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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 43
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • An Analytical Model for the Lateral Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (LIGBT) on Thin SOI

    Page(s): 1521 - 1528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While there are several analytical models dedicated to vertical insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) there is virtually no reliable model for lateral IGBTs (LIGBTs). LIGBTs are increasingly popular in smart power and power integrated circuits, especially in those applications where high voltage (e.g., 600 V) and high current capability (e.g., 30 A/cm2) are required. In this paper, we report for the first time a complete analytical model for the LIGBT based on semiconductor physics with very few fitting parameters. The model is implemented in the widely available circuit simulator PSpice. The model consistently describes the current and voltage waveforms for all loading conditions. The model is assessed against finite element device simulations and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Coupled-Magnetic Filters With Adaptive Inductance Cancellation

    Page(s): 1529 - 1540
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    Conventional filter circuits suffer from a number of limitations, including performance degradation due to capacitor parasitic inductance and the size and cost of magnetic elements. Coupled-magnetic filters have been developed that provide increased filter order with a single magnetic component, but also suffer from parasitic inductance in the filter shunt path due to imperfectly-controlled coupling of the magnetics. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to coupled-magnetic filters that overcomes these limitations. Filter sensitivity to variations in coupling is overcome by adaptively tuning the magnetic circuit for minimum rms ripple performance with feedback based on the sensed filter output ripple. This active control enables much greater robustness to manufacturing and environmental variations than is possible in the conventional "zero-ripple" coupled-magnetic approach, while preserving its advantages. Moreover, the proposed technique also adaptively cancels the deleterious effects of capacitor parasitic inductance, thereby providing much higher filter performance than is achievable in conventional designs. The new technique is experimentally demonstrated in a dc-dc power converter application and is shown to provide high performance View full abstract»

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  • Heat Pipe Integrated in Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) Technology for Cooling of Power Electronics Packaging

    Page(s): 1541 - 1547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal dissipation in power electronics systems is becoming an extremely important issue with the continuous growth of power density in their components. The primary cause of failure in this equipment is excessive temperatures in the critical components, such as semiconductors and transformers. This problem is particularly important in power electronic systems for space applications. These systems are usually housed in completely sealed enclosures for safety reasons. The effective management of heat removal from a sealed enclosure poses a major thermal-design challenge since the cooling of these systems primarily rely on natural convection. In this context, the presented paper treats the heat pipes as effective heat transfer devices that can be used to raise the thermal conductive path in order to spread a concentrated heat source over a larger surface area. As a result, the high heat flux at the heat source can be reduced to a smaller and manageable level that can be dissipated through conventional cooling methods. The objective of our work is to describe the feasibility of a cooling system with miniature heat pipes embedded in a direct bonded copper (DBC) structure. The advantage of this type of heat pipe is the possibility for implementation of the component layout on the heat pipe itself, which eliminates the existence of a thermal interface between the device and the cooling system View full abstract»

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  • A New Approach to Reducing Output Ripple in Switched-Capacitor-Based Step-Down DC–DC Converters

    Page(s): 1548 - 1555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapidly dropping power supply voltages and tight voltage regulation requirements for integrated circuits challenges power supply designers. A novel interleaved discharging (ID) approach is presented to reduce the output ripple in step-down switched-capacitor (SC) dc-dc converters. Simulation and experimental results of a four-stage SC dc-dc converter show that the ID approach can reduce the output ripple by a factor of three. The proposed approach also improves the converter efficiency by 7%. The ID method provides flexibility in the design optimization of step-down SC dc-dc converters View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Performance of an APWM Resonant Inverter for High Frequency AC Power Distribution System

    Page(s): 1556 - 1563
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the feedforward and feedback control loops are designed for the asymmetrical pulsewidth-modulated (APWM) resonant inverter to achieve fast transient response for the application in high frequency ac power distribution systems. In the proposed control scheme, the modulated integral control acts as a feedforward loop and provides pre-regulation for the feedback loop. As a result, the APWM resonant inverter has fast transient response against the line and load variation. Simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the dynamic performance of the APWM resonant inverter View full abstract»

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  • A Hot-Swap Solution for Paralleled Power Modules by Using Current-Sharing Interface Circuits

    Page(s): 1564 - 1571
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    A hot swap of power modules is required by high-availability parallel power module systems. With the hot-swappable paralleled power modules, the system up-time can be maximized, the system maintenance and repair can be simplified, and the system upgrade can be allowed for. In this paper, a simple hot-swap solution is proposed for the paralleled power modules which use current-sharing (CS) interface circuits to do the CS work. By redesigning the basic function circuits of the CS interface circuits (such as the under voltage protection circuit, the current-sharing circuit, and the light load protection circuit etc.), an additional hot-swap function can be implemented "parasitically". There is no extra hot-swap controller and no compatibility problem between the hot-swap and CS solutions used. A prototype CS interface circuit with a "parasitic" hot-swap function was designed, implemented, and tested. The results show that the proposed hot-swap solution is feasible and suitable View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design for a New ZVS DC–DC Converter With Active Clamping

    Page(s): 1572 - 1579
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new zero voltage switching (ZVS) boost converter is presented in this paper. By using an auxiliary switch and a capacitor, ZVS for all switches is achieved with an auxiliary winding in one magnetic core. A small diode is added to eliminate the voltage ringing across the main rectifier diode. This clamping technique can also be utilized in other dc-dc converters, and a family of new ZVS dc-dc converter is derived. A prototype (500 W/193 kHz) is made to verify the theoretical analysis. The efficiency is higher than 94% at 90-V input at full load View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of a Soft-Switched Isolated Bidirectional AC–DC Converter Without Auxiliary Circuit

    Page(s): 1580 - 1587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An isolated ac-dc converter topology includes a capacitively snubbered voltage source converter (VSC) and a cycloconverter, coupled by a medium frequency transformer. The topology offers the possibility of bilateral power flow as well as three-level pulse width modulation on the ac side. It is shown that by alternately commutating the VSC and the cycloconverter it is possible to achieve either zero-voltage or zero-current switching conditions for all semiconductor devices in all points of operation. This is the case without any need for auxiliary semiconductor devices. At low load the transformer current may be insufficient for recharging the VSC snubber capacitors. In this case, however, it is possible to utilize the cycloconverter for providing a current path by which a quasi-resonant commutation can be made. The design and operation of a 40-kVA prototype converter system is described. It is shown how the rather complex switching logic required for implementing the chosen algorithm for commutation and modulation can be realized by using modern programmable logic devices [field programmable gate array (FPGA)]. Measurement results from the prototype converter are presented and analyzed. The measurements indicate that the studied commutation algorithm works well in practice View full abstract»

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  • Digital Multimode Buck Converter Control With Loss-Minimizing Synchronous Rectifier Adaptation

    Page(s): 1588 - 1599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops a multimode control strategy which allows for efficient operation of the buck converter over a wide load range. A method for control of synchronous rectifiers as a direct function of the load current is introduced . The function relating the synchronous-rectifier timing to the load current is optimized on-line with a gradient power-loss-minimizing algorithm. Only low-bandwidth measurements of the load current and a power-loss-related quantity are required, making the technique suitable for digital controller implementations. Compared to alternative loss-minimizing approaches, this method has superior adjustment speed and robustness to disturbances, and can simultaneously optimize multiple parameters. The proposed synchronous-rectifier control also accomplishes an automatic, optimal transition to discontinuous-conduction mode at light load. Further, by imposing a minimum duty-ratio, the converter automatically enters pulse-skipping mode at very light load. Thus, the same controller structure can be used in both fixed-frequency pulsewidth modulation and variable-frequency pulse-skipping modes. These techniques are demonstrated on a digitally-controlled 100-W buck converter View full abstract»

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  • Soft-Switched PFC Boost Rectifier With Integrated ZVS Two-Switch Forward Converter

    Page(s): 1600 - 1606
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A soft-switched continuous-conduction-mode boost power factor correction front-end converter with an integrated zero-voltage-switched two-switch forward second-stage converter is introduced. In the proposed approach, a single transformer is commonly used by the two stages to provide isolation of the power supply and soft switching of all semiconductor switches including a controlled di/dt turn-off rate of the boost rectifier. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated on a 150-kHz, 430-W/12-V, universal-line range prototype converter View full abstract»

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  • A Multilevel Inverter Topology for Inductively Coupled Power Transfer

    Page(s): 1607 - 1617
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a multilevel inverter that can synthesize quantized approximations of arbitrary ac waveforms. This converter could be used to deliver power over multiple frequencies simultaneously. Unlike traditional multilevel inverters, this topology does not require an external voltage balancing circuit, a complicated control scheme, or isolated dc sources to maintain its voltage levels while delivering sustained real power. In this paper, we use this circuit for heating frequency selectable induction targets designed to stimulate temperature sensitive polymer gel actuators. For this application our multilevel inverter offers higher efficiency than a pulse width modulated full-bridge inverter (a more conventional power supply solution) at comparable levels of total harmonic distortion View full abstract»

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  • A General PWM Strategy for Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverters

    Page(s): 1618 - 1627
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A general pulsewidth modulation (PWM) method for control of four-switch three-phase inverters is presented. The proposed vector PWM offers a simple method to select three or four vectors that effectively synthesize the desired output voltage, even in presence of voltage oscillations across the two dc-link capacitors. The method utilizes the so called space vector modulation, and includes its scalar version. Different vector combinations are compared. The effect of Wye and delta motor winding connections over the pulse width modulator is also considered. The common mode voltage generated by the four-switch three-phase converter is evaluated and compared to that provided by the standard six-switch three-phase inverter. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • A Line-Interactive Single-Phase to Three-Phase Converter System

    Page(s): 1628 - 1636
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    This paper describes a line-interactive single-phase to three-phase converter. A typical application is in rural areas supplied by a single-wire with earth return system. The traditional objective of feeding a three-phase induction motor is not anymore the main concern for such conversion. Due to the evolution of the farm technology, some of the local loads (as electronic power converters, computers, communication equipments, etc) require high power quality that is intended as sinusoidal, symmetrical, and balanced three-phase voltage. Additionally, to maximize the power from the feeder, the system provides a unity power factor to the grid. A three-phase voltage source inverter-pulsewidth modulation converter is used for this purpose. The power converter processes a fraction of the load power and the energy necessary to regulate the dc link voltage. As it does not need to supply active power, it is not necessary to have a source at the dc side. However, if island mode operation is needed, a dc source must be available at the dc link to supply the load. The control strategy, design criteria, and experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • The Delta-Rectifier: Analysis, Control and Operation

    Page(s): 1637 - 1648
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    The three-phase Delta-Rectifier is formed by a delta-connection of single-phase pulsewidth modulation (PWM) rectifier modules and has the advantage that it can provide full rated output power in the case of a mains phase loss. In this paper the Delta-Rectifier, implemented with a standard (two-level and/or three-level) boost converter, is analyzed based on an equivalent star connection. Analysis of the Delta-Rectifier shows a redundancy in the switching states concerning the input voltage formation. Furthermore, the Delta-Rectifier has reduced current ripple in the mains phase currents if the modulation is implemented with synchronized PWM. A disadvantage of two-level Delta-Rectifier is the higher voltage stress on the switching devices; however this is mitigated when the boost converter is implemented with a three-level topology as realized for a 10.5-kW laboratory prototype. The Delta-Rectifier concept is proposed based on theoretical considerations and is verified experimentally. The influence of non-idealities on the current ripple formation in the practical realization is analyzed and a high quality mains phase current is demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Natural Balance of Multicell Converters: The Two-Cell Case

    Page(s): 1649 - 1657
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    The multicell converter topology is said to possess a natural voltage balancing property. This paper is the first of a two-part series in which multicell converters are modelled for the general case of p-cells. This paper focuses on the development of the natural balancing theory for the two-cell case. An understanding of the two-cell case is fundamental to understanding the general balancing theory. The switching functions used in switching these converters are mathematically analyzed. Equivalent circuits are derived and presented. The switching and balancing properties of these converters are mathematically analyzed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that the natural balancing of these converters are influenced by three factors namely, the harmonic content of the reference waveform, the switching frequency and the load impedance. Mathematical tools are presented that can help designers to predict if balancing problems would occur for a particular set of operating conditions. As a result of the detailed understanding of the balancing mechanism that is gained through this theory it is shown that by adding a balance booster, the load impedance can be manipulated to improve the natural balancing of the converter. Simulation results are included to verify the presented balance theory and properties View full abstract»

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  • Natural Balance of Multicell Converters: The General Case

    Page(s): 1658 - 1666
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (758 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the development of the natural balancing theory for the p-cell case. It describes the relationship between the models for different numbers of cells in a generic model for a p-cell multicell converter. The model discussed is based on the same principles that were used to develop the two-cell model in , except that the mathematics is much more involved. The same conclusions that were found to be true for the two-cell case was also found to be true for the general case of p cells. These conclusions include that the natural balancing mechanism of multicell converters depends on the overlap of the groups of harmonics of the switching function as well as on the load impedance. It will also be shown that the self-balancing mechanism ensures safe operation under most operating conditions where a high enough switching frequency is chosen and the load is not purely reactive. Two new aspects of the balancing theory were identified in the p-cell case: 1) for fixed duty-cycle modulation there exists certain values of the duty-cycle that causes the natural balancing mechanism to fail and 2) for p-cell converters the balance booster concept can be extended to a number of balance boosters tuned to multiples of the switching frequency. A "DesignTool" based on the balancing theory was developed to aid practicing engineers in designing multicell converters View full abstract»

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  • Source and Load Adaptive Design for a High-Power Soft-Switching Inverter

    Page(s): 1667 - 1675
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    The operating range of a zero-voltage switched inverter is typically constrained by the source and load variation. This paper adopts a variable turns ratio coupled magnetic type soft-switching inverter for a wide-range source and load adaptability. The operating principle and design guideline are described in detail. Design examples have been verified with computer simulation and hardware implementation. Experimental results of a 120-kW hardware prototype are presented to show superiority of the proposed soft-switching inverter design and significant reduction on loss and dv/dt View full abstract»

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  • Three-Level Inverter Scheme With Common Mode Voltage Elimination and DC Link Capacitor Voltage Balancing for an Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive

    Page(s): 1676 - 1683
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1018 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dc link capacitor voltage balancing scheme along with common mode voltage elimination is proposed for an induction motor drive, with open-end winding structure. The motor is fed from both the ends with three-level inverters generating a five level output voltage space phasor structure. If switching combinations, with zero common mode voltage in the pole voltage, are used, then the resultant voltage space vector combinations are equivalent to that of a three-level inverter. The proposed inverter vector locations exhibit greater multiplicity in the inverter switching combinations which is suitably exploited to arrive at a capacitor voltage balancing scheme. This allows the use of a single dc link power supply for the combined inverter structure. The simultaneous task of common mode voltage elimination with dc link capacitor voltage balancing, using only the switching state redundancies, is experimentally verified on a 1.5-kW induction motor drive View full abstract»

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  • A Three-Phase ZVS PWM DC–DC Converter Associated With a Double-Wye Connected Rectifier, Delta Primary

    Page(s): 1684 - 1690
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    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the three-phase zero voltage switching pulsewidth modulation dc-dc converter associated with a double Wye connected rectifier, delta primary, using a special switching scheme in order to maintain equilibrium among the currents through the output filters. The operating stages are described and the simulation and experimental results of a 6-kW prototype are presented View full abstract»

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  • Carrier-Based Modulation Technique for Matrix Converter

    Page(s): 1691 - 1703
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    This paper presents a carrier-based modulation method for a matrix converter. By using the offset voltage and changing the slope of carrier, it is possible to synthesize the sinusoidal input currents with the unity power factor and desired output voltages. The proposed method is equivalent to the so called space vector pulsewidth modulation method. The proposed method uses a new point of view to understand the matrix converter modulation method such as the voltage source inverter (VSI) modulation method. Using the proposed method, this paper presents the two-phase/three-phase modulation method and dynamic/steady-state overmodulation method for the matrix converter. These methods are well developed in the study of a VSI. By the proposed steady-state overmodulation method, it is possible to synthesize the fundamental component of output voltage to be equal to that of input voltage at the cost of some distortion of input current. The feasibility of the proposed modulation method has been verified by a computer simulation and experimental results. These results show that the proposed carrier-based modulation method can be implemented easily without any tables. It can be used for the application where a higher voltage transfer ratio is essential View full abstract»

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  • Load-Line Regulation With Estimated Load-Current Feedforward: Application to Microprocessor Voltage Regulators

    Page(s): 1704 - 1717
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A consistent framework for load-line regulation design is presented, applicable to microprocessor voltage regulators (VRs) using either electrolytic or ceramic output capacitors. With conventional feedback control, the loop bandwidth is limited by stability constraints linked to the switching frequency. The output capacitor has to be chosen sufficiently large to meet the stability requirement. Load-current feedforward can extend the useful bandwidth beyond that imposed by feedback stability constraints. With load-current feedforward, the size of the output capacitor can be reduced, since it is determined solely by large-signal and switching-ripple considerations which are shown to be less constraining than the feedback stability requirement. This work points to the feasibility of microprocessor VR implementations using only a small number of ceramic output capacitors, while running at sub-megahertz switching frequencies View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Current-Mode Control Technique for DC–DC Converters

    Page(s): 1718 - 1726
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    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple digital current mode control technique for dc-dc converters. In the proposed current-mode control method, the inductor current is sampled only once in a switching period. A compensating ramp is used in the modulator to determine the switching instant. The slope of the compensating ramp is determined analytically from the steady-state stability condition. The proposed digital current-mode control is not predictive, therefore the trajectory of the inductor current during the switching period is not estimated in this method, and as a result the computational burden on the digital controller is significantly reduced. It therefore effectively increases the maximum switching frequency of the converter when a particular digital signal processor is used to implement the control algorithm. It is shown that the proposed digital method is versatile enough to implement any one of the average, peak, and valley current mode controls by adjustment of the sampling instant of the inductor current with respect to the turn-on instant of the switch. The proposed digital current-mode control algorithm is tested on a 12-V input and 1.5-V, 7-A output buck converter switched at 100kHz and experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Variable Hysteresis Band Current Control of Three-Phase Three-Level Unity PF Rectifier With Constant Switching Frequency

    Page(s): 1727 - 1734
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Simple and novel variable hysteresis band current control technique for three-phase three-level unity power factor (PF) rectifier is proposed in this paper. The hysteresis band is controlled as variations of the rectifier input voltage and output dc link voltage to achieve constant switching frequency at any operating conditions, i.e., at rated and below and above the rated conditions. The rectifier has the characteristic of easy implementation, and draws a nearly sinusoidal current at unity input PF. Theoretical and predicted results of its analysis are verified initially through digital simulation, and confirmed by using an experimental prototype View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope