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Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date December 2006

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  • Table of contents - Dec. 2006, Vol. 13 no 6

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Partial discharge location in power transformers using wideband RF detection

    Page(s): 1193 - 1199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for partial discharge (PD) source location in power transformers based on detecting electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitted from PD. The key problem of PD location by EM waves is the difficulty in getting the accurate time arrivals of the signals from the source to multiple sensors. Several measures are taken to improve the time arrival resolution. Firstly, a measuring frequency band (1 GHz-5 GHz) within RF band is proposed to accurately pick up the fast rise time of the signals. Secondly, an antenna array with diamond-shaped configuration is designed to improve the correlation coefficient of the waveforms from multiple sensors. Thirdly, two antenna arrays are proposed to eliminate the influences of the EM wave scattering caused by the iron core. Fourthly, an algorithm is proposed to increase the signal to noise ratio and to measure the time arrivals automatically through cross-correlation and averaging operation. Lastly, a hyperboloid-genetic algorithm is developed to search the PD source. Experiments on a single-phase transformer model were conducted in the laboratory. The tested results proved the validity of the proposed method and showed that the location error in 16 cm, mostly is about several cm View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of PD-generated SF6 decomposition gases adsorbed on carbon nanotubes

    Page(s): 1200 - 1207
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    Chemical byproducts analysis has been recognized as a powerful diagnosis method for SF6 gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). The authors have previously demonstrated that a carbon nanotube (CNT) gas sensor could detect partial discharge (PD) generated in SF6 gas. However, PD-generated decomposition gas species, which were responsible for the CNT gas sensor response, have not been identified yet. In this paper, two kinds of experiments were conducted in order to identify the responsible decomposition gas species. At first, the decomposition gas molecules adsorbed on CNTs were analyzed by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR absorbance was observed around 735 cm-1 after CNTs were exposed to PD generated in SF6. In the second experiment, the CNT gas sensor responses to typical SF6 decomposition products (HF and SF4) were examined. The CNT gas sensor responded to these gases in the same way as to PD generated in SF6. SF4 response was larger than HF response. Based on these results, SF 4 and SOF2 emerged as candidates for the responsible decomposition gases. Electrochemical interactions between adsorbed gas molecules and CNT were discussed based on theoretical predictions of molecular orbital calculations. The calculation results suggested that both of SOF2 and SF4 could increase the CNT gas sensor conductance View full abstract»

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  • DC corona discharge from floating particle in low pressure SF6

    Page(s): 1208 - 1216
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    The final objective of this research project is clarification of the particle-triggered corona mechanism in SF6 gas-insulated electrical equipment as well as development of high precision diagnostic method of foreign metallic particle in GIS insulated by SF6 gas using the electrical signal due to corona discharge. The following research steps are conducting to achieve our goal: 1) clarification of particle-triggered corona phenomena in air which is well-understood corona mechanism, 2) clarification of particle-triggered corona phenomena under dc and ac applied voltage in SF6 gas at low pressure in which a stable corona occurred, and 3) clarification of the pressure effect on the particle-triggered corona mechanism. This study is the second step of our research series research, which focuses on characteristics and the mechanism of particle-triggered corona discharge in SF6 gas on the basis of measurements of corona current pulses at a pressure range of 30 kPa to 50 kPa under dc applied voltage. The identification of positive and negative corona pulses in SF6 gas from the waveform, amplitude and repetition rate of corona current pulses is difficult; thus, current and light pulses of coronas from the both tips of particle were measured simultaneously to discriminate the polarity of corona current pulses. Experiments showed that near the corona onset voltage, positive corona accompanied pulse current but negative corona tended to be glow-like corona. As the applied voltage was increased, negative corona changed into streamer type accompanying strong current pulse. Positive corona pulses maintained a small amplitude with an instantaneously high repetition rate, even if the field enhancement on the positive tip of particle occurred due to the positive-ion inflow to the particle produced by negative corona. On the basis of current pulse measurements, the mechanism of particle-triggered corona was discussed. Moreover, - corona activity and breakdown voltage were investigated by changing the particle position. This study confirmed that the active corona development and fall in breakdown voltage were due to the effect of intermittent short-circuit arc in the minor gap between particle and electrode when the particle was in the vicinity of the electrode View full abstract»

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  • Design optimization of high voltage bushing using electric field computations

    Page(s): 1217 - 1224
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    This paper illustrates the use of electric field computation to optimize the design of gas filled high voltage composite bushings. The United States Navy employs these bushings in high power very low frequency/low frequency transmitting stations. Commercially available 2D and 3D computational packages based on the boundary element method were employed to analyze the electric fields. The optimized design uses both internal and external elements for electric stress grading at critical parts of the bushing. It has been shown that the location and magnitude of the maximum electric field have been optimized which should result in a substantially higher corona free operating voltage View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric characterization and conduction modelling of a water tree degraded LDPE

    Page(s): 1225 - 1235
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    Distribution of electric energy by extruded polymer insulated cables continues to be a subject of outstanding relevance in modern industrialized countries all over the world. Dielectric characterization, conduction modelling and finally diagnostics of polymeric insulations are necessary steps towards the development of reliable and less expensive robust technologies of electric power distribution. This paper is devoted to a detailed experimental/theoretical study of the conductive properties of LDPE affected by different levels of degradation by water trees. Water tree layers of different lengths were grown in accelerated conditions and were characterized by water tree kinetics, time-dependent permittivity and polarization current. The polarization current was found to obey a Curie-von Schweidler law whose parameters were used to characterize the effect of ageing time. A new conduction model that takes into account dipole interactions and was obtained from a two-wells Debye model is presented which allows us to give an interpretation of the effect of ageing. This laboratory study was intended to improve the characterization of service power cables aged by water trees View full abstract»

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  • On the computation of electric field and temperature distribution in HVDC cable insulation

    Page(s): 1236 - 1244
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    The paper presents certain aspects of electrical/thermal failure of DC power cables. Closed form theoretical formulations for computing the critical stress and temperature due to an external heat source in the form of a steady current through the conductor is presented. The criticality here implies an unstable state of the dielectric and is shown, more often than not, to be different, from that corresponding to thermal decomposition limits. Formulation and solution of continuity equations under first and second kind boundary conditions taking account of electric stress and temperature-dependent DC conductivity is covered. Using the suggested model, stress and temperature distribution in the body of the insulation can be obtained to a reasonable degree of accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Partial discharge image recognition using a new group of features

    Page(s): 1245 - 1253
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    This paper presents a new group of features used for partial discharge (PD) pattern recognition, based on the description of detail and statistical characteristics of PD images by using fractal features and statistical parameters, respectively. An improved differential box-counting method is proposed for fractal dimension estimation of PD images. The new group of features is used as the input parameters of a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) for PD image recognition. During defect model experiments in the laboratory, five types of artificial defect models are used to acquire the data samples, which are used to qualify the proposed PD recognition method. Analysis results show that the proposed features are effective for PD images recognition View full abstract»

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  • Initiation from a point anode in a dielectric liquid

    Page(s): 1254 - 1260
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    Many previous studies of electrical breakdowns in dielectric liquids in point-plane geometry have examined the relationships among the breakdown structure (or speed), the electrode geometry (point radius, gap length), and/or voltage. This paper explores the hypothesis that, for streamers initiating from a point anode, the critical volume model used for similar geometry in gaseous dielectrics is useful in liquids. The assumption of the critical volume is shown to be consistent with experimental data. Specifically, a critical volume of 0.4-1.0 mum 3 is consistent with the location of streamer initiation, with the independence of the initiation voltage for the 2nd anode mode from the tip radius for sharp tips, and the measured free paths of electrons in cyclohexane for the energies of interest View full abstract»

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  • Voltage-time and voltage-number characteristics of insulation elements with large scale oil-immersed transformers under field-use conditions

    Page(s): 1261 - 1271
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    In order to attain reduction in insulation test voltages, voltage-time (V-t) characteristics for ac voltage and voltage-number (V-N) characteristics for lightning impulse voltage were experimentally investigated on the turn-to-turn insulation model, coil-to-coil insulation model and barrier-oil-duct insulation model of core- and shell-type transformers under non-standard of field-use conditions. The conditions used for experiments on insulation characteristics in view of field-use consisted of "clean oil" and "hot oil" as the conditions for insulating oil, "trapezoidal waves", "alternate applications of positive and negative voltages", and "steep front waves" as the conditions for applied voltages, and "low dielectric constant pressboards" as an insulating object in experiments. Although the measured V-t and V-N characteristics varied depending on the conditions, the total evaluation in terms of insulation coordination showed that results under standard conditions were satisfactory in almost all the cases and some cautionary points in a few cases were recognized View full abstract»

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  • Spectrophotometric assay for copper and iron in transformer oil using partial least squares regression (PLS2)

    Page(s): 1272 - 1277
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    A simple and low cost spectrophotometric assay is proposed in this work for simultaneous determination of copper and iron levels in insulating oils. The procedure requires minimum sample volume (250 muL), it is carried out in disposable micro tubes (1.5 mL) and aqueous standards are used for calibration. In brief, after dilution with n-propanol, the wear metals are extracted with hydrochloric acid and, after neutralization, the analytes are reduced to the oxidation states Cu(I) and Fe(II) respectively. Finally, the mixture of bathocuproine-disulfonic acid and bathophenantroline-disulfonic acid is added for selective formation of copper and iron complexes. Then, chloroform and methanol are added, the sample is centrifuged and absorption spectra are registered in the upper-aqueous layer (470-550 nm). Multivariate calibration, covering concentration range 0-4 mug/mL of each analyte in oil is performed using partial least squares regression. The test solutions are prepared by spiking the aqueous standards of copper and iron to metal-free oil diluted with n-propanol (1:1). The prediction results were in agreement with those obtained using univariate spectrophotometric assay (one ligand) and those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (after dissolution of wear metals and dilution with n-propanol) View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics and modeling of AC arc on surface of ice

    Page(s): 1278 - 1285
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    A self-consistent dynamic model allowing the prediction of AC discharge activities leading to flashover on ice-covered insulator surface is presented. This model takes into account the effects of a number of parameters including insulator geometry and applied water conductivity. The instantaneous variations of major parameters are discussed in order to develop a sequential time-dependent simulation of the flashover. The temporal evolution of arc current and axial arc velocity are determined in a consistent manner. The critical flashover voltage characteristics, as a function of surface conductivity, insulator length, and insulator diameter, calculated by the model are quite satisfactory when compared to the experimental results from empirical models reported in the literature View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of leakage current and aging of silicone rubbers and porcelain in both field and salt-fog tests

    Page(s): 1286 - 1302
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    Silicone rubbers and porcelain intended for outdoor insulation were tested under electric fields at AC 60 V/mm on average for about two years at the field test site at Chubu University. Leakage currents on all materials were characterized and separated into three categories: sinusoidal, local arc, and their transition components. The porcelain allowed a larger leakage current than the silicone rubber samples, for which the cumulative charge of ca. 160 C was recorded in about two years. The cumulative charge of the silicone rubbers was less than 12 C; the cumulative charge of the local arc component, which was likely to be related to surface damage, was less than 3 C. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the chemical structure change at the silicone rubber surface layer closely resembled that of de-energized surfaces. The dominant aging factor of the silicone rubber in this field test was not electrical stress, but weathering stress such as that resulting from UV radiation. We also performed salt-fog tests of which conditions were adjusted by incorporating non-soluble deposits (kaolin powder) and by changing the salt-fog input duration. The ranking in the salt-fog test was opposite that of the field test. The salt-fog test emphasized the superiority of SIRs to porcelain when compared with the field test. The difference between artificial salt-fog and natural rainfall probably caused such differences View full abstract»

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  • Parameter evaluation for lightning impulse with oscillation and overshoot using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm

    Page(s): 1303 - 1316
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    This paper presents a novel approach for the evaluation of impulse parameters. The approach is based on the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) which produces a state space model to fit the impulse waveform. Instead of the conventional static mathematical curve model, the dynamic state space model gives a more exact fit for all types of impulse waveforms. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of decomposing the impulse waveform into various components such as smooth, overshoot, oscillations, and high frequency noise etc. Using the presented method it is possible to accurately extract the individual component, even for the overshoot or low frequency oscillation, in analytic functions without significant distortion of the original waveform. Depending on the identified oscillation frequency or overshoot duration, the unwanted components can be removed for the construction of the mean curve. Once the mean curve is obtained and described by analytic functions, the Newton-Raphson method can be performed to the computation of the impulse parameters with high accuracy. Results obtained with analytic and measured impulses show its applicability View full abstract»

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  • Study on hydrophobicity transfer of RTV coatings based on a modification of absorption and cohesion theory

    Page(s): 1317 - 1324
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    Room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coatings are used increasingly on outdoor high voltage (HV) insulators subjected to heavy pollution. An important property of the RTV coatings is the ability to restore the surface hydrophobicity after a pollutant layer has built up on the surface, which can suppress the development of leakage currents, dry band arcing and flashover. The present study analyzes the hydrophobicity and the hydrophobicity transfer of RTV coatings and the factors that affected the hydrophobicity. A modification of absorption and cohesion theory was used to analyze the hydrophobicity transfer mechanisms and the influences of temperature, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molecular weight, degree of cross-linking, extent of soluble and non-soluble components, and the pollutant properties. The hydrophobicity transfer of RTV coatings was also investigated with various conditions of contaminations and various factors, which affect the hydrophobicity transfer, including the composition of RTV coatings and the outside conditions. Results show that the hydrophobicity transfer of RTV coatings is not only dependent on compositions but also on factors of circumstance. The analysis also explains the obvious difference between the hydrophobicity transfer of RTV coatings to kieselguhr and kaolin based on a particle and surface analysis using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method, which explains the relationship between a BET surface area and the hydrophobicity transfer of the RTV coatings View full abstract»

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  • New quantitative "reading" of dielectric spectra of complex biological systems

    Page(s): 1325 - 1334
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    Dielectric spectroscopy data from measurements on four insect species from 200 MHz to 20 GHz over a temperature range from 10 to 70degC are described through reduction of numerous micromotions to a few collective motions, recognition of a low-frequency dispersion through ratio presentation format, application of a self-consistent iteration procedure, a separation procedure for types of collective motions, and application of the eigen-coordinates method for calculation of seven fitting parameters. Use of such fitting parameters to describe the total system relaxation processes quantitatively should enable practical uses of dielectric spectroscopy for measuring desired qualities or characteristics of biological and other complex materials. This general approach based on the reduction procedure and the use of different formats, including the original fitting procedure, allows more precise determination of the corresponding fitting function and description of dielectric spectra of complex systems. The application of this general methodology can be considered as the basic goal and motivation for this paper View full abstract»

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  • Critical condition of DC flashover on a circular sector model

    Page(s): 1335 - 1341
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    In order to find the electrical size which determined the critical condition of flashover, the authors have examined the propagation of the discharge on surface under DC voltage in a new laboratory model which has a continuous and radial current distribution. This model is a vat having a circular sector form of variable angles, radiuses and depths filled by an electrolyte. The obtained results on this model show that for a given resistivity of electrolyte: if the current distribution in the horizontal plane is uniform according to the sector angle, the applied critical voltage and the critical current per unit of angle (1deg) are constant for all sectors of various angles, if the current distribution in the vertical plane is uniform according to the depth, the critical flashover voltage and the critical current per unit of the electrolyte depth (1 mm) are constant for all the depths. These results lead to the critical conditions of flashover to be determined by the current per unit of angle and per unit of electrolyte depth (A/deg/mm) View full abstract»

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  • Winding movement in power transformers: a comparison of FRA measurement connection methods

    Page(s): 1342 - 1349
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    Frequency response analysis (FRA) is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting transformer winding movements. Various FRA traces can be measured from a set of transformer winding terminals each of which relate to a different test connection scheme. Practical considerations of test and analysis time dictate that only some of the connections are used, and currently there is no standard test connection. This paper presents a comparison of three FRA measurement connections widely employed in the industry today, namely: end-to-end voltage ratio, input admittance and transfer voltage ratio measurements. Using a simulation model of a 132/11 kV, 30 MVA transformer, FRA traces were generated under these connection schemes and their sensitivity towards three types of winding movement, namely: axial displacement, forced buckling and axial bending was studied. A correlation exists between the FRA measurement results of end-to-end voltage ratio, input admittance and transfer voltage ratio connection methods, provided that the HV neutral is grounded. Among the three connection methods assessed, the transfer voltage ratio connection method has the best sensitivity to axial displacement and forced buckling, whereas the end-to-end voltage ratio method has the best sensitivity towards axial bending View full abstract»

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  • Role of air gaps on AC withstand voltage of an ice-covered insulator string

    Page(s): 1350 - 1357
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    The influence of the number and position of air gaps on the 50% AC withstand voltage, V50, of a short string of 5 IEEE standard insulator units covered with ice was experimentally investigated and numerically simulated. The results show that the V50 is affected by the number and position of the air gaps. The results also show that the presence of a partial arc along the air gap close to the high voltage (HV) electrode leads to a redistribution of the voltage along the ice-covered insulator. Based on the obtained results, suggestions for improving the performance of line insulators under icing conditions were proposed View full abstract»

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  • Electro-rheological description of liquid and solid dielectrics applied to two-phase polymers: a study of EPDM

    Page(s): 1358 - 1370
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    A novel electro-rheological model for liquid and solid dielectrics is presented, which is well adapted to the purposes of engineering calculations. The study is focused in the frequency range of relaxation processes, well below the optical range. In addition, the dielectric material is considered to have only polarization charges, i.e. conduction charges are absent. The description for the energy transfer processes in dielectric materials is based on one-dimensional approximation using a rheological model with two- and three- parameter Voigt elements. The mean field approximation is adopted, considered as an averaging of the mechanical and electrical properties for the dipole and inter-dipole spaces. The continuity condition for mechanical and electrical forces is also taken into account. The model was applied to the study of ethylene-propylenedyene monomer (EPDM) commercial rubber having two phases, amorphous and semi-crystalline. A good agreement was found with the experimental results from dielectric relaxation and dynamical mechanical measurements View full abstract»

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  • Comparative tests of tape dielectrics impregnated with liquid nitrogen

    Page(s): 1371 - 1376
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    Superconducting power cables with so-called "cold dielectric" insulation system normally use tape dielectrics impregnated with pressurized liquid nitrogen (LN2). The AC and lightning impulse (LI) dielectric strength of four commercially available dielectrics have been measured under nitrogen pressures in the range 0.15-0.35 MPa, absolute. A planar test cell is used, and slits were made in the dielectric sheets to simulate butt gaps. Polypropylene laminated paper (PPLPreg) and mica filled polyamide based paper (Nomexreg 418) show AC and LI breakdown field in the range 50-80 kV/mm and 130-160 kV/mm, respectively, whereas Kraft paper and polyethylene paper (Tyvekreg) are found to have a significantly lower dielectric strength. Most of the results are reasonably consistent with previous studies. However, as opposed to other investigations, the dielectric strength for PPLPreg and Nomexreg is not found to increase with increasing nitrogen pressure View full abstract»

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  • Errata: Thermal-pulse tomography of polarization distributions in a cylindrical geometry

    Page(s): 1377
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    As originally published [ibid., Vol. 13, pp. 1030-1035, 2006] this paper had some symbols missing in the captions for fig 3, fig. 4, fig 5, and fig 7, which are described in this erratum. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 13 No. 6 - Author Index 2006

    Page(s): 1379 - 1389
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation contains topics concerned with dielectric phenomena and measurements with development and characterization of gaseous, vacuum, liquid and solid electrical insulating materials and systems.

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