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Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing publication information

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  • Copper Direct Drilling With TEA \hbox {CO}_{2} Laser in Manufacture of High-Density Interconnection Printed Circuit Board

    Page(s): 145 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method for copper direct drilling by carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser was investigated for efficient microvia formation on the copper conducting layer of high-density interconnection (HDI) of printed circuit board (PCB). A metal-tin layer was coated on the surface of copper conductor foil to enhance the CO2 laser energy adsorption on it. The coated surfaces were then drilled by a CO2 laser with various pulse energies. The microvia holes were efficiently formed in good quality with one laser pulse on 9-mum-thick polished copper conducting layer. The laser energy absorption of coated copper foils was approximately calculated. The experimental results demonstrated the potential application of the developed method in high-density interconnection printed circuit board manufacturing View full abstract»

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  • Planning the e-Scrap Reverse Production System Under Uncertainty in the State of Georgia: A Case Study

    Page(s): 150 - 162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to legislative requirements, environmental concerns, and market image, the disposition of end-of-life e-scrap is attracting tremendous attention in many parts of the world today. Effective management of returned used product flows can have a great impact on the profitability and resulting financial viability of associated e-scrap reverse production systems. However, designing efficient e-scrap reverse production systems is complicated by the high degree of uncertainty surrounding several key factors. Very few examples of this complex design problem are documented in the academic literature. This paper contributes as analysis of a new, large-scale application that designs an infrastructure to process used televisions, monitors, and computer central processing units (CPUs) in the state of Georgia in the U.S. The case study employs a scenario-based robust optimization model for supporting strategic e-scrap reverse production infrastructure design decisions under uncertainty. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is used to maximize the system net profit for specified deterministic parameter values in each scenario, and then a min-max robust optimization methodology finds a robust solution for all of the scenarios View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into Multilayer Probe Card Layout Design

    Page(s): 163 - 171
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    This paper conducts experimental and numerical investigations into the microforce probing technique used to test the functionality of IC devices. The study commences by considering the case of a single tungsten needle probe and examines the relationship between the contact force and the scrub mark size on aluminum pads at various levels of overdrive and shooting angle. Subsequently, a three-dimensional computational model is developed to facilitate the design of an optimum multilayer needle card layout. The simulation results obtained for the profile and size of the scrub marks on the upper surface of the aluminum pads of an IC device are found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. The validated model is then applied to analyze the effects of the tip length and beam length on the scrub mark profile and the stress distribution contours within the needle during a wafer level test. The results predicted by the finite-element model (FEM) for the scrub mark length under various beam lengths are used to specify a suitable design for a multilayer needle layout. Taking the case of DDR2 SDRAM of an aluminum pad of dimensions 70 mumtimes70 mum (length by width), the numerical results enable appropriate values to be assigned to the shooting angles, beam lengths, and tip lengths of the individual needles within a four-layer probe card View full abstract»

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  • Using Coupled Transmission Lines to Generate Impedance-Matched Pulses Resembling Charged Device Model ESD

    Page(s): 172 - 178
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A quarter-wave directional coupler plus ordinary transmission line pulsing (TLP) can create short pulses resembling charged device model (CDM) electrostatic discharge (ESD). Pulse rise time often relates to the coupler's center frequency and can thereby be stabilized. It is shown that for a voltage step of a given size, yet with arbitrary waveform, the net amount of coupled charge (the charge packet) is constant and depends only on fixed coupler parameters. This property of Z-matched coupled lines has wider implications. High-voltage couplers can be made from coaxial cable or from stripline. Some of these designs are described, tested, and compared to computer simulations of coupled lines View full abstract»

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  • Acid Decapsulation of Epoxy Molded IC Packages With Copper Wire Bonds

    Page(s): 179 - 183
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    Epoxy molded IC packages with copper wire bonds are decapsulated using mixtures of concentrated sulfuric acid (20%) and fuming nitric acid in an automatic decapping unit and, observed with minimal corrosion of copper wires (0.8-6 mil sizes) and bond interfaces. To attain maximum cross-linking of the molded epoxies, the post mold cured packages (175 degC for 4 h) were further, aged at high temperature of 150 degC for 1000 h. These packages are decapsulated using mixtures of higher ratio of concentrated sulfuric acid (40%) along with fuming nitric acid. The shear strength of copper wire bonds with 1 mil (25 mum) diameter of the decapsulated unit is higher than 5.5 gf/mil2. The present study shows copper stitch bonds to Au, Cu, Pd, and Sn alloy plated surfaces are less affected on decapping, with a few grams of breaking load on stitch pull test, while stitch bonds on silver plated surfaces reveal lifting of wire bonds on decapping View full abstract»

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  • Establishing a Relationship Between Warranty and Reliability

    Page(s): 184 - 190
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    In today's competitive marketplace, customers have come to expect that the products they purchase will perform as intended, and federal and state laws have been passed to enshrine this as a right of customers. A warranty is a written assurance that the manufacturer of a product will guarantee the quality and reliability of a product in terms of correcting any legitimate problems with the product at no additional cost, for some expressed or implied period of time or use. This paper presents the concept of a warranty, and the relationship between warranty and reliability. The paper is written in the context of the automotive industry, with a case study of an ignition module. A list of best practices and recommendations is provided. One key conclusion is that all warranty as well as out-of-warranty returns be considered field failures unless proven that another cause for returns exist View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical Strength and Interface Characteristics of Transmission Laser Bonding

    Page(s): 191 - 201
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    A laser-based bonding technique, called transmission laser bonding (TLB), is studied for the purposes of device and wafer-level packaging. The TLB technique uses the specific characteristics of a laser to bond a transparent wafer on top of an opaque wafer. When a laser beam with a specific wavelength is passed through a transparent wafer, high-density laser energy is absorbed by the opaque wafer and melts a thin surface layer, resulting in the formation of strong chemical bonds across the two wafers. A Nd:YAG pulse laser has been used to bond a transparent glass wafer to a Si substrate. The associated bond strengths under various bonding conditions are examined by a microtensile tester to quantify the bonding quality. With a contact pressure higher than 0.5 MPa, the TLB strength can reach a stable value of 10.5 MPa, which is comparable to those obtained by other popular bonding processes currently used by the packaging industry. The wafer surface conditions are evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry, while Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to study the characteristics of bonding interfaces. The AFM and profilometry results reveal that the wafer roughness and flatness required by TLB can be less stringent than those specified in the current industrial standards. The AES and XPS results are used to interpret the chemical and physical aspects of TLB formation and to provide the rationale for obtaining high-quality and high-strength TLB View full abstract»

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  • Wave Soldering Using Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu Solder and Water Soluble VOC-Free Flux

    Page(s): 202 - 210
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    Environmental and health concerns, due to the leaching of lead from landfills into ground water, have necessitated legislation that restricts the use of lead in electronics. The transition from the eutectic tin-lead composition used in electronic solders to lead-free solder is imminent. Understanding the impact of this transition on lead-free wave soldering is crucial because a large segment of printed circuit boards (PCBs) used in electronic home appliances are wave soldered. The usage of volatile organic compound (VOC)-free flux chemistry is expected to gather momentum in conjunction with lead-free wave soldering because of process requirements and environmental considerations. A thorough review of published literature indicated that there is limited information available on the application of water-soluble VOC-free flux chemistries for lead-free wave soldering. Consequently, the objectives of this research were to select a preferred VOC-free water-soluble flux chemistry, understand the process window of wave soldering using a 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu lead-free alloy, and study the impact of the lead-free wave soldering process on different surface finishes. Many of the earlier process recommendations were based on a solder pot temperature of 260 degC and higher. However, the packaging of through hole components may not withstand the higher pot temperature and longer contact time. Hence, assembly at a lower solder pot temperature and shorter contact time are highly desired. Consequently, experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of reducing the solder pot temperature (250 degC) and the contact time (2 s). Three VOC-free fluxes, from three different vendors, were evaluated and the best flux chosen was used to establish the process window. It was demonstrated through this study that it is possible to wave solder, using a lead-free solder with low silver content, different surface finishes with a wide process window. The effect of lead-free process temperatures - - on the cleaning of the VOC-free water-soluble flux residues was evaluated. Residues were washed and cleaned using the existing equipment sets without any change in the process parameters. The process developed based on the initial set of experiments has been validated by the successful assembly of a number of lead-free prototype assemblies View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Investigation of Mixed BGA Assemblies

    Page(s): 211 - 216
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    The effect of different reflow profiles on the reliability of lead-free (LF) Sn-3.0 Ag-0.5 Cu (wt.%) (SAC 305) ball grid array (BGA) devices assembled with a SnPb eutectic paste was investigated. The memory modules in a back-to-back configuration were reflowed on standard graphic cards finished with immersion silver (IAg) or hot air solder leveling (HASL) coatings. The reflow peak temperatures ranged from 209 degC to 227 degC, while the time above liquidus (TAL) varied from 45 to 80 s. Depending on the reflow conditions, the solder interconnects displayed varied degrees of SnPb and LF solders intermixing. It was established that in order to receive a homogeneous solder alloy, the reflow peak temperature had to be in the 218 degC-222 degC range. The reliability of solder interconnects of memory modules was assessed by subjecting the cards to 1500 cycles of accelerated thermal-cycling with a profile from 0 degC to 100 degC. It was found that the control SnPb/SnPb assemblies displayed superior reliability to that of the mixed assemblies. Regardless of the degree of homogeneity of the BGA balls, the predominant failure mode of the mixed solder joints was interfacial cracking through a Pb-rich phase near the intermetallic layer. In contrast, only partial cracks propagating diagonally through the bulk solder were present on the control boards. It was concluded that a combination of state of stress and segregation of the Pb-rich phase at the interface was responsible for the shortened thermal-mechanical fatigue life of the mixed solder interconnects View full abstract»

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  • Surface Insulation Resistance of Conformally Coated Printed Circuit Boards Processed With No-Clean Flux

    Page(s): 217 - 223
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    Printed circuit board (PCB) specimens containing three different IPC-B-25 test structures were exposed to temperature/humidity/bias conditions in order to evaluate the effects of conformal coating, conductor spacing, voltage bias, flux chemistry, and test environment on surface insulation resistance (SIR). Results indicate that conformal coatings improve reliability, provided that sources of contamination on the PCB and within the coating are minimized. The presence of fibrous contaminants within the coating represented a preferential medium for moisture adsorption and ion transport, leading to accelerated reduction of SIR. In the absence of contamination, PCBs with conformal coatings were found to be less susceptible to SIR degradation than uncoated PCBs, with silicone providing better protection than urethane, and acrylic providing the least protection of the three coating materials evaluated. Conductor spacing was observed to represent a factor in the electrochemical migration (ECM) process independent of electric field, indicating that updated test structures are required to predict reliability of today's high-density assemblies. The SIR failure rate with rosin-based no-clean flux was observed to be greater than that with aqueous-based no-clean flux. A higher failure rate was also observed for tests conducted at 40 degC/93% RH than for 85 degC/85% RH. Due to the more rapid evaporation of weak organic acids in the flux residues at higher temperatures, test results obtained at 85 degC/85% RH will not accurately predict reliability at lower temperatures for PCBs processed using no-clean flux. PCB specimens were exposed to temperature/humidity/bias conditions in order to evaluate the effects of conformal coating, conductor spacing, voltage bias, flux chemistry, and test environment on reduction of surface insulation resistance. Results indicate that, in the absence of contamination, conformal coatings improve reliability View full abstract»

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    Page(s): 224
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  • IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging - Table of contents

    Page(s): 225 - 226
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  • IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technolog - Table of contents

    Page(s): 227 - 228
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  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society Information

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing addresses design for manufacturability, cost and process modeling, process control and automation, factory analysis and improvement, information systems, statistical methods, environmentally friendly processing, and computer-integrated manufacturing for the production of electronic assemblies and products.

 

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Wayne Johnson
Auburn University