped, under platform translation, are considered. The disturbance of the platform is represented as an input and the effect of the muscular system is reduced to a set of torques applied to the joints and across the joints. Two digital computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the behavior of the biped under backward or forward platform disturbance. The simulations are compared with experimental measurements of humans subjected to postural disturbances. It is shown that the effect of a horizontal disturbance at the ankle appears to be about 40 times that of the effect of the disturbance at the knees and at least a few hundred times larger than the effect of a disturbance at the hip. This means that, under translational platform disturbance, the ankle angle is subjected to the largest excursion. The knee and the hip angle excursions are relatively minor. Consequently, the biped, as a whole, appears to move as a single inverted pendulum. Major postural corrections are initiated by the ankle excursion. Further, when the available ankle torque is limited or nonexistent, the stability requires resorting to the knee or hip strategies View full abstract»

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  • Clearspeech: A Display Reader for the Visually Handicapped

    Page(s): 492 - 500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1780 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many domestic appliances and much office equipment is controlled using a keypad and a small digital display. Programming such devices is problematical for the blind and visually handicapped. In this paper, we describe a device that may be used to read the displays on these devices. The device is designed to accept a description of the display being read, which specifies the types and locations of elements of the display. Images are captured using a handheld webcam. Images are processed to remove the distortions due to the camera orientation. The elements of the screen are interpreted and a suitable audio output is generated. In suitably illuminated scenes, the display data is interpreted correctly in approximately 90% of the cases investigated View full abstract»

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  • A Screen Magnifier Using “High Level” Implementation Techniques

    Page(s): 501 - 504
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the architecture of, and the techniques used to build, a screen magnifier for visually impaired people that uses the "high-level" features of the Microsoft Windows operating system. The magnifier uses information from the Desktop Window as its source and overlays this with a topmost, transparent, layered window that contains the magnified image. Issues concerning cursor enlargement, tooltip suppression, and focus tracking are discussed. A stable magnifier results that does not need to use the "dirty" low-level techniques that are typically used to build screen magnifiers. The only known problem of the magnifier is that it fails to suppress the original, unmagnified cursor of the few applications that use custom cursors View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Linear versus Sigmoid Coding of Visual or Audio Biofeedback for the Control of Upright Stance

    Page(s): 505 - 512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although both visual and audio biofeedback (BF) systems for postural control can reduce sway during stance, a direct comparison between the two systems has never been done. Further, comparing different coding designs of audio and visual BF may help in elucidating how BF information is integrated in the control of posture, and may improve knowledge for the design of innovative BF systems for postural control. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of linear versus sigmoid coding of trunk acceleration for audio and visual BF on postural sway in a group of eight, healthy subjects while standing on a foam surface. Results showed that sigmoid-coded audio BF reduced sway acceleration more than did a linear-coded audio BF, whereas a linear-coded visual BF reduced sway acceleration more than a sigmoid-coded visual BF. In addition, audio BF had larger effects on reducing center of pressure (COP) displacement whereas visual BF had larger effects on reducing trunk sway. These results suggest that audio and visual BF for postural control benefit from different types of sensory coding and each type of BF may encourage a different type of postural sway strategy View full abstract»

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  • Search for Editor-in-Chief

    Page(s): 513
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  • The 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

    Page(s): 514
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  • 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics

    Page(s): 515
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  • 2006 Index

    Page(s): 516 - 524
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering Information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Information

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the rehabilitative and neural aspects of biomedical engineering.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Sajda
Columbia University