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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

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  • Design of Ultra-Wideband Monopulse Receiver

    Page(s): 3821 - 3827
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel amplitude-comparison monopulse receiver architecture for ultra-wideband radars. This monopulse receiver consists of four ridged-horn antennas placed in a square-feed configuration, a comparator circuit that generates the monopulse sum and difference signals, cross-correlation receivers that detect the monopulse signals, and an amplitude-comparison monopulse processor that determines the target's angular position. The derived monopulse sum and difference signals are verified through measurements. The derived sum and difference patterns are compared with measured patterns, and they show good agreements-measured 3-dB beamwidth=6.4deg(derived=6deg), measured unambiguous tracking range=plusmn5deg(derived=plusmn5deg), and measured sum pattern sidelobe level=-6 dB (derived=-8 dB) View full abstract»

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  • Design and Optimization of the Extended True Single-Phase Clock-Based Prescaler

    Page(s): 3828 - 3835
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The power consumption and operating frequency of the extended true single-phase clock (E-TSPC)-based frequency divider is investigated. The short-circuit power and the switching power in the E-TSPC-based divider are calculated and simulated. A low-power divide-by-2/3 unit of a prescaler is proposed and implemented using a CMOS technology. Compared with the existing design, a 25% reduction of power consumption is achieved. A divide-by-8/9 dual-modulus prescaler implemented with this divide-by-2/3 unit using a 0.18-mum CMOS process is capable of operating up to 4 GHz with a low-power consumption. The prescaler is implemented in low-power high-resolution frequency dividers for wireless local area network applications View full abstract»

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  • Optimization and Realization of Planar Isolated GaAs Zero-Biased Planar Doped Barrier Diodes for Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Power Detectors/Sensors

    Page(s): 3836 - 3842
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high tangential signal sensitivity (TSS) zero-bias GaAs planar doped barrier (PDB) diode for microwave and millimeter-wave power detection applications is presented. The fabricated PDB diodes have shown 4 dB better TSS at 35 GHz than that of reported devices, considerably increasing the minimum detectable power and widening the dynamic range. The high TSS was obtained by optimizing the PDB layer structures, namely, the delta-doped p++ layer and the two intrinsic layers, and by employing ion bombardment to better define the device and reduce parasitic effects. The isolation properties of ion bombarded epitaxial layers on GaAs substrates were examined and optimized to have a sheet resistivity of 108 Omega/sq. The temperature dependence of the barrier height of the PDB diode has been investigated experimentally, showing positive temperature coefficient and, hence, better thermal stability. We have also defined the critical barrier height and derived its analytical expression, which gives the theoretically lowest possible barrier height of a PDB diode View full abstract»

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  • A Wideband InP DHBT True Logarithmic Amplifier

    Page(s): 3843 - 3847
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wideband logarithmic amplifier is demonstrated in this paper using InP-InGaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. The amplifier uses cascaded gain stages including the limiting and unity amplifiers to achieve a piecewise approximation to the ideal logarithmic response. The performance of 43-dB dynamic range, 22-GHz bandwidth, and <plusmn2-dB log error is achieved. The integrated circuit consumes 650 mW and has a chip dimension of 1times0.8 mm2 View full abstract»

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  • High-Efficiency Envelope-Tracking W-CDMA Base-Station Amplifier Using GaN HFETs

    Page(s): 3848 - 3856
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    A high-efficiency wideband code-division multiple-access (W-CDMA) base-station amplifier is presented using high-performance GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors to achieve high gain and efficiency with good linearity. For high efficiency, class J/E operation was employed, which can attain up to 80% efficiency over a wide range of input powers and power supply voltages. For nonconstant envelope input, the average efficiency is further increased by employing the envelope-tracking architecture using a wide-bandwidth high-efficiency envelope amplifier. The linearity of overall system is enhanced by digital pre-distortion. The measured average power-added efficiency of the amplifier is as high as 50.7% for a W-CDMA modulated signal with peak-to-average power ratio of 7.67 dB at an average output power of 37.2 W and gain of 10.0 dB. We believe that this corresponds to the best efficiency performance among reported base-station power amplifiers for W-CDMA. The measured error vector magnitude is as low as 1.74% with adjacent channel leakage ratio of -51.0 dBc at an offset frequency of 5 MHz View full abstract»

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  • A 17-GHz Push&#8211;Push VCO Based on Output Extraction From a Capacitive Common Node in GaInP/GaAs HBT Technology

    Page(s): 3857 - 3863
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    This paper presents a new push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) technique that extracts a second harmonic output signal from a capacitive common node in a negative-gm oscillator topology. The generation of the second harmonics is accounted for by the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the emitter-base junction diode causing: 1) significant voltage clipping and 2) different rise and fall times during the switching operation of the core transistors. Comparative investigations show the technique is more power efficient in the high-frequency region than a conventional push-push technique using an emitter common node. A prototype 17-GHz VCO realized in GaInP/GaAs HBT technology produces an output power of -6dBm and a phase noise of -110.4dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset, which is equivalent to a VCO figure-of-merit of -184.3dBc/Hz, while drawing 4.38 mA from a 3.0-V supply View full abstract»

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  • New Techniques for the Analysis and Design of Coupled-Oscillator Systems

    Page(s): 3864 - 3877
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An in-depth analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of coupled-oscillator arrays is presented for a better understanding of their complex autonomous behavior. In one-dimensional arrays, the constant inter-stage phase shift is varied by simultaneously detuning the two outermost oscillators in opposite directions. Thus, the array can be considered as a two-parameter system. Here, a two-parameter stability analysis of the oscillator array is carried out, investigating the phenomena that limit the achievable values of constant inter-stage phase shift under both weak and strong coupling conditions. The gradual evolution of the system behavior with increasing coupling strength is studied. A semianalytical approach is presented for an efficient design of the oscillator array, avoiding the computational expensiveness of harmonic balance (HB) in systems with a high number of oscillator elements. The proposed method, valid for weak coupling, uses a perturbation model of the elementary oscillator obtained with HB so it is of general application to any oscillator topology with accurate descriptions of its linear and nonlinear components. Approaches for the stability and phase-noise analyses based on this formulation are also presented. The new techniques have been applied to the design of a coupled system of three oscillators at 6 GHz. The results have been successfully compared with full HB simulations and with measurements View full abstract»

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  • A Spectral Integral Method and Hybrid SIM/FEM for Layered Media

    Page(s): 3878 - 3884
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (890 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper first presents a spectral integral method (SIM) for electromagnetic scattering from homogeneous dielectric and perfectly electric conducting objects straddling several layers of a multilayered medium. It then uses this SIM as an exact radiation boundary condition to truncate the computational domain in the finite-element method (FEM) to form a hybrid SIM/FEM, which is applicable to arbitrary inhomogeneous objects. Due to the high accuracy of the SIM, the sampling density on the radiation boundary requires less than five points per wavelength to achieve 1% accuracy. The efficiency and accuracy of the developed methods have been demonstrated with several numerical experiments for the TMz case. The TEz case can be obtained by duality View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Analysis, Design, and Filter Applications of EBG Waveguide With Periodic Resonant Loads

    Page(s): 3885 - 3892
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient analysis and design of an electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) waveguide with resonant loads is presented. Equivalent-circuit analysis is employed to demonstrate the differences between EBG waveguides with resonant and nonresonant loadings. As a result of the resonance, transmission zeros at finite frequencies emerge. The concept is demonstrated in E-plane waveguides. A generic fast and efficient formulation is presented, which starts from the generalized scattering matrix of the unit cell and derives the dispersion properties of the infinite structure. Both real and imaginary parts of the propagation constant are derived and discussed. The Floquet wavelength and impedance are also presented. The theoretical results are validated by comparison with simulations of a finite structure and experimental results. The application of the proposed EBG waveguide in the suppression of the spurious passband of a conventional E-plane filter is presented by experiment View full abstract»

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  • Homogenization of 3-D Periodic Bianisotropic Metamaterials

    Page(s): 3893 - 3898
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel homogenization technique, combining an asymptotic multiscale method with wave-field conception, is proposed for computing the quasi-static effective parameters of three-dimensional lattices of general bianisotropic composite materials. This technique is based on the decomposition of the fields into an averaged nonoscillating part and a corrected term with microoscillation. This paper provides an original and accurate way to model the electromagnetic fields in fine microstructures of bianisotropic particles with complex inclusion shapes when the wavelength is larger than the periodicity of the microstructure. The effects of the interaction between edges and corners of adjacent inclusions on the macroscopic effective parameters have been studied, and numerical results and verifications have been presented View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Verification of Phase Retrieval of Quasi-Optical Millimeter-Wave Beams

    Page(s): 3899 - 3905
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1086 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The accuracy of a phase-retrieval procedure for microwave beams was analyzed and verified using an 84-GHz quasi-optical beam transmitted by a corrugated waveguide. The output intensity and phase profiles of the beam were directly measured with a microwave receiver. The beam intensity was also measured at several planes and the data were used with a phase-retrieval algorithm to yield an independent estimate of the phase. Moment and matching coefficient methods were used to analyze the retrieved profiles. In the higher order moment analysis, the intensity profiles, which were calculated from the retrieved phase profiles, coincided well with the measured profiles in terms of the beam size, asymmetric property (skewness), and flatness/peakedness (kurtosis) over the entire profile. Analysis indicated that the mode content of the beam obtained by phase retrieval matched that of the direct measurement with a matching coefficient of 0.97 using both the intensity and phase profiles View full abstract»

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  • Quadratic Programming Approach to Coupled Resonator Filter CAD

    Page(s): 3906 - 3913
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A computer-aided design technique for coupled resonator filters is presented. The technique is formulated as a bound constrained quadratic programming (QP) problem and predicated upon coupling matrix identification. The identification relies on the derivation of a rational model of the filter response and is formulated as a bound constrained QP problem. The definition of the optimization procedure in the form of a QP problem with an assumption of linear dependence of the coupling coefficients on filter geometrical dimensions leads to a significant reduction of the number of the full-wave electromagnetic simulations required to satisfy specifications. The proposed procedure is verified by designing and fabricating three microstrip filters View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Microwave Bandpass Filters Using Resonators With Nonuniform  Q

    Page(s): 3914 - 3922
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the exception of predistortion, most design methods for microwave filters are based on lossless prototype networks, with the effects of loss generally being considered afterwards, by analysis rather than synthesis. This paper presents new techniques, which either utilize existing losses, or add losses, to improve the performance of microwave bandpass filters. Unlike predistortion, these new techniques result in networks with nonuniform dissipation. Experimental prototype filters have been designed and the measured results demonstrate improved performance compared with that previously reported View full abstract»

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  • Compact Partial H -Plane Filters

    Page(s): 3923 - 3930
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    In this paper, three types of partial H-plane filters, having advantages of compact, low cost, and mass-producible properties, are presented as compact waveguide filters, which are implemented by partial H-plane waveguide. Two types of partial H-plane filters have the same frequency responses as those of conventional E- and H-plane filters, respectively, while their cross sections are one-quarter. To further reduce the length, the last type of partial H-plane filters is designed by using quarter-wavelength resonators. The length of this filter is shorter by 29.2% than that of the conventional E-plane filter. In addition, it has a superior spurious frequency response View full abstract»

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  • Low-Loss 5.15&#8211;5.70-GHz RF MEMS Switchable Filter for Wireless LAN Applications

    Page(s): 3931 - 3939
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-loss 3.6-GHz fixed and 5.15-5.70-GHz RF microelectromechanical systems switchable filters were designed and fabricated on quartz substrates. Detailed design equations for the capacitively loaded coupled open-loop lambda/2 resonators are given and the realization of the tunable filter using these equations is discussed. The use of capacitively loaded coupled open-loop lambda/2 resonators made it possible to realize the fixed and switchable filters with unloaded Q of around 150 resulting in a -1.4-dB insertion loss. The measured -1-dB bandwidth for the 3.6-GHz fixed and 5.15-5.70-GHz switchable filters were 4% and 5%, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the lowest loss planar tunable filter to-date in the 4-6-GHz frequency range View full abstract»

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  • Coupling-Matrix Design of Dual and Triple Passband Filters

    Page(s): 3940 - 3946
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    The concept of the conventional coupling matrix is extended to include designs of dual- and triple-band filters. The multiband response is created by either placing transmission zeros within the bandwidth of a wideband filter or using higher order resonances. Realizable topologies both in planar and waveguide technologies can be imposed and associated coupling coefficients enforced during optimization. The design process is verified by measurements and comparison with results of commercially available field solvers View full abstract»

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  • A Method of Synthesizing Microwave Bandpass Filters Constructed With Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Compact Microstrip Resonators

    Page(s): 3947 - 3953
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method of synthesizing microwave filters consisting of compact microstrip resonators (CMRs). The synthesizing method is based on the conventional insertion-loss design method and can be applied to the design of filters consisting of symmetrical and asymmetrical CMRs. The synthesizing method can help the designer to determine the appropriate layout according to the specified passband and stopband characteristics of the filter. A new type of CMR layout is proposed to suppress the spurious passband response and is applied to the implementation of a Ku-band filter. The measurement of the prototype shows approximately 1.5-dB insertion loss in the passband and a rejection greater than 40 dB at the specified frequencies. Besides, an asymmetrical CMRs filter operated at Ku-band was also designed and fabricated. The measurement result is also close to the computer simulation result. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed design concept View full abstract»

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  • A Narrowband Superconducting Filter Using Spirals With a Reversal in Winding Direction

    Page(s): 3954 - 3959
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A resonator consisting of a microstrip spiral, with a reversal in winding direction, is used for a narrowband superconducting filter. The fields are tightly confined, leading to the required small coupling coefficients, without a large separation between resonators. Nevertheless, tunability and power-handling capacity are better than some other resonators with localized fields. A quality factor exceeding a million was achieved. A 148 MHz, 0.1% bandwidth sixth-order quasi-elliptic filter is demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • A Noise-Free and Jitterless Cavity System to Distribute Clocks Over 10 GHz

    Page(s): 3960 - 3967
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss a novel method using a cavity to deliver a high-frequency clock in ultra large-scale integration systems. This method can distribute global clock over 10 GHz without skew and electromagnetic interference noise. Since the cavity can be formed by a usual metallization or its extended process, it will be realized easier compared with other emerging technology such as photoelectric circuits. However, the cavity is thin and affected by energy dissipation on cavity walls. Considering energy dissipation, we discuss features of a cavity system View full abstract»

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  • Dual- and Triple-Mode Branch-Line Ring Resonators and Harmonic Suppressed Half-Ring Resonators

    Page(s): 3968 - 3974
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1115 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ring resonators have been widely used for various applications. Dual-mode ring resonators have also been investigated due to their applicability to multifrequency mode requirement. In this paper, dual-mode ring resonators using a branch line are designed along with a systematic approach. Triple-mode branch-line ring resonators are also designed adding two branch lines to the ring resonator. Adding more branch lines, multimode resonators can be realized based on the design procedure developed here. The location of the branch lines determines the additional resonant frequencies other than the fundamental resonant frequency generated by the enclosing ring. Furthermore, half-ring resonators working at 2.5 GHz are proposed for suppressing multiple harmonics (second and third harmonics) and providing size reduction with employment of various physical configurations. Equalizing the even- and odd-mode phase delays, harmonics are suppressed effectively in the design of half-ring resonators. Double half-ring resonators with a long opening gap are investigated to continuously decrease the resonant frequency. An open-loop structure provides flexible design and lowers the resonant frequency. Two dual-mode ring resonators and one triple-mode ring resonator are simulated and fabricated along with three different half-ring resonators View full abstract»

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  • A New Lossy Substrate Model for Accurate RF CMOS Noise Extraction and Simulation With Frequency and Bias Dependence

    Page(s): 3975 - 3985
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    A lossy substrate model is developed to accurately simulate the measured RF noise of 80-nm super-100-GHz fT n-MOSFETs. A substrate RLC network built in the model plays a key role responsible for the nonlinear frequency response of noise in 1-18-GHz regime, which did not follow the typical thermal noise theory. Good match with the measured S-parameters, Y-parameters, and noise parameters before deembedding proves the lossy substrate model. The intrinsic RF noise can be extracted easily and precisely by the lossy substrate deembedding using circuit simulation. The accuracy has been justified by good agreement in terms of Id,gm, Y-parameters, and f T under a wide range of bias conditions and operating frequencies. Both channel thermal noise and resistance induced excess noises have been implemented in simulation. A white noise gamma factor extracted to be higher than 2/3 accounts for the velocity saturation and channel length modulation effects. The extracted intrinsic NFmin as low as 0.6-0.7 dB at 10 GHz indicates the advantages of super-100 GHz fT offered by the sub-100-nm multifinger n-MOSFETs. The frequency dependence of noise resistance Rn suggests the bulk RC coupling induced excess channel thermal noise apparent in 1-10-GHz regime. The study provides useful guideline for low noise and low power design by using sub-100-nm RF CMOS technology View full abstract»

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  • Design of Compensated Coupled-Stripline 3-dB Directional Couplers, Phase Shifters, and Magic-T's&#8212;Part I: Single-Section Coupled-Line Circuits

    Page(s): 3986 - 3994
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of discontinuities in coupled-stripline 3-dB directional couplers, phase shifters, and magic-T's, regarding the connections of coupled and terminating signal lines, has been comprehensively investigated for the first time. The proposed equivalent circuit of these discontinuities, of which parameters can be computed in a process of fitting curves of the circuit and electromagnetic analyses, has been used for accurate modeling of coupled-stripline circuits. It has been shown that parasitic reactances, which result from connections of signal and coupled lines, severely deteriorate the return losses and the isolation of such circuits, and that these discontinuity effects can be substantially reduced by connecting compensating shunt capacitances to both coupled and signal lines. Results of measurements carried out for various designed and manufactured coupled-line circuits are most promising and prove the efficiency of the proposed compensation technique. This paper describes the technique of capacitive compensation of discontinuity effects in single-section coupled-line circuits View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of Permittivity, Dielectric Loss Tangent, and Resistivity of Float-Zone Silicon at Microwave Frequencies

    Page(s): 3995 - 4001
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    The complex permittivity and resistivity of float-zone high-resistivity silicon were measured at microwave frequencies for temperatures from 10 up to 400 K employing dielectric-resonator and composite dielectric-resonator techniques. At temperatures below 25 K, where all free carriers are frozen out, loss-tangent values of the order of 2times10-4 were measured, suggesting the existence of hopping conductivity or surface charge carrier conductivity in this temperature range. Use of a composite dielectric-resonator technique enabled the measurement of materials having higher dielectric losses (or lower resistivities) with respect to the dielectric-resonator technique. The real part of permittivity of silicon proved to be frequency independent. Dielectric losses of high-resistivity silicon at microwave frequencies are mainly associated with conductivity and their behavior versus temperature can be satisfactory described by dc conductivity models, except at very low temperatures View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
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