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IEE Review

Issue 2 • Date 20 Feb 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 4 of 4
  • The fatal spark [electrostatic discharge]

    Page(s): 51 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    Damage caused by uncontrolled electrostatic discharges (ESDs) to electronic circuits and devices costs the UK electronics industry millions of pounds a year. Good ESD control practices lead directly to improved yields, higher reliability and greater profits. The authors discuss the sources of ESDs and the problems that they can cause, in particular, the latent damage caused by ESD. The authors then discuss the ways in which ESD can be controlled. In particular they discuss the control of humidity, the best types of materials to use for floors and clothes, and the education of the workforce View full abstract»

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  • The trolleybus story

    Page(s): 57 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    The author discusses the history of development of the trolleybus. The problems encountered and new innovations in development and design are discussed. The author also discusses the demise of the trolleybus in the UK. The latest trends are then discussed with reference to the fact that trolleybuses are environmentally friendly and are being reintroduced along with LRT systems and trams View full abstract»

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  • Analogue and mixed-signal IC design

    Page(s): 75 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    Recent developments in fabrication technology have led to the advent of double-poly CMOS processes, which are attractive for analogue ICs. The process allows high-value capacitors to be made using the two polysilicon layers as the conducting plates, thus using a much smaller area than that required by earlier metal-poly capacitors. The BiCMOS process is particularly relevant to making mixed analogue/digital devices; it blends N- and P-channel complementary MOS devices with NPN bipolar devices in the same process, giving the ability to produce CMOS and bipolar transistors on a single chip. This means that high-performance analogue circuits can be mixed with high-density, low-power digital circuits, offering a single-package mixed-signal system. The authors highlight the rapid growth in the mixed-signal ASIC market. They examine the crucial developments taking place in analogue CAD environments, and in the device technologies on which the growth critically depends View full abstract»

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  • On top of the world-communications inside the Arctic Circle

    Page(s): 67 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    The author describes the communications systems on the remote islands of Svalbard in the Arctic Circle. Using satellite links, Svalbard has about 1000 telephone subscribers connected to a digital exchange, and there is also a paging service. The author discusses the Norsat satellite system. The problems encountered due to atmosphere conditions are also discussed View full abstract»

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