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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Simultaneous thermal and electrical analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1446 - 1455
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1054 KB)  

    A software tool for the simultaneous determination of the thermal and electrical steady-state regimes of nonlinear microwave circuits containing temperature-dependent active devices is introduced. The analysis technique is an extension of the classic piecewise harmonic-balance method, and is quite general-purpose. It can be applied to networks operating under multiple-tone excitation, including pulsed-RF regimes. The simulation problem is reduced to a nonlinear algebraic system whose unknowns are electrical and thermal state-variable harmonics. Advanced numerical techniques are used to overcome the difficulties arising from the high degree of nonlinearity and from the very large number of unknowns of the numerical problem. The program incorporates a facility for the evaluation of the thermal constants of multiple finger planar devices starting from geometrical data.<> View full abstract»

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  • Fast capacitance extraction of general three-dimensional structures

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1496 - 1506
    Cited by:  Papers (84)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB)  

    K. Nabors and J. White (1991) presented a boundary-element-based algorithm for computing the capacitance of three-dimensional m-conductor structures whose computational complexity grows nearly as mn, where n is the number of elements used to discretize the conductor surfaces. In that algorithm, a generalized conjugate residual iterative technique is used to solve the n×n linear system arising from the discretization, and a multipole algorithm is used to compute the iterates. Several improvements to that algorithm are described which make the approach applicable and computationally efficient for almost any geometry of conductors in a homogeneous dielectric. Results using these techniques in a program which computes the capacitance of general 3D structures are presented to demonstrate that the new algorithm is nearly as accurate as the more standard direct factorization approach, and is more than two orders of magnitude faster for large examples View full abstract»

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  • Circuit models for three-dimensional geometries including dielectrics

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1507 - 1516
    Cited by:  Papers (126)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    The partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) approach has proved useful for modeling many different electromagnetic problems. The technique can be viewed as an approach for the electrical circuit modeling for arbitrary 3-D geometries. Recently, the authors extended the method to include retardation with the rPEEC models. So far the dielectrics have been taken into account only in an approximate way. In this work, they generalize the technique to include arbitrary homogeneous dielectric regions. The new circuit models are applied in the frequency as well as the time domain. The time solution allows the modeling of VLSI systems which involve interconnects as well as nonlinear transistor circuits View full abstract»

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  • Time domain electromagnetic simulation for microwave CAD applications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1517 - 1527
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)  

    Recent progress in time domain modeling is highlighted. Basic properties of time-domain simulators are reviewed, and techniques for improving computational efficiency are examined. The use of numerical synthesis through time reversal is discussed. The user interface is briefly considered and typical simulation results are given View full abstract»

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  • A technique for the fullwave automatic synthesis of waveguide components: application to fixed phase shifters

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1484 - 1495
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB)  

    An efficient computer synthesis technique for waveguide components, based on rigorous field-theoretical models, has been developed. A computer code has been specifically set up for the automatic design of fixed phase shifters in rectangular waveguide technology. Only the electrical specifications are required to generate, normally in 15 to 20 min on a 386/16-MHz IBM PC, the geometrical structure of the components. The agreement with the experiments is shown to be so accurate as to avoid any tuning of the circuits realized. The efficiency and accuracy of the code is based on (i) a suitable segmentation technique of the microwave structure to obtain a very simple but rigorous network model; (ii) the efficient representation of the modal series for the electromagnetic fields; and (iii) a synthesis procedure based on a simplified model to obtain a good initial guess for the final full-wave optimization routine View full abstract»

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  • Fullwave analysis of planar microwave circuits by integral equation methods and bilinear transformations

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1581 - 1584
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    Planar microwave circuits are simulated by a mixed space-spectral domain integral method which allows the consideration of space-varying impedances. For an efficient computation of scattering parameters of circuits containing lumped elements within this fullwave analysis, a bilinear transformation is used. Furthermore, by this so-called Mobius transformation it is possible to decide whether an impedance region of finite size can be interpreted as a lumped element or not. Applications to microstrip circuits are discussed View full abstract»

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  • A technique for modelling S-parameters for HEMT structures as a function of gate bias

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1430 - 1440
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB)  

    A physically based technique for modeling HEMT structure S-parameters is presented. The core of the model is directly dependent on the HEMT wafer structure and the physical gate length. The model accurately predicts the device's S-parameters as a function of the applied gate bias. The physical basis facilitates the modeling of different types of HEMT structures. Measured S-parameters and simulation results over a frequency range of 1 to 25 GHz are presented for three different HEMT structures: uniformly doped, GaAs channel; pulse-doped, GaAs channel; and uniformly doped, strained InGaAs channel View full abstract»

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  • Channel expansion and tolerance analysis of waveguide manifold multiplexers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1591 - 1594
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    A computer-aided optimization procedure is introduced to enable the addition of extra channels to an already existing waveguide manifold multiplexer, without changing any of the existing multiplexer elements. The process provides the important advantage of the ability to expand the number of channels as required, a property which was only feasible before for channel dropping type multiplexers. The process is illustrated by practical examples that show its validity. Analysis of the effect of mechanical tolerances on the multiplexer performance is also presented to provide guidelines for the tolerance ranges in manifold multiplexer fabrication View full abstract»

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  • Yield sensitivity of HEMT circuits to process parameter variations

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1572 - 1576
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    The authors summarize the use of a graphical tool, yield factor histograms, to study the yield sensitivity of HEMT circuits to process parameter variations. A computer program called SPICENTER is used to incorporate the HEMT statistical physical model with a SPICE circuit model and then to generate the yield factor histograms and yield sensitivities as functions of the process parameters. The authors present the application of these tools to digital and microwave circuits. Two example HEMT circuits, a two-input NOR gate and an inverter chain, illustrate the concepts. Yield sensitivity is presented as yield percent change per parameter percent change View full abstract»

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  • Instantaneous model of a MESFET for use in linear and nonlinear circuit simulations

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1410 - 1421
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    A formal approach for nonlinear modeling of FETs is presented. The intrinsic transistor is described by current and charge generators, that are instantaneously dependent on the two internal voltages. The extrinsic parasitic elements are also included. This instantaneous model is obtained from the small signal equivalent circuit computed at a number of bias points, by integration of the bias dependent elements. A program for using this model in nonlinear circuit analysis has been developed. The process has been carried out for two transistors, one being of low noise, and the other a power MESFET. Good agreement has been observed when comparing the nonlinear analysis with measured data. A solid-state power amplifier at 28 GHz has been designed using the power transistor, delivering 21 dBm at 1 dB compression point View full abstract»

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  • A nonlinear integral model of electron devices for HB circuit analysis

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1456 - 1465
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    A technology-independent large-signal model of electron devices, the nonlinear integral model (NIM), is proposed. It is rigorously derived from the Volterra series under basic assumptions valid for most types of electron devices and is suitable for harmonic-balance circuit analysis. Unlike other Volterra-based approaches, the validity of the NIM is not limited to weakly nonlinear operation. In particular, the proposed model allows the large-signal dynamic response of an electron device to be directly computed on the basis of data obtained either by conventional measurements or by physics-based numerical simulations. In this perspective, it provides a valuable tool for linking accurate device simulations based on carrier transport physics and harmonic-balance circuit analysis algorithms. Simulations and experimental results, which confirm the validity of the NIM, are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Impedance characterization of GaAs FET switches

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1422 - 1429
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    Since the GaAs FET switch can be regarded as a linear small-signal device in the on and off states, a linear analysis is carried out only of the two states, but taking into account the geometry of electrodes, passivation layers, and depletion regions. The rectangular boundary division method is applied to solve Laplace's equation for the impedance characterization of GaAs FET switches. Equivalent electrical circuits composed of capacitors and resistors are defined for the on state and off state of a FET switch. The capacitances and resistances in the equivalent circuits are estimated and compared with experimentally measured values at 10 GHz. The quality factor of the FET switch, which can be used for estimating insertion loss, is calculated by using the two equivalent series impedances of the FET switch corresponding to the two states View full abstract»

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  • An integrated system for the synthesis of coated waveguides from specified attenuation

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1564 - 1571
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB)  

    The problem of describing the thickness and material properties of inner coatings of waveguides so as to produce a specified rate of attenuation is an increasingly important one. However, the technology for solving such problems is not yet suitable for routine use because (i) the solution procedure requires the solution of two finite element eigenvalue problems to compute the gradient of the object function with respect to every parameter of description and as a result, convergence to the optimum is very slow, and (ii) there is no integrated system for the implementation of these methods that would allow easy use. The author presents the modules for an integrated synthesis system that (i) incorporates a new algorithm for the quick computation of the gradients of the object function, and (ii) integrates drafting and word-processing packages into the finite element field computations so as to allow easy implementation of the synthesis algorithms and their comfortable incorporation into an engineer's other duties, such as writing reports and proposals View full abstract»

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  • Yield optimization using a GaAs process simulator coupled to a physical device model

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1353 - 1363
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)  

    A physics-based large-signal GaAs MESFET model and circuit simulator has been developed to predict and optimize the yield of GaAs MESFET designs before fabrication. Device acceptance criteria include both small- and large-signal RF operating characteristics such as small-signal gain, maximum power added efficiency, and output power at 1-dB gain compression. Channel doping details are described on the basis of processing specifications for parameters such as material deposition, ion implantation, and implant annealing. Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate yield when disturbances in the physical parameters are modeled as multivariate Gaussian distributions. The yield estimator is integrated with an optimizer so that a design can be centered for maximum yield in the presence of process disturbances View full abstract»

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  • Analytic physics-based expressions for the empirical parameters of the Statz-Pucel MESFET model

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1576 - 1581
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    The authors present a novel approach to the evaluation of the DC parameters of a semiempirical MESFET model: starting from the analytical expression of the drain current derived from a previously proposed physics-based model, they provide a method to calculate the empirical DC parameters of the so-called Raytheon model. The comparison between computed and measured DC characteristics is quite satisfactory on GaAs microwave FETs of 1 μm or more gate length. By adding to the results obtained in this work an adequate model of the stray capacitances, the circuit performance can be optimized using the technological characteristics of active devices View full abstract»

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  • Unified dispersion model for multilayer microstrip line

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1587 - 1591
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    A unified dispersion model is presented to calculate frequency dependent dielectric constant for a multilayer microstrip line. The model is a combination of the transverse transmission line (TTL) method, the method for the reduction of multilayer structures to an equivalent single layer microstrip line, and the dispersion model of M. Kirschning and R.H. Jansen (1982). The result of the model has been confirmed within an accuracy of 1% against the results from SDA, ESDT, and MM, i.e., various forms of full wave analysis. These results have been confirmed between 2 GHz and 18 GHz. The present model is suitable for use in a CAD package for MIC, MMIC, and printed antenna design View full abstract»

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  • Efficient development of mass producible MMIC circuits

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1364 - 1373
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    The state-of-the-art criteria and tools for an efficient development of mass producible MMICs are discussed with reference to a specific development philosophy. The available yield evaluation systems are then critically analyzed and the results of a systematic functional yield evaluation performed on a large number of monolithic circuit components are reported. A statistically meaningful database (including both FET equivalent circuit and S parameters) developed for parametric yield evaluation and yield-driven design centering is described. Through a significant example, the possibility is demonstrated of drastically improving the accuracy of the parametric circuit yield forecasts by using a small set of mutually uncorrelated process dependent parameters and by making reference to a physically based semiempirical FET model View full abstract»

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  • Integrated physics-oriented statistical modeling, simulation, and optimization [MESFETs]

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1374 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2140 KB)  

    Physics-based modeling of MESFETs is addressed from the point of view of efficient simulation, accurate behavior prediction and robust parameter extraction. A novel integration of a large-signal physics-based model into the harmonic balance equations for simulation of nonlinear circuits, involving an efficient Newton update, is presented and exploited in a gradient-based FAST (feasible adjoint sensitivity technique) circuit optimization technique. For yield-driven MMIC design a relevant physics-based statistical modeling methodology is presented. Quadratic approximation of responses and gradients suitable for yield optimization is discussed. The authors verify their theoretical contributions and exemplify their computational results using built-in and user-programmable modeling capabilities of the CAE systems OSA90/hope and HarPE. Results of device modeling using a field-theoretic nonlinear device simulator are reported View full abstract»

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  • Minimization of delay and crosstalk in high-speed VLSI interconnects

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1555 - 1563
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    Design optimization of time responses of high-speed VLSI interconnects modeled by distributed coupled transmission line networks is presented. The problem of simultaneous minimization of crosstalk, delay and reflection is formulated into minimax optimization. Design variables include physical/geometrical parameters of the interconnects and parameters in terminating/matching networks. A recently published simulation and sensitivity analysis technique for multiconductor transmission lines is expanded to directly address the VLSI interconnect environment. The new approach permits efficient physical/geometrical oriented interconnect design using exact gradient based minimax optimization. Examples of interconnect optimization demonstrate significant reductions of crosstalk, delay, distortion and reflection at all vital connection ports. The technique developed is an important step towards optimal design of circuit interconnects for high-speed digital computers and communication systems View full abstract»

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  • Physics-based electron device modelling and computer-aided MMIC design

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1333 - 1352
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2056 KB)  

    On overview on the state of the art and future trends in physics-based electron device modelling for the computer-aided design of monolithic microwave ICs is provided. After a review of the main physics-based approaches to microwave modeling, special emphasis is placed on innovative developments relevant to circuit-oriented device performance assessment, such as efficient physics-based noise and parametric sensitivity analysis. The use of state-of-the-art physics-based analytical or numerical models for circuit analysis is discussed, with particular attention to the role of intermediate behavioral models in linking multidimensional device simulators with circuit analysis tools. Finally, the model requirements for yield-driven MMIC design are discussed, with the aim of pointing out the advantages of physics-based statistical device modeling; the possible use of computationally efficient approaches based on device sensitivity analysis for yield optimization is also considered View full abstract»

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  • CAD-oriented general circuit description of uniform coupled lossy dispersive waveguide structures

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1545 - 1554
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    A general full-wave circuit description of uniform coupled lossy dispersive waveguide structures is presented. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the generalized coupled telegrapher's equations are found directly, and the frequency dependent line parameter matrices R(ω), G(ω), L(ω), and C (ω) are defined in an unambiguous way. A symmetric high-frequency characteristic impedance matrix Zc(ω) is introduced which is much more suited for circuit simulation purposes than traditional line-mode impedances. The reciprocity relation is explicitly taken into account. The complete power distribution over the different modes and different lines is calculated in a rigorous and concise way. The major advantage of this high-frequency model is its simple circuit-interpretation and its compatibility with the well-known quasi-static circuit models. The matrix formalism is used throughout. This guarantees a compact, easily implementable, and very general description which is well suited for CAD applications View full abstract»

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  • Technology related design of monolithic millimeter-wave Schottky diode mixers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1466 - 1474
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    The development of monolithic millimeter-wave Schottky diode mixers based on technological parameters is described. The complete equivalent circuit of the monolithic Schottky diode is calculated taking into account the semiconductor layer structure and the device geometry. This model has been used in a harmonic balanced software for designing monolithic single balanced mixers. In V-band a minimum DSB noise figure of 3.3 dB and a minimum conversion loss of 6 dB have been achieved. In W-band a minimum DSB noise figure of 4 dB and a minimum conversion loss of 7 dB have been obtained View full abstract»

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  • Modal S-matrix design of metal finned waveguide components and its application to transformers and filters

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1528 - 1537
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    Optimized all-metal E-plane finned waveguide components are designed with the rigorous method of modal field expansion into the ridged eigenmodes, which includes both the higher order mode interaction between the step discontinuities and the finite thickness of the fins. The design, which combines the advantage of constant fin thickness with that of the optimum matching potential of different waveguide inner cross-section dimensions and fin heights, achieves very broadband transformers and evanescent-mode filters with improved performance. Computer optimized data demonstrate the efficiency of the method by typical design examples: compact transformers for WR112, WR42, WR15, and WR12 input waveguides to E-plane finned waveguides, corrugated lowpass filters designed for a cutoff frequency in the waveguide Ku and U bands, and an evanescent-mode bandpass filter with unequal fin heights. The theory is verified by available measurements View full abstract»

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  • A high frequency model based on the physical structure of the ceramic multilayer capacitor

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1584 - 1587
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  

    Modeling of the high-frequency behavior of ceramic multilayer capacitors based on device physics is presented. An accurate predictive model incorporating physical dimensions, material constants, and aspects of the CMC application environment is presented. This model is suitable for use in the design and development of improved high frequency CMC structures View full abstract»

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  • Scattering and transmission matrix representations of multiguide junctions

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1538 - 1544
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    The scattering and transmission matrix representations of the mode-matching technique are generalized for multiguide junctions with arbitrarily shaped coupling apertures. A comparison between both representations is given with respect to the CPU time. The relative convergence phenomenon arising in cascaded discontinuities of multiguide junctions is investigated. A numerical criterion for choosing the correct mode ratio among the guides is presented. Also studied is the application to a kind of multiguide junction between a circular waveguide and a coaxial waveguide with hollow inner conductor View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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