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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 7 • Date Jul 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Contra-directional coupling in grating-assisted guided-wave devices

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 873 - 881
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    Contradirectional power coupling in grating-assisted guided-wave devices is studied by applying a vector nonorthogonal coupled-mode formulation. The coupled-mode equations are solved by a transfer matrix method. All the space-harmonics generated by the periodic grating are considered. The coupling can be understood in terms of the interference among the normal modes of coupled waveguides with a grating perturbation. Phase-matching grating periods for maximum reflections are equal to the beat lengths between the two normal modes involved in the coupling process. The reflections are built up constructively (Bragg reflection), resulting in stopbands in the spectral response. The expressions for the grating periods are obtained and compared with those derived from conventional phase-matching conditions View full abstract»

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  • Polished fiber-optic coupler with intermediate planar waveguiding layer. I

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 882 - 887
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    Experimental results concerning the characteristics of polished single-mode fiber couplers with an intermediate waveguiding optical layer between the two fiber half-blocks are presented. In order to obtain controlled thickness of the planar layer between the two fibers, half-blocks made from different materials are used. Regions of the parameters of the planar layer exist for which large losses arise. Different theoretical approaches are compared and a suitable equivalent planar geometry is chosen, which is treated in the limits of coupled-mode theory View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric quantum well modulators with gain

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 924 - 932
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    Details on the design, fabrication and properties of the first interferometric intensity modulators with monolithically integrated optical gain are presented. These guided-wave devices make use of two sets of InP-based quantum well heterostructures that are contained in a single base wafer and individually designed for enhanced electrorefraction and amplification at 1.55 μm. The unique quantum well electrooptic properties as well as the fabrication techniques and waveguide design issues that determine final device performance are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Guided-wave planar optical interconnects using highly multiplexed polymer waveguide holograms

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 888 - 897
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)  

    An intraplanar interconnection scheme using substrate guided modes in conjunction with a highly multiplexed waveguide volume hologram is proposed. Acoustooptically addressed 1-to-50 passive and 1-to-2-to-100 reconfigurable interconnections with a fan-out diffraction efficiency of 55% at 514-nm wavelength are demonstrated. A coordinate transformation converts the 3-D diffraction problem into a 2-D one, which significantly simplifies the theoretical calculation. Intraplane massive fan-out optical interconnection using substrate guided mode provides both collinear and coplanar fan-out capability for data and clock signals. Colinearity of signal distribution allows the 2-D input signal array to be processes. The laminated waveguide device containing a highly multiplexed dichromated gelatin (DCG) hologram has been evaluated View full abstract»

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  • Utilization of electroplating to lock fibers for use in optical device packaging

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 918 - 923
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    An electroplating technique for permanently fixing single-mode fibers into position in optical device packages is described. In this technique, the fiber is mounted in a metal tube and aligned to an optical device mounted on a metal substrate. The fiber is in close proximity to the substrate and a flexible conductive gel is used to connect the two electrically. The fiber, gel, and substrate thus form the plating cathode. When immersed in a plating bath with an anode inserted, metal can be deposited across the gel, forming a strong metal bridge between the fiber and substrate, locking the fiber into position. Under appropriate conditions, misalignments within ±1 μm during the plating process have been observed. This technique was used to package a laser diode transmitter, which locked the laser-to-fiber alignment to within 0.7 μm, or 0.1 dB of the optimum coupled power View full abstract»

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  • A reduction of interferometric phase-to-intensity conversion noise in fiber links by large index phase modulation of the optical beam

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 978 - 981
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    A noise reduction scheme for long haul fiber amplitude modulation (AM) systems is proposed and analyzed. Such systems suffer from intensity noise which results from interference between the (twice) Rayleigh scattered light and the directly transmitted beam. This interference converts the fundamental phase noise of the laser to intensity noise. It is shown that a strong phase modulation of the output of the laser beam causes a large reduction of the detected signal noise in the vicinity of the detected signal components View full abstract»

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  • Performance of phase noisy optical systems with frequency stabilization

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 938 - 946
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    Laser phase noise causes a significant performance degradation of coherent optical communication systems. The effect of noise is analyzed using a model more general than usually considered. Bounds and approximations for the probability of error of binary orthogonal modulation, such as wide deviation frequency-shift keying (FSK), are evaluated, paying particular attention to the effects of frequency feedback stabilization on system robustness View full abstract»

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  • Fiber-optic gyroscopes with depolarized light

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 992 - 999
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    Experimental observations of π-bias phase shifts causing an inverted interference fringe have been made in fiber gyros using depolarized light and ordinary fiber. These observations are accounted for by a four-parameter birefringence model representing the gyro coil which explicitly accounts for polarization mode mixing in the interior of the coil. The addition of a Lyot depolarizer to the coil is shown to remove all birefringence-induced effects and to provide a constant scale factor View full abstract»

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  • Vibration frequency of a fused biconical taper (FBT) lightwave coupler

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 898 - 902
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    A simple formula for the assessment of the lowest frequency of free lateral vibrations of fused biconical taper (FBT) lightwave coupler, subjected to initial tensile strain (force), is proposed. This formula can be used to determine the initial tensile strain that would result in a sufficiently high vibration frequency and at the same time would be acceptable from the standpoint of the long-term reliability of the material. The obtained formula can be applied also for the evaluation of the initial tensile force, stress and strain from the measured frequency of vibrations View full abstract»

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  • A high-speed eight-channel optoelectronic integrated receiver array comprising GaInAs p-i-n PD's and AlInAs/GaInAs HEMTs

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 933 - 937
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    The successful fabrication of an eight-channel optoelectronic integrated receiver array on an InP substrate, which comprises eighty elements including GaInAs p-i-n photodiodes (PDs) and AlInAs/GaInAs HEMTs, is reported. An average bandwidth of 1.2 GHz with a standard deviation of 190 MHz over the whole channel was obtained. An average responsivity was 546 V/W with a standard deviation of only 19.2 V/W. A crosstalk was less than -30 dB at frequencies between 3 and 900 MHz and as small as -28 dB even at 1 GHz. The yield of chips available for 1.0 Gb/s operation was as high as 62.5% over 2-in-diameter wafer View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 982 - 987
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    The characteristics of fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurements made with coherent lightwaves such as in coherent-OTDR (optical time-domain reflectometry) and coherent-OFDR (optical frequency-domain reflectometry) are studied. The effects of frequency shift averaging on fading noise reduction are clarified theoretically, and the relationships between measurement accuracy and other parameters, such as spatial resolution and frequency variation range are derived. The calculated results of loss measurement accuracy are in good agreement with experimental data. The formula can also be applied to low-coherence interferometric OTDR View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of polarization bistability of phase-shifted DFB laser due to TM light injection

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 913 - 917
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    As a method of high-bit-rate optical processing, the TM light injection-induced optical polarization bistability using Fabry-Perot type laser diodes has been experimentally demonstrated and theoretically analyzed. In these studies, although switching times less than 1 ns both for switch-up and switch-down have been reported, both of the TE and TM outputs exhibit longitudinal multimode spectra. In practical processing systems, a dynamically stable operation of the polarization switching is considered to be essential. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical study of the TM light injection-induced polarization bistability using a λ/4-shifted distributed feedback (DFB) laser model and to describe the detailed picture of the mechanism View full abstract»

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  • A 1550-nm millimeter-wave photodetector with a bandwidth-efficiency product of 2.4 THz

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 908 - 912
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    The monolithic integration of an optical preamplifier and a waveguide p-i-n photodiode has resulted in a 1550-nm photodetector having an external quantum efficiency of 72 (a responsivity of 89 A/W) and an electrical bandwidth of 33.5 GHz. These figures combine to give a bandwidth efficiency product of 2.4 THz, which is approximately one hundred times higher than for any other type of millimeter-wave photodetector published to date. In addition, the preamplifier performance is supplemented by wide optical bandwidth (60 nm), low polarization sensitivity (1 dB), near traveling wave amplification (1-dB maximum gain ripple), and high saturated output power (+11 dBm). The principal advance over work reported earlier is the traveling wave operation of the monolithic optical preamplifier View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive nonlinear cancellation for high-speed fiber-optic systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 971 - 977
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    The authors propose techniques for adaptive nonlinear cancellation of intersymbol interference (ISI) in the electrical signal at the receiver in Gb/s lightwave systems and describe several demonstrations of these techniques. Techniques for adjustable nonlinear cancellations are discussed and demonstrations of these techniques using commercially available integrated circuits (ICs) at data rates as high as 1.7 Gb/s are described. Techniques for automatic adjustment are discussed, and a demonstration of adaptive nonlinear cancellation at 450 Mb/s is described. The authors discuss how these techniques can be integrated onto the detector IC for operations at 2.5 Gb/s and higher data rates. These techniques allow a single IC detector with adaptive nonlinear cancellation to be used in long-haul and undersea lightwave systems to optimize the detector threshold and compensate for the ISI View full abstract»

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  • TM-polarized surface-plasma modes on metal-coated dielectric cylinders

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 865 - 872
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    TM-polarized surface plasma modes on a thin metallic cylindrical shell embedded in dielectric media are investigated. The dispersion characteristics of both bound modes and leaky waves are obtained for two sets of material parameters, the first corresponding to an optical fiber in which the metallic shell occupies a region between the core and the cladding and the second corresponding to a metal coated cylindrical rod in vacuum View full abstract»

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  • An optoelectronic switching matrix with high isolation

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 988 - 991
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)  

    A high-isolation (60 dB) 10×10 optoelectronic switch matrix with surface-depleted photoconductive crosspoints is reported. The device is designed for a bandwidth greater than 1 GHz and an isolation level greater than 60 dB. Ten 1.8-GHz channels are supported with 0-dB insertion loss and >125 dB/Hz dynamic range. The novel crosspoints require reliability improvement because they are unstable View full abstract»

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  • High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 903 - 907
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    The injection-locking properties of a high power antireflection coated 1.3-μm slave laser subjected to relatively low injection powers from a distributed feedback (DFB) laser and from a tunable external cavity laser have been investigated. Narrow linewidth operation (~40 kHz) was demonstrated and the tuning range within two slave modes (~10 GHz) and over the gain profile (~40 nm) was investigated. In addition, the tracking properties of the slave laser for both frequency and phase modulated injected light was evaluated at 1 Gb/s, in which the fidelity was judged from bit-error-rate measurements. The maximum locked power under 1 Gb/s frequency modulation was about 145 mW, limited by the available master power; approximately 300 μW was injected into the slave View full abstract»

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  • Comments, with reply, on `Passive equalization of semiconductor diode laser frequency modulation' by S.B. Alexander et al

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1000 - 1003
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    Some flaws in a recent article by S.B. Alexander et al. (ibid., vol.7, no.1, p.11-23, Jan. 1989) on the theory of equalization of FM response of a laser diode using passive filters are noted. An error has occurred as a result of assuming a constant C as a positive instead of negative. When C is negative and large, the equalization network cannot be realized with passive networks. Also the simulated time waveform shown in the article for the optical frequency of an equalized laser does not show some spikes which are expected theoretically. The spikes occur as a result of an imperfect equalization provided by the proposed passive filters that were realized assuming C as positive. In replying the original author feels that the comments and observations result simply from attempting to extend the simple FM transfer-function model far beyond its limits while trying to introduce unnecessary theoretical rigor View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 964 - 970
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for pulse distortion and receiver penalty associated with wavelength chirp of 1.5 μm distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the presence of fiber dispersion. An approximate analytical model for dispersion penalty due to chirp is given and shown to provide reasonable agreement with the experimental results obtained for digital transmission at 1.7 Gb/s. The model captures the important features of chirp that lead to dispersion penalty, such as the maximum wavelength excursion, the chirping time, and the energy content at the leading edge of the pulse during chirp. The utility of the model is that the parameters used in it can be readily obtained from single experimental measurements. The limitations of the model are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric noise reduction in fiber-optic links by superposition of high frequency modulation

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 957 - 963
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    The reduction of interferometric noise by superposition of high frequency modulation is analyzed. It is shown that the nature of this reduction is due to a redistribution of noise energy from baseband to higher frequencies where it can be discarded by low-pass filtering. Detailed analysis revealed the dependence of the noise reduction factor on the product f, and the modulation index of the high frequency superimposed modulation. The proper choice of parameters can lead to complete elimination of the converted phase noise from the system View full abstract»

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  • 1.244-Gb/s 32-channel transmission using a shelf-mounted continuous-phase FSK optical heterodyne system

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 947 - 956
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    A total capacity of 40 Gb/s is achieved using a shelf-mounted continuous-phase frequency-shift-keying (CPFSK) optical heterodyne frequency-division-multiplexing (FDM) transmission system with 32 optical channels and a bit-rate of 1.244-Gb/s per channel. For achieving a stable bit-error-rate (BER) characteristics with high-sensitivity, narrow-linewidth laser diodes, a channel-spacing stabilization circuit, and an optical tuner are developed. The obtained sensitivity at a BER of 10-9 for fiber transmission over 121 km ranges from -45.1 to -44.2 dBm, which is 9.8-10.7 dB lower than the shot-noise-limited sensitivity. The crosstalk penalty is suppressed to within 0.1 dB. The developed system has feasibility achieving a distribution system which can distribute more than 250 HDTV (high definition television) signals or 1250 current-standard TV signals to about 8000 subscribers 10 km from the office, or a 40-Gb/s trunk-line system with a fiber span of more than 50 km View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs