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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

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  • Movement Epenthesis Generation Using NURBS-Based Spatial Interpolation

    Page(s): 1313 - 1323
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study proposes a novel approach to the generation of video-based movement epenthesis for sign language and concentrates on a spatial interpolation approach using a nonuniform rational B-spline function to produce a smooth interpolation curve. To generate movement epenthesis, the beginning and end "cut points" are determined based on the concatenation cost, which is a linear combination of the distance, smoothness, and image distortion costs. The distance cost is defined as the normalized Euclidian distance between the palm locations at two cut points. The smoothness cost is determined by accumulating the second derivative of the curve. The image distortion cost is then estimated from the normalized Euclidian distance between the real and generated hand images. To evaluate the proposed approach, a set of sign video databases is collected and preprocessed with image calibration, content annotation, and principle component analysis. An image component overlapping procedure is also employed to yield a smooth sign video output. Evaluation results demonstrate that the synthesized trajectory is very close to the original trajectory. Moreover, the system was evaluated subjectively based on the results of ten hearing and five deaf people. The evaluation results also demonstrate the stability and feasibility of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • Joint Prediction Algorithm and Architecture for Stereo Video Hybrid Coding Systems

    Page(s): 1324 - 1337
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    3-D video will be the most prominent video technology in the next generation. Among the 3-D video technologies, stereo video systems are considered to be realized first in the near future. Stereo video systems require double bandwidth and more than twice the computational complexity relative to mono-video systems. Thus, an efficient coding scheme is necessary for transmitting stereo video. In this paper, a new structure of prediction core in stereo video coding systems is proposed from the algorithm level to the hardware architecture level. The joint prediction algorithm (JPA), which combines three prediction schemes, is proposed for high coding efficiency and low computational complexity. It makes the system outperform MPEG-4 temporal scalability and simple profile by 2-3 dB in rate-distortion performance. Besides, JPA also utilizes the characteristics of stereo video and successfully reduces about 80% computational complexity. Then, a new hardware architecture of the prediction core based on JPA and a modified hierarchical search block-matching algorithm is proposed. With a special data flow, no bubble cycles exist during the block-matching process. The proposed architecture also adopts the near-overlapped candidates reuse scheme to save the heavy burden of data access. Besides, both on-chip memory requirement and off-chip memory bandwidth can be reduced by the proposed new scheduling. Compared with the hardware requirement for the implementation of full search block-matching algorithm, only 11.5% on-chip SRAM and 3.3% processing elements are needed with a tiny PSNR drop, making it area-efficient while maintaining high stereo video quality and processing capability View full abstract»

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  • Progressive Coding of 3-D Objects Based on Overcomplete Decompositions

    Page(s): 1338 - 1349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a progressive coding scheme for 3-D objects, based on overcomplete signal expansions on the 2-D sphere. Due to increased freedom in the basis construction, redundant expansions have shown interesting approximation properties in the decomposition of signals with multidimensional singularities organized along embedded submanifolds. We propose to map simple 3-D models on 2-D spheres and then to decompose the signal over a redundant dictionary of oriented and anisotropic atoms living on the sphere. The signal expansion is computed iteratively with a matching pursuit algorithm, which greedily selects the most prominent components of the 3-D model. The decomposition therefore inherently represents a progressive stream of atoms, which is advantageously used in the design of scalable representations. An encoder is proposed that compresses the stream of atoms by adaptive coefficient quantization and entropy coding of atom indexes. Experimental results show that the novel coding strategy outperforms state-of-the-art progressive coders in terms of distortion, mostly at low bit rates. Furthermore, since the dictionary is built on structured atoms, the proposed representation simultaneously offers an increased flexibility for easy stream manipulations. We finally illustrate that advantage in the design of a view-dependent transmission scheme View full abstract»

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  • VLSI Design of a Wavelet Processing Core

    Page(s): 1350 - 1361
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    A processing core architecture for the implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), optimized for throughput, scalability and programmability is proposed. The architecture is based on the RISC architecture with an instruction set specifically designed to facilitate the implementation of wavelet-based applications and a memory controller optimized for the memory access pattern of DWT processing View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Programming-Based Reverse Frame Selection for VBR Video Delivery Under Constrained Resources

    Page(s): 1362 - 1375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate optimal frame-selection algorithms based on dynamic programming for delivering stored variable bit rate (VBR) video under both bandwidth and buffer size constraints. Our objective is to find a feasible set of frames that can maximize the video's accumulated motion values without violating any constraint. It is well known that dynamic programming has high complexity. In this research, we propose to eliminate nonoptimal intermediate frame states, which can effectively reduce the complexity of dynamic programming. Moreover, we propose a reverse frame selection (RFS) algorithm, where the selection starts from the last frame and ends at the first frame. Compared with the conventional dynamic programming-based forward frame selection, the RFS is able to find all of the optimal results for different preloads in one round. We further extend the RFS scheme to solve the problem of frame selection for VBR channels. In particular, we first perform the RFS algorithm offline, and the complexity is modest and scalable with the aids of frame stuffing and nonoptimal state elimination. During online streaming, we only need to retrieve the optimal frame-selection path from the pregenerated offline results, and it can be applied to any VBR channels as long as the VBR channels can be modeled as piecewise CBR channels. Experimental results show good performance of our proposed algorithms View full abstract»

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  • High-Throughput Architecture for H.264/AVC CABAC Compression System

    Page(s): 1376 - 1384
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New image and video coding standards have pushed the limits of compression by introducing new techniques with high computational demands. The Advanced Video Coder (ITU-T H.264, AVC MPEG-4 Part 10) is the last international standard, which introduces new enhanced features that require new levels of performance. Among the new tools present in AVC, the context-based binary arithmetic coder (CABAC) offers significant compression advantage over baseline entropy coders. CABAC is meant to be used in AVC's Main and High Profiles, which target broadcast and video storage and distribution of standard and high-definition contents. In these applications, hardware acceleration is needed as the computational load of CABAC is high, challenging programmable processors. Moreover, rate-distortion optimization (RDO) increases CABAC's load by two orders of magnitude. In this paper, we present a fast and new architecture for arithmetic coding adapted to the characteristics of CABAC, including optimized use of memory and context managing and fast processing able to encode more than two symbols per cycle. A maximum processing speed of 185 MHz has been obtained for 0.35 mu, able to encode high quality video in real time. Some of the proposed optimization may also be applied to software implementations obtaining significant improvements View full abstract»

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  • 4-D Wavelet-Based Multiview Video Coding

    Page(s): 1385 - 1396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2034 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The conventional multiview video coding (MVC) schemes, utilizing both neighboring temporal frames and view frames as possible references, have only shown a slight gain over those using temporal frames alone in terms of coding efficiency. The reason for this is that the neighboring temporal frames exhibit stronger correlation with the current frame and the view frames often fail to be selected as references. This paper proposes an elegant MVC framework using high dimensional wavelet, which rightly matches the inherent high dimension property of multiview video. It also makes a better usage of both temporal and view correlations thanks to the hierarchical decomposition. Besides the proposed framework, this paper also investigates MVC coding from the following aspects. First, a disparity-compensated view filter (DCVF) with pixel alignment is proposed, which can accommodate both global and local view disparities among view frames. The proposed DCVF and the existing motion-compensated temporal filter (MCTF) unify the view and temporal decompositions as a generic lifting transform. Second, an adaptive decomposition structure based on the analysis of the temporal and view correlations is proposed. A Lagrangian cost function is derived to determine the optimum decomposition structure. Third, the major components of the proposed MVC coding are figured out, including macroblock type design, subband coefficient coding, and rate allocation. Extensive experiments are carried out on the MPEG 3DAV test sequences and the superior performance of the proposed MVC coding is demonstrated. In addition, the proposed MVC framework can easily support temporal, spatial, SNR, as well as view scalabilities View full abstract»

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  • A Flexible Hardware JPEG 2000 Decoder for Digital Cinema

    Page(s): 1397 - 1410
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The image compression standard JPEG 2000 proposes a large set of features that is useful for today's multimedia applications. Unfortunately, it is much more complex than older standards. Real-time applications, such as digital cinema, require a specific, secure, and scalable hardware implementation. In this paper, a decoding scheme is proposed with two main characteristics. First, the complete scheme takes place in a field-programmable gate array without accessing any external memory, allowing integration in a secured system. Second, a customizable level of parallelization allows to satisfy a broad range of constraints, depending on the signal resolution. The resulting architecture is therefore ready to meet upcoming digital cinema specifications View full abstract»

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  • Improved Super-Resolution Reconstruction From Video

    Page(s): 1411 - 1422
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    Super-resolution (SR) reconstruction usually consists of four steps: registration, interpolation, restoration, and postprocessing. The registration precision (RP) and the initial SR image estimation (ISIE) greatly influence the quality of reconstructed images. A scheme to enhance RP and ISIE is proposed in this paper. Before the registration, each video frame is iteratively upsampled, the registration from current SR reconstructed frame and its adjacent upsampled frames are then estimated, and adjacent frames are warped with registrations to form the high-definition (HD) constraint set, while input frames are used to construct the low-definition (LD) constraint set. The SR reconstructed image corresponds to the minimum difference with the HD constraint set, and its warped and downsampled form corresponds to the minimum difference with the LD constraint set. ISIE can thus be improved from the HD constraint set. In this scheme, the outlier registration with the HD pixel precision is obtained by comparing warped HD frames with the reconstructed SR image, and the adverse influence can be eliminated in calculating LD difference to accelerate the convergence rate of the SR reconstruction and improve the quality of reconstructed images. The performance improvement of the proposed scheme over some existing work is shown in experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Reversible Visible Watermarking and Lossless Recovery of Original Images

    Page(s): 1423 - 1429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a reversible visible watermarking algorithm to satisfy a new application scenario where the visible watermark serves as a tag or ownership identifier, but can be completely removed to resume the original image data. It includes two procedures: data hiding and visible watermark embedding. In order to losslessly recover both the watermark-covered and nonwatermark-covered image contents at the receiver end, the payload consists of two reconstruction data packets, one for recovering the watermark-covered region, and the other for the nonwatermark-covered region. The data hiding technique reversibly hides the payload in the image region not covered by the visible watermark. To satisfy the requirements of large capacity and high image quality, our hiding technique is based on data compression and uses a payload-adaptive scheme. It further adopts error diffusion for improving subjective image quality and arithmetic compression using a character-based model for increasing computational efficiency. The visible watermark is securely embedded based on a user-key-controlled embedding mechanism. The data hiding and the visible watermark embedding procedures are integrated into a secure watermarking system by a specially designed user key View full abstract»

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  • Wyner–Ziv Video Coding With Universal Prediction

    Page(s): 1430 - 1436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The coding efficiency of a Wyner-Ziv video codec relies significantly on the quality of side information extracted at the decoder. The construction of efficient side information is difficult thanks in part to the fact that the original video sequence is not available at the decoder. Conventional motion search methods are widely used in the Wyner-Ziv video decoder to extract the side information. This substantially increases the Wyner-Ziv video decoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct side estimation based on the idea of universal prediction. This method, referred to as Wyner-Ziv video coding with universal prediction (WZUP), does not perform motion search or assume an underlying model of the original input video sequences at the decoder. Instead, WZUP estimates the side information based on its observations on the past reconstructed video data. We show that WZUP can significantly reduce decoding complexity at the decoder and achieve a fair side estimation performance, thus making it possible to design both the video encoder and the decoder with low computational complexity View full abstract»

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  • Low-Complexity Multiresolution Image Compression Using Wavelet Lower Trees

    Page(s): 1437 - 1444
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new image compression algorithm is proposed based on the efficient construction of wavelet coefficient lower trees. The main contribution of the proposed lower-tree wavelet (LTW) encoder is the utilization of coefficient trees, not only as an efficient method of grouping coefficients, but also as a fast way of coding them. Thus, it presents state-of-the-art compression performance, whereas its complexity is lower than the one presented in other wavelet coders, like SPIHT and JPEG 2000. Fast execution is achieved by means of a simple two-pass coding and one-pass decoding algorithm. Moreover, its computation does not require additional lists or complex data structures, so there is no memory overhead. A formal description of the algorithm is provided, while reference software is also given. Numerical results show that our codec works faster than SPIHT and JPEG 2000 (up to three times faster than SPIHT and fifteen times faster than JPEG 2000), with similar coding efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on multiview video coding

    Page(s): 1445
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  • In this issue

    Page(s): 1446
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  • 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2007)

    Page(s): 1447
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  • 2007 International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME)

    Page(s): 1448
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it