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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Multilevel 2-D Bar Codes: Toward High-Capacity Storage Modules for Multimedia Security and Management

    Page(s): 405 - 420
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we deal with the design of high-rate multilevel 2-D bar codes for the print-and-scan channel. First, we introduce a framework for evaluating the performance limits of these codes by studying an intersymbol-interference (ISI)-free, synchronous, and noiseless print-and-scan channel, where the input and output alphabets are finite and the printer device uses halftoning to simulate multiple gray levels. Second, we present a new model for the print-and-scan channel specifically adapted to the problem of communications via multilevel 2-D bar codes. This model, inspired by our experimental work, assumes perfect synchronization and absence of ISI, but independence between the channel input and the noise is not assumed. We adapt the theory of multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD) to the print-and-scan channel. Finally, we present experimental results confirming the utility of our channel model, and showing that multilevel 2-D bar codes using MLC/MSD can reliably achieve the high-capacity storage requirements of many multimedia security and management applications View full abstract»

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  • Security of Lattice-Based Data Hiding Against the Known Message Attack

    Page(s): 421 - 439
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1038 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Security of quantization index modulation (QIM) watermarking methods is usually sought through a pseudorandom dither signal which randomizes the codebook. This dither plays the role of the secret key (i.e., a parameter only shared by the watermarking embedder and decoder), which prevents unauthorized embedding and/or decoding. However, if the same dither signal is reused, the observation of several watermarked signals can provide sufficient information for an attacker to estimate the dither signal. This paper focuses on the cases when the embedded messages are either known or constant. In the first part of this paper, a theoretical security analysis of QIM data hiding measures the information leakage about the secret dither as the mutual information between the dither and the watermarked signals. In the second part, we show how set-membership estimation techniques successfully provide accurate estimates of the dither from observed watermarked signals. The conclusion of this twofold study is that current QIM watermarking schemes have a relative low security level against this scenario because a small number of observed watermarked signals yields a sufficiently accurate estimate of the secret dither. The analysis presented in this paper also serves as the basis for more involved scenarios View full abstract»

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  • Traitor-Within-Traitor Behavior Forensics: Strategy and Risk Minimization

    Page(s): 440 - 456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1490 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimedia security systems have many users with different objectives and they influence each other's performance and decisions. Behavior forensics analyzes how users with conflicting interests interact with and respond to each other. Such investigation enables a thorough understanding of multimedia security systems and helps the digital rights enforcer offer stronger protection of multimedia. This paper analyzes the dynamics among attackers during multiuser collusion. The colluders share not only the profit from the redistribution of multimedia but also the risk of being detected by the content owner, and an important issue in collusion is fairness of the attack (i.e., whether all attackers share the same risk) (e.g., whether they have the same probability of being detected). While they might agree so, some selfish colluders may break their fair-play agreement in order to further lower their risk. This paper investigates the problem of "traitors within traitors" in multimedia forensics, in an effort to formulate the dynamics among attackers and understand their behavior to minimize their own risk and protect their own interests. As the first work on the analysis of this colluder dynamics, this paper explores some possible strategies that a selfish colluder can use to minimize his or her probability of being caught. We show that processing his or her fingerprinted copy before multiuser collusion helps a selfish colluder further lower his or her risk, especially when the colluded copy has high resolution and good quality. This paper also investigates the optimal precollusion processing strategies for selfish colluders to minimize their risk under the quality constraints View full abstract»

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  • Gaussian Mixture Modeling of Short-Time Fourier Transform Features for Audio Fingerprinting

    Page(s): 457 - 463
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In audio fingerprinting, an audio clip must be recognized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of previously computed fingerprints. The fingerprints should reduce the dimensionality of the input significantly, provide discrimination among different audio clips, and, at the same time, be invariant to distorted versions of the same audio clip. In this paper, we design fingerprints addressing the above issues by modeling an audio clip by Gaussian mixture models (GMM). We evaluate the performance of many easy-to-compute short-time Fourier transform features, such as Shannon entropy, Renyi entropy, spectral centroid, spectral bandwidth, spectral flatness measure, spectral crest factor, and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients in modeling audio clips using GMM for fingerprinting. We test the robustness of the fingerprints under a large number of distortions. To make the system robust, we use some of the distorted versions of the audio for training. However, we show that the audio fingerprints modeled using GMM are not only robust to the distortions used in training but also to distortions not used in training. Among the features tested, spectral centroid performs best with an identification rate of 99.2% at a false positive rate of 10-4. All of the features give an identification rate of more than 90% at a false positive rate of 10-3 View full abstract»

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  • `Print and Scan' Resilient Data Hiding in Images

    Page(s): 464 - 478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Print-scan resilient data hiding finds important applications in document security and image copyright protection. This paper proposes methods to hide information into images that achieve robustness against printing and scanning with blind decoding. The selective embedding in low frequencies scheme hides information in the magnitude of selected low-frequency discrete Fourier transform coefficients. The differential quantization index modulation scheme embeds information in the phase spectrum of images by quantizing the difference in phase of adjacent frequency locations. A significant contribution of this paper is analytical and experimental modeling of the print-scan process, which forms the basis of the proposed embedding schemes. A novel approach for estimating the rotation undergone by the image during the scanning process is also proposed, which specifically exploits the knowledge of the digital halftoning scheme employed by the printer. Using the proposed methods, several hundred information bits can be embedded into images with perfect recovery against the print-scan operation. Moreover, the hidden images also survive several other attacks, such as Gaussian or median filtering, scaling or aspect ratio change, heavy JPEG compression, and rows and/or columns removal View full abstract»

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  • A Set Theoretic Framework for Watermarking and Its Application to Semifragile Tamper Detection

    Page(s): 479 - 492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a set theoretic framework for watermarking. Multiple requirements, such as watermark embedding strength, imperceptibility, robustness to benign signal processing, and fragility under malicious attacks are described as constraint sets and a watermarked image is determined as a feasible solution satisfying these constraints. We illustrate that several constraints can be formulated as convex sets and develop a watermarking algorithm based on the method of projections onto convex sets. The framework allows flexible incorporation of different constraints, including embedding strength requirements for multiple watermarks that share the same spatial context and different imperceptibility requirements based on frequency-weighted error and local texture perceptual models. We illustrate the effectiveness of the framework by designing a hierarchical semifragile watermark that is tolerant to mild compression, allows tamper localization, and is fragile under aggressive compression. Using a quad-tree representation, a spatial resolution hierarchy is established on the image and a watermark is embedded corresponding to each node of the hierarchy. The spatial hierarchy of watermarks provides a graceful tradeoff between robustness and localization under mild JPEG compression, where watermarks at coarser levels demonstrate progressively higher immunity to JPEG compression. Under aggressive compression, watermarks at all hierarchy levels vanish, indicating a lack of trust in the image data. The constraints implicitly partition watermark power in the resolution hierarchy as well as among image regions based on robustness and invisibility requirements. Experimental results illustrate the flexibility and effectiveness of the method View full abstract»

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  • Reversible Steganography for VQ-Compressed Images Using Side Matching and Relocation

    Page(s): 493 - 501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reversible steganographic method allows an original image to be completely reconstructed from the stegoimage after the extraction of the embedded data. The traditional reversible embedding schemes are not suitable for images compressed using vector quantization (VQ) and usually require the use of the location map for reversibility. In this paper, we propose a reversible embedding scheme for VQ-compressed images that is based on side matching and relocation. The new method achieves reversibility without using the location map. The experimental results show that the proposed method is practical for VQ-compressed images and provides high image quality and embedding capacity View full abstract»

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  • Digital Video Steganalysis Exploiting Statistical Visibility in the Temporal Domain

    Page(s): 502 - 516
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present effective steganalysis techniques for digital video sequences based on interframe collusion that exploits the temporal statistical visibility of a hidden message. Steganalysis is the process of detecting, with high probability, the presence of covert data in multimedia. Present image steganalysis algorithms when applied directly to video sequences on a frame-by-frame basis are suboptimal; we present methods that overcome this limitation by using redundant information present in the temporal domain to detect covert messages embedded via spread-spectrum steganography. Our performance gains are achieved by exploiting the collusion attack that has recently been studied in the field of digital video watermarking and pattern recognition tools. Through analysis and simulations, we evaluate the effectiveness of the video steganalysis based on linear collusion approaches. The proposed steganalysis methods are successful in detecting hidden watermarks bearing low energy with high accuracy. The simulation results also show the improved performance of the proposed temporal-based methods over purely spatial methods View full abstract»

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  • The CRC–NTMAC for Noisy Message Authentication

    Page(s): 517 - 523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new message authentication code (MAC) called the cyclic redundancy check-noise-tolerant message authentication code (CRC-NTMAC). The CRC-NTMAC improves upon the recently developed NTMAC. Unlike conventional MACs, such as the keyed-hash MAC (HMAC), the CRC-NTMAC and NTMAC tolerate a modest number of errors, such as might be caused by a noisy communications channel. Furthermore, both new MACs provide estimates of the number and locations of the errors. The CRC-NTMAC, however, provides better estimates and has a lower false acceptance probability. The CRC-NTMAC is also not based on cryptographic hash functions View full abstract»

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  • On Fundamental Limitations of Proving Data Theft

    Page(s): 524 - 531
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    We show software agents that operate on input plaintext, transmit the result, and have the property that characterizes the operation as theft of plaintext amounts to solving a hard cryptographic problem. Such agents employ what we call a "questionable encryption scheme" in which it is computationally intractable to determine if the output is an asymmetric ciphertext or nonce. We therefore show a fundamental computational limitation of information forensics View full abstract»

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  • Fingerprint Retrieval for Identification

    Page(s): 532 - 542
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    This paper presents a front-end filtering algorithm for fingerprint identification, which uses orientation field and dominant ridge distance as retrieval features. We propose a new distance measure that better quantifies the similarity evaluation between two orientation fields than the conventional Euclidean and Manhattan distance measures. Furthermore, fingerprints in the data base are clustered to facilitate a fast retrieval process that avoids exhaustive comparisons of an input fingerprint with all fingerprints in the data base. This makes the proposed approach applicable to large databases. Experimental results on the National Institute of Standards and Technology data base-4 show consistent better retrieval performance of the proposed approach compared to other continuous and exclusive fingerprint classification methods as well as minutia-based indexing schemes View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Image Recovery Algorithm for Visible Watermarked Images

    Page(s): 543 - 550
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    A novel image recovery algorithm for removing visible watermarks is presented. Independent component analysis (ICA) is utilized to separate source images from watermarked and reference images. Three independent component analysis approaches are examined in the proposed algorithm, which includes joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices, second-order blind identification, and FastICA. Moreover, five different visible watermarking methods to embed uniform and linear-gradient watermarks are implemented. The experimental results show that visible watermarks are successfully removed, and that the proposed algorithm is independent of both the adopted ICA approach and the visible watermarking method. In the final experiment, several public domain images sourced from various websites are tested. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can blindly and successfully remove the visible watermarks without knowing the watermarking methods in advance View full abstract»

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  • List of reviewers

    Page(s): 551 - 553
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security EDICS

    Page(s): 554
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security Information for authors

    Page(s): 555 - 556
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  • IEEE Transactions on Multimedia

    Page(s): 557
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  • 2007 International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME)

    Page(s): 558
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  • 2006 Index

    Page(s): 559 - 564
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  • IEEE Signal Processing Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security covers the sciences, technologies, and applications relating to information forensics, information security, biometrics, surveillance and systems applications that incorporate these features.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Chung C. Jay Kuo
University of Southern California